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1.
Eur Respir J ; 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972987

RESUMO

This review of trends in worldwide asthma prevalence starts with defining how asthma prevalence s measured in populations and how it is analysed. Four population studies of asthma across at least two regions are described: European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), The International Study of Wheezing in Infants (EISL), The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) and the World Health Survey (WHS). Two of these (ISAAC and WHS) covered all the regions of the world; each using its own standardised questionnaire-based methodology with cross-sectional study design, suitable for large populations. EISL (2005 and-2012) and ISAAC (1996-1997 and 2002-2003) have undertaken a second cross sectional population survey from which trends are available: EISL in three centres in two countries; ISAAC 106 centres in 56 countries (13-14 year olds) and 66 centres in 37 countries (6-7 year olds). Key results from these studies are presented. Unfortunately, there is no new worldwide new data outside of EISL since 2003. Global Burden of Disease estimates of asthma prevalence have varied greatly. Recent reliable worldwide data on asthma prevalence and trends is needed; the Global Asthma Network Phase I will provide this in 2021.

2.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 28(9): 1750-1760, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725961

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether adiposity or body composition relates to microvascular characteristics of the retina, indicative of cardiometabolic function. METHODS: A fully automated QUARTZ software processed retinal images from 68,550 UK Biobank participants (aged 40-69 years). Differences in retinal vessel diameter and tortuosity with body composition measures from the Tanita analyzer were obtained by using multilevel regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, clinic, smoking, and Townsend deprivation index. RESULTS: Venular tortuosity and diameter increased by approximately 2% (P < 10-300 ) and 0.6 µm (P < 10-6 ), respectively, per SD increase in BMI, waist circumference index, waist-hip ratio, total body fat mass index, and fat-free mass index (FFMI). Venular associations with adiposity persisted after adjustment for FFMI, whereas associations with FFMI were weakened by FMI adjustment. Arteriolar diameter (not tortuosity) narrowing with FFMI was independent of adiposity (-0.6 µm; -0.7 to -0.4 µm per SD increment of FFMI), while adiposity associations with arteriolar diameter were largely nonsignificant after adjustment for FFMI. CONCLUSIONS: This demonstrates, on an unprecedented scale, that venular tortuosity and diameter are more strongly associated with adiposity, whereas arteriolar diameter relates more strongly to fat-free mass. Different attributes of the retinal microvasculature may reflect distinct roles of body composition and fatness on the cardiometabolic system.

3.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 220: 140-151, 2020 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32717267

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine retinal vasculometry associations with different glaucomas in older British people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 8,623 European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye study participants were examined, who underwent retinal imaging, ocular biometry assessment, and clinical ascertainment of ocular hypertensive or glaucoma status (including glaucoma suspect [GS], high-tension open-angle glaucoma [HTG], and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]). Automated measures of arteriolar and venular tortuosity, area, and width from retinal images were obtained. MainOutcomeMeasures: Associations between glaucoma and retinal vasculometry outcomes were analyzed using multilevel linear regression, adjusted for age, sex, height, axial length, intraocular and systemic blood pressure, and within-person clustering, to provide absolute differences in width and area, and percentage differences in vessel tortuosity. Presence or absence of within-person-between-eye differences in retinal vasculometry by diagnoses were examined. RESULTS: A total of 565,593 vessel segments from 5,947 participants (mean age 67.6 years, SD 7.6 years, 57% women) were included; numbers with HTG, NTG, and GS in at least 1 eye were 87, 82, and 439, respectively. Thinner arterioles (-3.2 µm; 95% confidence interval [CI] -4.4 µm, -1.9 µm) and venules (-2.7 µm; 95% CI -4.9 µm, -0.5 µm) were associated with HTG. Reduced venular area was associated with HTG (-0.2 mm2; 95% CI -0.3 mm2, -0.1 mm2) and NTG (-0.2 mm2; 95% CI -0.3 mm2, -0.0 mm2). Less tortuous retinal arterioles and venules were associated with all glaucomas, but only significantly for GS (-3.9%; 95% CI -7.7%, -0.1% and -4.8%; 95% CI -7.4%, -2.1%, respectively). There was no evidence of within-person-between-eye differences in retinal vasculometry associations by diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal vessel width associations with glaucoma and novel associations with vessel area and tortuosity, together with no evidence of within-person-between-eye differences in retinal vasculometry, suggest a vascular cause of glaucoma.

