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2.
Blood Adv ; 3(20): 3143-3156, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648313

RESUMO

Survival of patients with pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is mainly compromised by leukemia relapse, carrying dismal prognosis. As novel individualized therapeutic approaches are urgently needed, we performed whole-exome sequencing of leukemic blasts of 10 children with post-allo-SCT relapses with the aim of thoroughly characterizing the mutational landscape and identifying druggable mutations. We found that post-allo-SCT ALL relapses display highly diverse and mostly patient-individual genetic lesions. Moreover, mutational cluster analysis showed substantial clonal dynamics during leukemia progression from initial diagnosis to relapse after allo-SCT. Only very few alterations stayed constant over time. This dynamic clonality was exemplified by the detection of thiopurine resistance-mediating mutations in the nucleotidase NT5C2 in 3 patients' first relapses, which disappeared in the post-allo-SCT relapses on relief of selective pressure of maintenance chemotherapy. Moreover, we identified TP53 mutations in 4 of 10 patients after allo-SCT, reflecting acquired chemoresistance associated with selective pressure of prior antineoplastic treatment. Finally, in 9 of 10 children's post-allo-SCT relapse, we found alterations in genes for which targeted therapies with novel agents are readily available. We could show efficient targeting of leukemic blasts by APR-246 in 2 patients carrying TP53 mutations. Our findings shed light on the genetic basis of post-allo-SCT relapse and may pave the way for unraveling novel therapeutic strategies in this challenging situation.

3.
Leukemia ; 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578451

RESUMO

AML SCT-BFM 2007 was the first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) trial in Germany to comply with the European Clinical Trials Directive, and aimed to standardize pediatric HCT for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) across centers in Germany, Austria, and the Czech Republic. Children with high-risk features and a good early response achieving a complete first remission (CR-1) and those in CR-2 after a first relapse were stratified to receive HCT from a matched donor after myeloablative conditioning consisting of busulfan, cyclophosphamide, and melphalan. Four-year EFS and OS were 61 and 70%. Cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) was 22%. TRM was 15% and correlated with age reaching 9% (SE 3%) in children younger than 12 years and 31% (SE 9%) in older children and adolescents. Children with poorly responding primary disease or relapse were allocated to receive early HCT after a cytoreductive regimen with fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine, followed by reduced intensity conditioning and prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions. Four-year EFS and OS were 49 and 53%. CIR was 38% and TRM 11%. For patients with primary poor response disease, early use of RIC HCT followed by prophylactic DLI can induce long-term remissions in more than 50% (EFS 46% (SE 9%)).

4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1847-1858, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089287

RESUMO

Although allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) provides high cure rates for children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), relapses remain the main cause of treatment failure. Whereas donor killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) genotype was shown to impact on relapse incidence in adult myeloid leukaemia similar studies in paediatric ALL are largely missing. Effect of donor KIR genotype on transplant outcome was evaluated in 317 children receiving a first myeloablative HSCT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor or sibling within the prospective ALL-SCT-BFM-2003 trial. Analysis of donor KIR gene polymorphism revealed that centromeric presence and telomeric absence of KIR B haplotypes was associated with reduced relapse risk. A centromeric/telomeric KIR score (ct-KIR score) integrating these observations correlated with relapse risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0.58; P = 0.002) while it had no impact on graft-versus-host disease or non-relapse mortality. In multivariable analyses ct-KIR score was associated with reduced relapse risk (HR 0.58; P = 0.003) and a trend towards improved event-free survival (HR 0.76; P = 0.059). This effect proved independent of MRD level prior to HSCT. Our data suggest that in children with ALL undergoing HSCT after myeloablative conditioning, donor selection based on KIR genotyping holds promise to improve clinical outcome by decreasing relapse risk and prolonged event-free survival.