4.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1383-1390, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661987

RESUMO

To examine the baseline associations of retinal vessel morphometry with blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness in United Kingdom Biobank. The United Kingdom Biobank included 68 550 participants aged 40 to 69 years who underwent nonmydriatic retinal imaging, BP, and arterial stiffness index assessment. A fully automated image analysis program (QUARTZ [Quantitative Analysis of Retinal Vessel Topology and Size]) provided measures of retinal vessel diameter and tortuosity. The associations between retinal vessel morphology and cardiovascular disease risk factors/outcomes were examined using multilevel linear regression to provide absolute differences in vessel diameter and percentage differences in tortuosity (allowing within person clustering), adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, clinic, body mass index, smoking, and deprivation index. Greater arteriolar tortuosity was associated with higher systolic BP (relative increase, 1.2%; 95% CI, 0.9; 1.4% per 10 mmHg), higher mean arterial pressure, 1.3%; 0.9, 1.7% per 10 mmHg, and higher pulse pressure (PP, 1.8%; 1.4; 2.2% per 10 mmHg). Narrower arterioles were associated with higher systolic BP (-0.9 µm; -0.94, -0.87 µm per 10 mmHg), mean arterial pressure (-1.5 µm; -1.5, -1.5 µm per 10 mmHg), PP (-0.7 µm; -0.8, -0.7 µm per 10 mmHg), and arterial stiffness index (-0.12 µm; -0.14, -0.09 µm per ms/m2). Associations were in the same direction but marginally weaker for venular tortuosity and diameter. This study assessing the retinal microvasculature at scale has shown clear associations between retinal vessel morphometry, BP, and arterial stiffness index. These observations further our understanding of the preclinical disease processes and interplay between microvascular and macrovascular disease.

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(3): 710-719, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260715

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atopic eczema onset is described primarily in early childhood, and the frequency and characteristics of adult-onset disease remain controversial. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the proportion of subjects who report atopic eczema symptoms between birth and midadulthood and to examine demographic, immunologic, and genetic factors associated with period of symptom onset. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study using data from 2 nationally representative community-based birth cohorts from the United Kingdom: the British Cohort Studies 1958 and 1970. Subjects were followed from birth through age 42 to 50 years. The primary outcome was the age period of self-reported atopic eczema symptom onset based on repeated measures of self-reported atopic eczema at each survey wave. RESULTS: The annual period prevalence of atopic eczema ranged from 5% to 15% in 2 cohorts of more than 17,000 participants each followed from birth through middle age. There was no clear trend in prevalence by age, and among adults reporting active atopic eczema during a given year, only 38% had symptom onset reported in childhood. When compared with subjects whose eczema started in childhood, those with adult-onset disease were more likely to be women, from Scotland or Northern England, of lower childhood socioeconomic group, smokers in adulthood, and less likely to have a history of asthma. In a subanalysis using data from the 1958 cohort only, genetic mutations previously associated with atopic eczema, including filaggrin-null mutations, and allergen-specific IgE were more common among those with childhood-onset disease. CONCLUSION: Rates of self-reported atopic eczema remain high after childhood, and adult-onset atopic eczema has different risk factor associations than childhood-onset eczema.

6.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
7.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 49(4): 430-441, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phase Three of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) measured the global prevalence of symptoms of asthma in children. We undertook comprehensive analyses addressing risk factors for asthma symptoms in combination, at both the individual and the school level, to explore the potential role of reverse causation due to selective avoidance or confounding by indication. OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of reverse causation in risk factors of asthma symptoms. METHODS: We compared two sets of multilevel logistic regression analyses, using (a) individual level exposure data and (b) school level average exposure (ie prevalence), in two different age groups. In individual level analyses, reverse causation is a possible concern if individual level exposure statuses were changed as a result of asthma symptoms or diagnosis. School level analyses may suffer from ecologic confounding, but reverse causation is less of a concern because individual changes in exposure status as a result of asthma symptoms would only have a small effect on overall school exposure levels. RESULTS: There were 131 924 children aged 6-7 years (2428 schools, 25 countries) with complete exposure, outcome and confounder data. The strongest associations in individual level analyses (fully adjusted) were for current paracetamol use (odds ratio = 2.06; 95% confidence interval 1.97-2.16), early life antibiotic use (1.65; 1.58-1.73) and open fire cooking (1.44; 1.26-1.65). In school level analyses, these risk factors again showed increased risks. There were 238 586 adolescents aged 13-14 years (2072 schools, 42 countries) with complete exposure, outcome and confounder data. The strongest associations in individual level analyses (fully adjusted) were for current paracetamol use (1.80; 1.75-1.86), cooking on an open fire (1.32; 1.22-1.43) and maternal tobacco use (1.23; 1.18-1.27). In school level analyses, these risk factors again showed increased risks. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These analyses strengthen the potentially causal interpretation of previously reported individual level findings, by providing evidence against reverse causation.

8.
Ophthalmology ; 126(1): 96-106, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30075201

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine associations between retinal vessel morphometry and cardiometabolic risk factors in older British men and women. DESIGN: Retinal imaging examination as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk Eye Study. PARTICIPANTS: Retinal imaging and clinical assessments were carried out in 7411 participants. Retinal images were analyzed using a fully automated validated computerized system that provides novel measures of vessel morphometry. METHODS: Associations between cardiometabolic risk factors, chronic disease, and retinal markers were analyzed using multilevel linear regression, adjusted for age, gender, and within-person clustering, to provide percentage differences in tortuosity and absolute differences in width. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Retinal arteriolar and venular tortuosity and width. RESULTS: In all, 279 802 arterioles and 285 791 venules from 5947 participants (mean age, 67.6 years; standard deviation [SD], 7.6 years; 57% female) were analyzed. Increased venular tortuosity was associated with higher body mass index (BMI; 2.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%-3.3% per 5 kg/m2), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level (2.2%; 95% CI, 1.0%-3.5% per 1%), and prevalent type 2 diabetes (6.5%; 95% CI, 2.8%-10.4%); wider venules were associated with older age (2.6 µm; 95% CI, 2.2-2.9 µm per decade), higher triglyceride levels (0.6 µm; 95% CI, 0.3-0.9 µm per 1 mmol/l), BMI (0.7 µm; 95% CI, 0.4-1.0 per 5 kg/m2), HbA1c level (0.4 µm; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9 per 1%), and being a current smoker (3.0 µm; 95% CI, 1.7-4.3 µm); smoking also was associated with wider arterioles (2.1 µm; 95% CI, 1.3-2.9 µm). Thinner venules were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (1.4 µm; 95% CI, 0.7-2.2 per 1 mmol/l). Arteriolar tortuosity increased with age (5.4%; 95% CI, 3.8%-7.1% per decade), higher systolic blood pressure (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.5%-1.9% per 10 mmHg), in females (3.8%; 95% CI, 1.4%-6.4%), and in those with prevalent stroke (8.3%; 95% CI, -0.6% to 18%); no association was observed with prevalent myocardial infarction. Narrower arterioles were associated with age (0.8 µm; 95% CI, 0.6-1.0 µm per decade), higher systolic blood pressure (0.5 µm; 95% CI, 0.4-0.6 µm per 10 mmHg), total cholesterol level (0.2 µm; 95% CI, 0.0-0.3 µm per 1 mmol/l), and HDL (1.2 µm; 95% CI, 0.7-1.6 µm per 1 mmol/l). CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic risk factors showed a graded association with both tortuosity and width of retinal venules, even among people without clinical diabetes, whereas atherosclerotic risk factors correlated more closely with arteriolar width, even excluding those with hypertension and cardiovascular disease. These noninvasive microvasculature measures should be evaluated further as predictors of future cardiometabolic disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Artéria Retiniana/patologia , Doenças Retinianas/patologia , Veia Retiniana/patologia , Idoso , Arteríolas/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Microvasos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Reino Unido , Vênulas/patologia
9.
J Invest Dermatol ; 139(5): 1023-1036, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521836