5.
Am J Hematol ; 94(8): 880-890, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095771

RESUMO

Severe infections (SI) significantly impact on non-relapse mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We assessed 432 children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) after total body irradiation based myeloablative HSCT within the multicenter ALL-BFM-SCT 2003 trial for SI grade 3 or higher according to common terminology criteria for adverse events. A total 172 patients experienced at least one SI. Transplantation from matched unrelated donors (MUD) was associated with any type of SI in the pre-engraftment period (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57; P < .001), and with any SI between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 2.91; P = .011). Bacterial (HR: 2.24; P = .041) and fungal infections (HR: 4.06; P = .057) occurred more often in the pre-engraftment phase and viral infections more often before day +30 (HR: 2.66; P = .007) or between day +30 and + 100 (HR: 3.89; P = .002) after HSCT from MUD as compared to matched sibling donors. Chronic GvHD was an independent risk factor for any type of SI after day +100 (HR: 2.57; P < .002). We conclude that allogeneic HSCT from MUD in children and adolescents with pediatric ALL is associated with higher infection rates, which seems attributable to an intensified GvHD prophylaxis including serotherapy and methotrexate.

6.
Stem Cells ; 36(11): 1646-1654, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30156339

RESUMO

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is routinely performed for the treatment of various malignant and non-malignant hematological diseases. Successful transplantation depends on the number and fitness of donor stem and progenitor cells, whose quality is substantially influenced by the sampling procedure, sample handling, and cryopreservation. BCL-2 proteins are central to the survival and maintenance of stem and progenitor cells under both, physiological and stress conditions. Transplantation-associated apoptosis of donor cells is mediated by the pro-apoptotic BCL-2 proteins BIM and BMF and prevented by overexpression of their antagonists, BCL-2 and BCL-XL. We have previously reported that deletion of BIM or BMF stabilizes donor stem cell numbers during transplantation and improves cellular fitness and transplantation outcomes, albeit posing a risk for lymphoma and autoimmunity in recipient mice. Short-term apoptosis inhibition in donor cells appears equally effective in improving the outcome of transplantation, but in contrast does not cause pathology. In this review, we discuss the role of BCL-2 proteins in the context of factors that negatively impact donor stem and progenitor cell fitness and viability. Finally, we suggest approaches to improve graft quality and transplantation procedures with an emphasis on the inhibition of BCL-2 regulated apoptosis. Stem Cells 2018;36:1646-1654.

7.
Br J Haematol ; 183(1): 104-109, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30028016

RESUMO

Osteonecrosis (ON) was prospectively assessed in 557 children and adolescents in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Stem Cell Transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 2003 trial. Median age at haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) was 10·3 years (range 0·5-26). Cumulative incidence of symptomatic ON (sON) was 9% at 5 years (standard deviation 1%), median time from HSCT to diagnosis of sON was 12·4 months (range 1-126). Multivariate analysis identified age at HSCT [10-15 years vs. <10 years: hazard ratio (HR) 3·73, P = 0·009; >15 years vs. <10 years: HR 5·46, P = 0·001], diagnosis of sON prior to HSCT and chronic graft-versus-host disease (yes versus no: HR 2·696, P = 0·015) as significant independent risk factors for the development of sON.

8.
Haematologica ; 103(9): 1484-1492, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773602

RESUMO

Survival in children with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia is unsatisfactory. Treatment consists of one course of fludarabine, cytarabine and liposomal daunorubicin, followed by fludarabine and cytarabine and stem-cell transplantation. Study ITCC 020/I-BFM 2009-02 aimed to identify the recommended phase II dose of clofarabine replacing fludarabine in the abovementioned combination regimen (3+3 design). Escalating dose levels of clofarabine (20-40 mg/m2/day × 5 days) and liposomal daunorubicin (40-80 mg/m2/day) were administered with cytarabine (2 g/m2/day × 5 days). Liposomal DNR was given on day 1, 3 and 5 only. The cohort at the recommended phase II dose was expanded to make a preliminary assessment of anti-leukemic activity. Thirty-four children were enrolled: refractory 1st (n=11), early 1st (n=15), ≥2nd relapse (n=8). Dose level 3 (30 mg/m2clofarabine; 60 mg/m2liposomal daunorubicin) appeared to be safe only in patients without subclinical fungal infections. Infectious complications were dose-limiting. The recommended phase II dose was 40 mg/m2 clofarabine with 60 mg/m2 liposomal daunorubicin. Side-effects mainly consisted of infections. The overall response rate was 68% in 31 response evaluable patients, and 80% at the recommended phase II dose (n=10); 22 patients proceeded to stem cell transplantation. The 2-year probability of event-free survival (pEFS) was 26.5±7.6 and probability of survival (pOS) 32.4±8.0%. In the 21 responding patients, the 2-year pEFS was 42.9±10.8 and pOS 47.6±10.9%. Clofarabine exposure in plasma was not significantly different from that in single-agent studies. In conclusion, clofarabine was well tolerated and showed high response rates in relapsed/refractory pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Patients with (sub) clinical fungal infections should be treated with caution. Clofarabine has been taken forward in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster study for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. The Study ITCC-020 was registered as EUDRA-CT 2009-009457-13; Dutch Trial Registry number 1880.