RESUMO

Some previously described environmental associations for atopic eczema may be due to reverse causation. We explored the role of reverse causation by comparing individual- and school-level results for multiple atopic eczema risk factors. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (i.e, ISAAC) Phase Three surveyed children in schools (the sampling unit) regarding atopic eczema symptoms and potential risk factors. We assessed the effect of these risk factors on atopic eczema symptoms using mixed-effect logistic regression models, first with individual-level exposure data and second with school-level exposure prevalence. Overall, 546,348 children from 53 countries were included. At ages 6-7 years, the strongest individual-level associations were with current paracetamol use (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.37-1.54), which persisted at school-level (OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.10-2.21), early-life antibiotics (OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.34-1.48), and early-life paracetamol use (OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.21-1.36), with the former persisting at the school level, whereas the latter was no longer observed (OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 1.00-1.82 and OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.69-1.28, respectively). At ages 13-14 years, the strongest associations at the individual level were with current paracetamol use (OR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.51-1.63) and open-fire cooking (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.33-1.62); both were stronger at the school level (OR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.84-3.59 and OR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.52-3.73, respectively). Association with exposure to heavy traffic (OR = 1.31, 95% CI = 1.27-1.36) also persisted at the school level (OR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.07-1.82). Most individual- and school-level effects were consistent, tending to exclude reverse causation.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Eczema/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Causalidade , Criança , Intervalos de Confiança , Dermatite Atópica/fisiopatologia , Eczema/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(5): 509-520, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415436

RESUMO

Asthma prevalence in children varies substantially around the world, but the contribution of known risk factors to this international variation is uncertain. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Two studied 8-12 year old children in 30 centres worldwide with parent-completed symptom and risk factor questionnaires and aeroallergen skin prick testing. We used multilevel logistic regression modelling to investigate the effect of adjustment for individual and ecological risk factors on the between-centre variation in prevalence of recent wheeze. Adjustment for single individual-level risk factors changed the centre-level variation from a reduction of up to 8.4% (and 8.5% for atopy) to an increase of up to 6.8%. Modelling the 11 most influential environmental factors among all children simultaneously, the centre-level variation changed little overall (2.4% increase). Modelling only factors that decreased the variance, the 6 most influential factors (synthetic and feather quilt, mother's smoking, heating stoves, dampness and foam pillows) in combination resulted in a 21% reduction in variance. Ecological (centre-level) risk factors generally explained higher proportions of the variation than did individual risk factors. Single environmental factors and aeroallergen sensitisation measured at the individual (child) level did not explain much of the between-centre variation in wheeze prevalence.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
BMJ Open ; 8(9): e022404, 2018 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206085

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the incidence of dementia is related to residential levels of air and noise pollution in London. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study using primary care data. SETTING: 75 Greater London practices. PARTICIPANTS: 130 978 adults aged 50-79 years registered with their general practices on 1 January 2005, with no recorded history of dementia or care home residence. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: A first recorded diagnosis of dementia and, where specified, subgroups of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia during 2005-2013. The average annual concentrations during 2004 of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) were estimated at 20×20 m resolution from dispersion models. Traffic intensity, distance from major road and night-time noise levels (Lnight) were estimated at the postcode level. All exposure measures were linked anonymously to clinical data via residential postcode. HRs from Cox models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, smoking and body mass index, with further adjustments explored for area deprivation and comorbidity. RESULTS: 2181 subjects (1.7%) received an incident diagnosis of dementia (39% mentioning Alzheimer's disease, 29% vascular dementia). There was a positive exposure response relationship between dementia and all measures of air pollution except O3, which was not readily explained by further adjustment. Adults living in areas with the highest fifth of NO2 concentration (>41.5 µg/m3) versus the lowest fifth (<31.9 µg/m3) were at a higher risk of dementia (HR=1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.74). Increases in dementia risk were also observed with PM2.5, PM2.5 specifically from primary traffic sources only and Lnight, but only NO2 and PM2.5 remained statistically significant in multipollutant models. Associations were more consistent for Alzheimer's disease than vascular dementia. CONCLUSIONS: We have found evidence of a positive association between residential levels of air pollution across London and being diagnosed with dementia, which is unexplained by known confounding factors.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar , Doença de Alzheimer , Demência Vascular , Exposição Ambiental , Ruído , Idoso , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/prevenção & controle , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/epidemiologia , Demência Vascular/diagnóstico , Demência Vascular/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dióxido de Nitrogênio/análise , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Ruído/prevenção & controle , Material Particulado/análise , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Emissões de Veículos/análise
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(8): 1202-1216, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995844

RESUMO

Migraine and major depressive disorder (MDD) are common brain disorders that frequently co-occur. Despite epidemiological evidence that migraine and MDD share a genetic basis, their overlap at the molecular genetic level has not been thoroughly investigated. Using single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene-based analysis of genome-wide association study (GWAS) genotype data, we found significant genetic overlap across the two disorders. LD Score regression revealed a significant SNP-based heritability for both migraine (h2 = 12%) and MDD (h2 = 19%), and a significant cross-disorder genetic correlation (rG = 0.25; P = 0.04). Meta-analysis of results for 8,045,569 SNPs from a migraine GWAS (comprising 30,465 migraine cases and 143,147 control samples) and the top 10,000 SNPs from a MDD GWAS (comprising 75,607 MDD cases and 231,747 healthy controls), implicated three SNPs (rs146377178, rs672931, and rs11858956) with novel genome-wide significant association (PSNP ≤ 5 × 10-8) to migraine and MDD. Moreover, gene-based association analyses revealed significant enrichment of genes nominally associated (Pgene-based ≤ 0.05) with both migraine and MDD (Pbinomial-test = 0.001). Combining results across migraine and MDD, two genes, ANKDD1B and KCNK5, produced Fisher's combined gene-based P values that surpassed the genome-wide significance threshold (PFisher's-combined ≤ 3.6 × 10-6). Pathway analysis of genes with PFisher's-combined ≤ 1 × 10-3 suggested several pathways, foremost neural-related pathways of signalling and ion channel regulation, to be involved in migraine and MDD aetiology. In conclusion, our study provides strong molecular genetic support for shared genetically determined biological mechanisms underlying migraine and MDD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/genética , Repetição de Anquirina/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética
13.
Thorax ; 73(8): 706-712, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006496

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The UK-wide National Review of Asthma Deaths sought to identify avoidable factors from the high numbers of deaths, but did not examine variation by socioeconomic status (SES) or region. METHODS: We used asthma deaths in England over the period 2002-2015 obtained from national deaths registers, summarised by quintiles of Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) and Government Office Region. Emergency asthma admissions were obtained from Hospital Episode Statistics for England 2001-2011. The prevalence of asthma was derived from the Health Survey for England 2010. Associations of mortality, admissions and prevalence with IMD quintile and region were estimated cross-sectionally using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age and sex and, where possible, smoking. RESULTS: Asthma mortality decreased among more deprived groups at younger ages. Among 5-44 year olds, those in the most deprived quintile, mortality was 19% lower than those in the least deprived quintile (IRR 0.81 (95% CI 0.69 to 0.96). In older adults, this pattern was reversed (45-74 years: IRR 1.37 (1.24-1.52), ≥75 years: IRR 1.30 (1.22-1.39)). In 5-44 year olds the inverse trend with asthma mortality contrasted with large positive associations for admissions (IRR 3.34 (3.30-3.38)) and prevalence of severe symptoms (IRR 2.38 (1.70-3.33)). Prevalence trends remained after adjustment for smoking. IRRs for asthma mortality, admissions and prevalence showed significant heterogeneity between English regions. CONCLUSIONS: Despite asthma mortality, emergency admissions and prevalence decreasing over recent decades, England still experiences significant SES and regional variations. The previously undocumented inverse relation between deprivation and mortality in the young requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Asma/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Classe Social
14.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 197(3): 364-372, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28957644