9.
Blood ; 131(13): 1406-1414, 2018 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438960

RESUMO

Pediatric myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a heterogeneous group of clonal disorders with an annual incidence of 1 to 4 cases per million, accounting for less than 5% of childhood hematologic malignancies. MDSs in children often occur in the context of inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, which represent a peculiarity of myelodysplasia diagnosed in pediatric patients. Moreover, germ line syndromes predisposing individuals to develop MDS or acute myeloid leukemia have recently been identified, such as those caused by mutations in GATA2, ETV6, SRP72, and SAMD9/SAMD9-L Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the most frequent pediatric MDS variant, and it has specific histopathologic features. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the treatment of choice for many children with MDSs and is routinely offered to all patients with MDS with excess of blasts, to those with MDS secondary to previously administered chemoradiotherapy, and to those with RCC associated with monosomy 7, complex karyotype, severe neutropenia, or transfusion dependence. Immune-suppressive therapy may be a treatment option for RCC patients with hypocellular bone marrow and the absence of monosomy 7 or a complex karyotype, although the response rate is lower than that observed in severe aplastic anemia, and a relevant proportion of these patients will subsequently need HSCT for either nonresponse or relapse.

10.
Haematologica ; 103(3): 427-437, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29217778

RESUMO

Familial myelodysplastic syndromes arise from haploinsufficiency of genes involved in hematopoiesis and are primarily associated with early-onset disease. Here we describe a familial syndrome in seven patients from four unrelated pedigrees presenting with myelodysplastic syndrome and loss of chromosome 7/7q. Their median age at diagnosis was 2.1 years (range, 1-42). All patients presented with thrombocytopenia with or without additional cytopenias and a hypocellular marrow without an increase of blasts. Genomic studies identified constitutional mutations (p.H880Q, p.R986H, p.R986C and p.V1512M) in the SAMD9L gene on 7q21, with decreased allele frequency in hematopoiesis. The non-random loss of mutated SAMD9L alleles was attained via monosomy 7, deletion 7q, UPD7q, or acquired truncating SAMD9L variants p.R1188X and p.S1317RfsX21. Incomplete penetrance was noted in 30% (3/10) of mutation carriers. Long-term observation revealed divergent outcomes with either progression to leukemia and/or accumulation of driver mutations (n=2), persistent monosomy 7 (n=4), and transient monosomy 7 followed by spontaneous recovery with SAMD9L-wildtype UPD7q (n=2). Dysmorphic features or neurological symptoms were absent in our patients, pointing to the notion that myelodysplasia with monosomy 7 can be a sole manifestation of SAMD9L disease. Collectively, our results define a new subtype of familial myelodysplastic syndrome and provide an explanation for the phenomenon of transient monosomy 7. Registered at: www.clinicaltrials.gov; #NCT00047268.

11.
Br J Haematol ; 180(1): 82-89, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193007

RESUMO

Relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure in children with high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Prognosis is considered dismal but data on risk factors and outcome are lacking from prospective studies. We analysed 242 children with recurrence of ALL after first allo-SCT enrolled in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (BFM) ALL-SCT-BFM 2003 and ALL-SCT-BFM international 2007 studies. Median time from allo-SCT to relapse was 7·7 months; median follow-up from relapse after allo-SCT until last follow-up was 3·4 years. The 3-year event-free survival (EFS) was 15% and overall survival (OS) was 20%. The main cause of death was disease progression or relapse (86·5%). The majority of children (48%) received salvage therapy without second allo-SCT, 26% of the children underwent a second allo-SCT and 25% received palliative treatment only. In multivariate analyses, age, site of relapse, time to relapse and type of salvage therapy were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS and EFS, whereas factors associated with first SCT were not statistically significant. Combined approaches incorporating novel immunotherapeutic treatment options and second allo-SCT hold promise to improve outcome in children with post allo-SCT relapse.