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Exposures to geohelminths during gestation or early childhood may reduce risk of wheezing illness/asthma and atopy during childhood in tropical regions. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of maternal and early childhood geohelminths on development of wheeze/asthma and atopy during the first 5 years of life. METHODS: A cohort of 2,404 neonates was followed to 5 years of age in a rural district in coastal Ecuador. Data on wheeze were collected by questionnaire and atopy was measured by allergen skin prick test reactivity to 10 allergens at 5 years. Stool samples from mothers and children were examined for geohelminths by microscopy. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: A total of 2,090 (86.9%) children were evaluated at 5 years. Geohelminths were observed in 45.5% of mothers and in 34.1% of children by 3 years. Wheeze and asthma were reported for 12.6% and 5.7% of children, respectively, whereas 14.0% had skin test reactivity at 5 years. Maternal geohelminths were associated with an increased risk of wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.88), whereas childhood geohelminths over the first 3 years of life were associated with reduced risk of wheeze (adjusted odds ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.96) and asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.94) but not skin prick test reactivity. The effects on wheeze/asthma were greatest with later age of first infection, were observed only in skin test-negative children, but were not associated with parasite burden or specific geohelminths. CONCLUSIONS: Although maternal exposures to geohelminths may increase childhood wheeze, childhood geohelminths during the first 3 years may provide protection through a nonallergic mechanism. Registered as an observational study (ISRCTN41239086).


Assuntos
Asma/imunologia , Helmintíase/imunologia , Helmintos/imunologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Alérgenos/imunologia , Animais , Asma/prevenção & controle , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Países em Desenvolvimento , Equador , Eczema/imunologia , Eczema/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Sons Respiratórios/imunologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 85: 88-95, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28843169

RESUMO

Cortisol is an important stress hormone affected by a variety of biological and environmental factors, such as the circadian rhythm, exercise and psychological stress. Cortisol is mostly measured using blood or saliva samples. A number of genetic variants have been found to contribute to cortisol levels with these methods. While the effects of several specific single genetic variants is known, the joint genome-wide contribution to cortisol levels is unclear. Our aim was to estimate the amount of cortisol variance explained by common single nucleotide polymorphisms, i.e. the SNP heritability, using a variety of cortisol measures, cohorts and analysis approaches. We analyzed morning plasma (n=5705) and saliva levels (n=1717), as well as diurnal saliva levels (n=1541), in the Rotterdam Study using genomic restricted maximum likelihood estimation. Additionally, linkage disequilibrium score regression was fitted on the results of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed by the CORNET consortium on morning plasma cortisol (n=12,597) and saliva cortisol (n=7703). No significant SNP heritability was detected for any cortisol measure, sample or analysis approach. Point estimates ranged from 0% to 9%. Morning plasma cortisol in the CORNET cohorts, the sample with the most power, had a 6% [95%CI: 0-13%] SNP heritability. The results consistently suggest a low SNP heritability of these acute and short-term measures of cortisol. The low SNP heritability may reflect the substantial environmental and, in particular, situational component of these cortisol measures. Future GWAS will require very large sample sizes. Alternatively, more long-term cortisol measures such as hair cortisol samples are needed to discover further genetic pathways regulating cortisol concentrations.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Saliva/química
16.
BMJ Open ; 7(7): e015381, 2017 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28706094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reduced ventilatory function is an established predictor of all-cause mortality in general population cohorts. We sought to verify this in lifelong non-smokers, among whom confounding by active smoking can be excluded, and investigate associations with circulatory and cancer deaths. METHODS: In UK Biobank, among 149 343 white never-smokers aged 40-69 years at entry, 2401 deaths occurred over a mean of 6.5-year follow-up. In the Health Surveys for England (HSE) 1995, 1996, 2001 and Scottish Health Surveys (SHS) 1998 and 2003 combined, there were 500 deaths among 6579 white never-smokers aged 40-69 years at entry, followed for a mean of 13.9 years. SD (z) scores for forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were derived using Global Lung Initiative 2012 reference equations. These z-scores were related to deaths from all causes, circulatory disease and cancers using proportional hazards models adjusted for age, sex, height, socioeconomic status, region and survey. RESULTS: In the HSE-SHS data set, decreasing z-scores for FEV1 (zFEV1) and FVC (zFVC) were each associated to a similar degree with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratios per unit decrement 1.17, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25 for zFEV1 and 1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.28 for zFVC). This was replicated in Biobank (HRs 1.21, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.26 and 1.24, 1.19 to 1.29, respectively). zFEV1 and zFVC were less strongly associated with mortality from circulatory diseases in HSE-SHS (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40 for zFVC) than in Biobank (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.60 for zFVC). For cancer mortality, HRs were more consistent between cohorts (for zFVC: HRs 1.12, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.24 in HSE-SHS and 1.10, 1.05 to 1.15 in Biobank). The strongest associations were with respiratory mortality (for zFVC: HRs 1.61, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.08 in HSE-SHS and 2.15, 1.77 to 2.61 in Biobank). CONCLUSIONS: Spirometric indices predicted mortality more strongly than systolic blood pressure or body mass index, emphasising the importance of promoting lung health in the general population, even among lifelong non-smokers.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/fisiopatologia , Capacidade Vital , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico
17.
PLoS Med ; 14(5): e1002294, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28486474

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Low circulating vitamin D levels have been associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE). These epidemiological associations, if true, would have public health importance, since vitamin D insufficiency is common and correctable. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We aimed to test whether genetically lowered vitamin D levels were associated with risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated serum IgE levels, using Mendelian randomization (MR) methodology to control bias owing to confounding and reverse causation. The study employed data from the UK Biobank resource and from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE eczema consortia. Using four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) strongly associated with 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels in 33,996 individuals, we conducted MR studies to estimate the effect of lowered 25OHD on the risk of asthma (n = 146,761), childhood onset asthma (n = 15,008), atopic dermatitis (n = 40,835), and elevated IgE level (n = 12,853) and tested MR assumptions in sensitivity analyses. None of the four 25OHD-lowering alleles were associated with asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated IgE levels (p ≥ 0.2). The MR odds ratio per standard deviation decrease in log-transformed 25OHD was 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.90-1.19, p = 0.63) for asthma, 0.95 (95% CI 0.69-1.31, p = 0.76) for childhood-onset asthma, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.92-1.37, p = 0.27) for atopic dermatitis, and the effect size on log-transformed IgE levels was -0.40 (95% CI -1.65 to 0.85, p = 0.54). These results persisted in sensitivity analyses assessing population stratification and pleiotropy and vitamin D synthesis and metabolism pathways. The main limitations of this study are that the findings do not exclude an association between the studied outcomes and 1,25-dihydoxyvitamin D, the active form of vitamin D, the study was underpowered to detect effects smaller than an OR of 1.33 for childhood asthma, and the analyses were restricted to white populations of European ancestry. This research has been conducted using the UK Biobank Resource and data from the SUNLIGHT, GABRIEL and EAGLE Eczema consortia. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found no evidence that genetically determined reduction in 25OHD levels conferred an increased risk of asthma, atopic dermatitis, or elevated total serum IgE, suggesting that efforts to increase vitamin D are unlikely to reduce risks of atopic disease.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Dermatite Atópica/epidemiologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Criança , Dermatite Atópica/induzido quimicamente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vitamina D/sangue
18.
J Invest Dermatol ; 137(6): 1248-1256, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28257795