Assuntos
Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Retratamento , Terapia de Salvação , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 2126, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29259247

RESUMO

Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is an aggressive myeloproliferative disorder of early childhood characterized by mutations activating RAS signaling. Established clinical and genetic markers fail to fully recapitulate the clinical and biological heterogeneity of this disease. Here we report DNA methylome analysis and mutation profiling of 167 JMML samples. We identify three JMML subgroups with unique molecular and clinical characteristics. The high methylation group (HM) is characterized by somatic PTPN11 mutations and poor clinical outcome. The low methylation group is enriched for somatic NRAS and CBL mutations, as well as for Noonan patients, and has a good prognosis. The intermediate methylation group (IM) shows enrichment for monosomy 7 and somatic KRAS mutations. Hypermethylation is associated with repressed chromatin, genes regulated by RAS signaling, frequent co-occurrence of RAS pathway mutations and upregulation of DNMT1 and DNMT3B, suggesting a link between activation of the DNA methylation machinery and mutational patterns in JMML.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Biópsia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferase 1/metabolismo , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Epigenômica , Feminino , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/patologia , Leucemia Mielomonocítica Juvenil/terapia , Masculino , Mutação , Síndrome de Noonan/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 11/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
Front Immunol ; 8: 449, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28507545

RESUMO

Typical features of dyskeratosis congenita (DC) resulting from excessive telomere shortening include bone marrow failure (BMF), mucosal fragility, and pulmonary or liver fibrosis. In more severe cases, immune deficiency and recurring infections can add to disease severity. RTEL1 deficiency has recently been described as a major genetic etiology, but the molecular basis and clinical consequences of RTEL1-associated DC are incompletely characterized. We report our observations in a cohort of six patients: five with novel biallelic RTEL1 mutations p.Trp456Cys, p.Ile425Thr, p.Cys1244ProfsX17, p.Pro884_Gln885ins53X13, and one with novel heterozygous mutation p.Val796AlafsX4. The most unifying features were hypocellular BMF in 6/6 and B-/NK-cell lymphopenia in 5/6 patients. In addition, three patients with homozygous mutations p.Trp456Cys or p.Ile425Thr also suffered from immunodeficiency, cerebellar hypoplasia, and enteropathy, consistent with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome. Chromosomal breakage resembling a homologous recombination defect was detected in patient-derived fibroblasts but not in hematopoietic compartment. Notably, in both cellular compartments, differential expression of 1243aa and 1219/1300aa RTEL1 isoforms was observed. In fibroblasts, response to ionizing irradiation and non-homologous end joining were not impaired. Telomeric circles did not accumulate in patient-derived primary cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines, implying alternative pathomechanisms for telomeric loss. Overall, RTEL1-deficient cells exhibited a phenotype of replicative exhaustion, spontaneous apoptosis and senescence. Specifically, CD34+ cells failed to expand in vitro, B-cell development was compromised, and T-cells did not proliferate in long-term culture. Finally, we report on the natural history and outcome of our patients. While two patients died from infections, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) resulted in sustained engraftment in two patients. Whether chemotherapy negatively impacts on the course and onset of other DC-related symptoms remains open at present. Early-onset lung disease occurred in one of our patients after HSCT. In conclusion, RTEL deficiency can show a heterogeneous clinical picture ranging from mild hypocellular BMF with B/NK cell lymphopenia to early-onset, very severe, and rapidly progressing cellular deficiency.