RESUMO

We sought to examine the relationship globally between UVR dose exposure and current eczema prevalences. ISAAC Phase Three provided data on eczema prevalence for 13- to 14-year-olds in 214 centers in 87 countries and for 6- to 7-year-olds in 132 centers in 57 countries. Linear and nonlinear associations between (natural log transformed) eczema prevalence and the mean, maximum, minimum, standard deviation, and range of monthly UV dose exposures were assessed using linear mixed-effects regression models. For the 13- to 14-year-olds, the country-level eczema prevalence was positively and linearly associated with country-level monthly mean (prevalence ratio = 1.31 [95% confidence interval = 1.05-1.63] per kJ/m2) and minimum (1.25 [1.06-1.47] per kJ/m2) UVR dose exposure. Linear and nonlinear associations were also observed for other metrics of UV. Results were similar in trend, but nonsignificant, for the fewer centers with 6- to 7-year-olds (e.g., 1.24 [0.96-1.59] per kJ/m2 for country-level monthly mean UVR). No consistent within-country associations were observed (e.g., 1.05 [0.89-1.23] and 0.92 [0.71-1.18] per kJ/m2 for center-level monthly mean UVR for the 13- to 14- and 6- to 7-year-olds, respectively). These ecological results support a role for UVR exposure in explaining some of the variation in global childhood eczema prevalence.


Assuntos
Eczema/diagnóstico , Eczema/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Saúde Global , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Internacionalidade , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo
19.
Nat Genet ; 49(3): 426-432, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28166215

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. We performed a genetic association study in 15,256 cases and 47,936 controls, with replication of select top results (P < 5 × 10-6) in 9,498 cases and 9,748 controls. In the combined meta-analysis, we identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance, including 13 new associations with COPD. Nine of these 13 loci have been associated with lung function in general population samples, while 4 (EEFSEC, DSP, MTCL1, and SFTPD) are new. We noted two loci shared with pulmonary fibrosis (FAM13A and DSP) but that had opposite risk alleles for COPD. None of our loci overlapped with genome-wide associations for asthma, although one locus has been implicated in joint susceptibility to asthma and obesity. We also identified genetic correlation between COPD and asthma. Our findings highlight new loci associated with COPD, demonstrate the importance of specific loci associated with lung function to COPD, and identify potential regions of genetic overlap between COPD and other respiratory diseases.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Asma/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 140(3): 771-781, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28188724

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship between allergy and autoimmune disorders is complex and poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate commonalities in genetic loci and pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases to elucidate shared disease mechanisms. METHODS: We meta-analyzed 2 genome-wide association studies on self-reported allergy and sensitization comprising a total of 62,330 subjects. These results were used to calculate enrichment for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, we probed for enrichment within genetic pathways and of transcription factor binding sites and characterized commonalities in variant burden on tissue-specific regulatory sites by calculating the enrichment of allergy SNPs falling in gene regulatory regions in various cells using Encode Roadmap DNase-hypersensitive site data. Finally, we compared the allergy data with those of all known diseases. RESULTS: Among 290 loci previously associated with 16 autoimmune diseases, we found a significant enrichment of loci also associated with allergy (P = 1.4e-17) encompassing 29 loci at a false discovery rate of less than 0.05. Such enrichment seemed to be a general characteristic for autoimmune diseases. Among the common loci, 48% had the same direction of effect for allergy and autoimmune diseases. Additionally, we observed an enrichment of allergy SNPs falling within immune pathways and regions of chromatin accessible in immune cells that was also represented in patients with autoimmune diseases but not those with other diseases. CONCLUSION: We identified shared susceptibility loci and commonalities in pathways between allergy and autoimmune diseases, suggesting shared disease mechanisms. Further studies of these shared genetic mechanisms might help in understanding the complex relationship between these diseases, including the parallel increase in disease prevalence.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
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