15.
J Clin Invest ; 127(5): 1700-1713, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28346228

RESUMO

It is well established that somatic genomic changes can influence phenotypes in cancer, but the role of adaptive changes in developmental disorders is less well understood. Here we have used next-generation sequencing approaches to identify de novo heterozygous mutations in sterile α motif domain-containing protein 9 (SAMD9, located on chromosome 7q21.2) in 8 children with a multisystem disorder termed MIRAGE syndrome that is characterized by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) with gonadal, adrenal, and bone marrow failure, predisposition to infections, and high mortality. These mutations result in gain of function of the growth repressor product SAMD9. Progressive loss of mutated SAMD9 through the development of monosomy 7 (-7), deletions of 7q (7q-), and secondary somatic loss-of-function (nonsense and frameshift) mutations in SAMD9 rescued the growth-restricting effects of mutant SAMD9 proteins in bone marrow and was associated with increased length of survival. However, 2 patients with -7 and 7q- developed myelodysplastic syndrome, most likely due to haploinsufficiency of related 7q21.2 genes. Taken together, these findings provide strong evidence that progressive somatic changes can occur in specific tissues and can subsequently modify disease phenotype and influence survival. Such tissue-specific adaptability may be a more common mechanism modifying the expression of human genetic conditions than is currently recognized.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Adrenal/congênito , Deleção Cromossômica , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Haploinsuficiência , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Proteínas/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/genética , Insuficiência Adrenal/mortalidade , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7 , Estudos de Coortes , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/mortalidade
16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1302-1310.e4, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27658761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Absent T-cell immunity resulting in life-threatening infections provides a clear rationale for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Combined immunodeficiencies (CIDs) and "atypical" SCID show reduced, not absent T-cell immunity. If associated with infections or autoimmunity, they represent profound combined immunodeficiency (P-CID), for which outcome data are insufficient for unambiguous early transplant decisions. OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. METHODS: In this prospective and retrospective observational study, we recruited nontransplanted patients with P-CID aged 1 to 16 years to compare natural histories of severity-matched patients with/without subsequent transplantation and to determine whether immunologic and/or clinical parameters may be predictive for outcome. RESULTS: A total of 51 patients were recruited (median age, 9.6 years). Thirteen of 51 had a genetic diagnosis of "atypical" SCID and 14 of 51 of CID. About half of the patients had less than 10% naive T cells, reduced/absent T-cell proliferation, and at least 1 significant clinical event/year, demonstrating their profound immunodeficiency. Nineteen patients (37%) underwent transplantation within 1 year of enrolment, and 5 of 51 patients died. Analysis of the HSCT decisions revealed the anticipated heterogeneity, favoring an ongoing prospective matched-pair analysis of patients with similar disease severity with or without transplantation. Importantly, so far neither the genetic diagnosis nor basic measurements of T-cell immunity were good predictors of disease evolution. CONCLUSIONS: The P-CID study for the first time characterizes a group of patients with nontypical SCID T-cell deficiencies from a therapeutic perspective. Because genetic and basic T-cell parameters provide limited guidance, prospective data from this study will be a helpful resource for guiding the difficult HSCT decisions in patients with P-CID.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/imunologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/patologia , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
17.
Blood ; 128(3): 440-8, 2016 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27216217

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) can be cured by allogeneic hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Complications include graft failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), infection, and transplant-related mortality; therefore, reduced-intensity conditioning regimens are being used to improve outcomes. In this retrospective study, the aim was to determine the outcome of treosulfan-based conditioning in HSCT for pediatric patients with CGD. The following data were collected: risk features pre-HSCT, additional conditioning agents, donor type and stem cell source, toxicity, engraftment, GVHD, chimerism, viral reactivation, post-HSCT complications, length of follow-up, and outcome. Seventy patients (median age, 107 months; interquartile range [IQR], 46-232 months) from 16 centers worldwide were transplanted between 2006 and 2015. Ninety-one percent had high-risk features. Fifty-seven HLA-matched donors, 12 HLA-mismatched donors, and 1 CD3(+)TCR αß/CD19 depleted parental haploidentical transplants were performed. No major toxicity was reported. Median times to neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 17 (IQR, 15-35) and 16 (IQR, 13-50) days. At a median follow-up of 34 months (IQR, 13-102 months), the overall survival was 91.4%, and event-free survival was 81.4%. The cumulative incidence of acute grade III-IV GVHD was 12%. Nine patients developed chronic GVHD. When split cell chimerism was available, 95% or more myeloid donor chimerism was documented in 80% of surviving patients. Secondary graft failure occurred in 12% of patients. Treosulfan-containing conditioning regimens can be used safely in HSCT for children with CGD and high-risk clinical features, achieving excellent survival with high myeloid chimerism. Further studies are needed to compare with other regimens and evaluate the long-term outcome, particularly on fertility.


Assuntos
Bussulfano/análogos & derivados , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante/métodos , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Bussulfano/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Sobrevivência de Enxerto/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/sangue , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/mortalidade , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/sangue , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/mortalidade , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Haematologica ; 101(6): 741-6, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26869631

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is required as rescue therapy in about 20% of pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. However, the relapse rates are considerable, and relapse confers a poor outcome. Early assessment of the risk of relapse is therefore of paramount importance for the development of appropriate measures. We used the EuroChimerism approach to investigate the potential impact of lineage-specific chimerism testing for relapse-risk analysis in 162 pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a multicenter study based on standardized transplantation protocols. Within a median observation time of 4.5 years, relapses have occurred in 41/162 patients at a median of 0.6 years after transplantation (range, 0.13-5.7 years). Prospective screening at defined consecutive time points revealed that reappearance of recipient-derived cells within the CD34(+) and CD8(+) cell subsets display the most significant association with the occurrence of relapses with hazard ratios of 5.2 (P=0.003) and 2.8 (P=0.008), respectively. The appearance of recipient cells after a period of pure donor chimerism in the CD34(+) and CD8(+) leukocyte subsets revealed dynamics indicative of a significantly elevated risk of relapse or imminent disease recurrence. Assessment of chimerism within these lineages can therefore provide complementary information for further diagnostic and, potentially, therapeutic purposes aiming at the prevention of overt relapse. This study was registered at clinical. TRIALS: gov with the number NC01423747.


Assuntos
Linhagem da Célula , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/terapia , Quimeras de Transplante , Adolescente , Biomarcadores , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Leucócitos/patologia , Masculino , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/patologia , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Haematol ; 172(6): 930-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26766110

RESUMO

Low-dose azacitidine is efficient and safe in the therapy of malignant myeloid disorders in adults but data in children are lacking. We present a retrospective analysis of 24 children and young adults with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received azacitidine at the time of first diagnosis or relapse after allotransplant (2 children were treated with azacitidine both initially and for relapse). Diagnoses were refractory cytopenia of childhood (N = 4), advanced primary MDS (N = 9) and secondary MDS (N = 11). The median duration of treatment was four cycles. Azacitidine was well tolerated, but cytopenias led to dose reduction in five cases. Treatment was discontinued in one child because of impaired renal function. Sixteen MDS patients were treated with azacitidine at first diagnosis. One complete clinical remission was observed and one child showed complete marrow remission; six children experienced stable disease with haematological improvement. Ten children received azacitidine for relapsed MDS after transplant: of these, seven experienced stable disease for 2-30 cycles (median 3), including one patient with haematological improvement for seven cycles. In summary, azacitidine is effective in some children with MDS and appears to be a non-toxic option in palliative situations to prolong survival.


Assuntos
Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Azacitidina/uso terapêutico , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Azacitidina/administração & dosagem , Azacitidina/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Avaliação de Medicamentos/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neutropenia/induzido quimicamente , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Clin Immunol ; 164: 52-6, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26812624

RESUMO

NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO) deficiency causes ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency in males, while manifesting as incontinentia pigmenti in heterozygous females. We report a family with NEMO deficiency, in which a female carrier displayed skewed X-inactivation favoring the mutant NEMO allele associated with symptoms of Behçet's disease. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of an affected boy from this donor reconstituted an immune system with retained skewed X-inactivation. After transplantation no more severe infections occurred, indicating that an active wild-type NEMO allele in only 10% of immune cells restores host defense. Yet he developed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). While gut infiltrating immune cells stained strongly for nuclear p65 indicating restored NEMO function, this was not the case in intestinal epithelial cells - in contrast to cells from conventional IBD patients. These results extend murine observations that epithelial NEMO-deficiency suffices to cause IBD. High anti-TNF doses controlled the intestinal inflammation and symptoms of Behçet's disease.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Quinase I-kappa B , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Alelos , Síndrome de Behçet/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Behçet/genética , Síndrome de Behçet/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/deficiência , Quinase I-kappa B/genética , Quinase I-kappa B/imunologia , Masculino , Irmãos
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