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2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33144638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Existing methods to estimate lifetime exposure to occupational carcinogenic agents could be improved. OBJECTIVE: We propose a new method to estimate the lifetime prevalence of exposure to occupational carcinogens using the example of painters and workers of the rubber industry in France. METHODS: From census, we calculated the proportion of painters and rubber industry workers using predefined occupational codes related to each occupation by sex and 10-year age group in 1982, 1990, 1999, 2007, and 2013. Using a beta-regression model, we obtained the yearly prevalence of exposure by 10-year age group over the period 1967-2007. We estimated the age- and sex-specific lifetime prevalence of exposure of the population in 2017 over 1967-2007, summing up the estimated prevalence of exposure for years 1967, 1977, 1987, 1997, and 2007 combined with a sex- and age-specific turnover factor. Corresponding population-attributable fractions were estimated for lung and bladder cancers in 2017. RESULTS: In 2017, we estimated that 5.6 and 0.2% of men in France had ever worked as a painter or in the rubber industry, respectively, during their working time. The lifetime prevalence of ever having worked as a painter or in the rubber industry was much lower in women: 1.8% and 0.1%, respectively. We estimated that 950 lung cancer and 40 bladder cancer cases were attributable to these occupations in 2017. SIGNIFICANCE: Based on accurate data and taking into account evolution of specific jobs over time, the proposed method provides good estimates of lifetime prevalence of exposure to occupational carcinogens. It could be applied in any other country with similar data.

3.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

4.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(11): 795-797, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is widely used in construction, food, cosmetic and medical industry. The current evidence on TiO2 carcinogenicity in humans is considered inadequate. As French participants of the European cohort of TiO2 workers exhibited an increase in mortality from lung cancer, we aimed at investigating whether TiO2 exposure, co-exposures or smoking can explain this increase. METHODS: We reanalysed the data of 833 French male workers (follow-up period 1968-1997) and used multiple imputation to complete their smoking status. We considered respirable TiO2 dust as primary exposure of interest, estimated as continuous cumulative (mg/m3-year) and annual average (mg/m3) concentrations and binary and 4-class categorical variables, with cut-off values of 0.3 and 2.4 mg/m3 (the German and American occupational exposure limits, respectively). For each exposure metric, we estimated HRs and associated 95% CIs, using Cox regression models adjusted for calendar period, exposure duration and smoking. RESULTS: The fully adjusted model yielded a HR=3.7 (95% CI=0.79 to 17.95) for TiO2-exposed workers vs unexposed and a HR=27.33 (95% CI=4.35 to 171.84) for those exposed to >2.4 mg/m3 as annual average concentration. Employment duration was negatively related with lung cancer mortality, therefore cumulative exposure had a small effect on mortality (HR=1.03 (95% CI=0.99 to 1.08) per mg/m3-year). CONCLUSION: This study suggests a positive relationship between TiO2 exposure and lung cancer mortality in TiO2 workers, whatever the exposure variable used, despite a limited statistical power in some models. The results question the current evidence on TiO2 carcinogenicity in humans but need to be confirmed in other cohorts, using different statistical approaches.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Titânio/efeitos adversos , Poeira , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726334

RESUMO

A historical cohort study in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile was set up in the town of Asbest, the Russian Federation, to study their cause-specific mortality, with a focus on cancer. Chrysotile has different chemical and physical properties compared with other asbestos fibres; therefore it is important to conduct studies specifically of chrysotile and in different geographical regions to improve the knowledge about its carcinogenicity. Setting was the town of Asbest, Sverdlovsk oblast, the Russian Federation. Participants were all current and former employees with at least one year of employment between 1/1/1975 and 31/12/2010 in the mine, enrichment factories, auto-transport and external rail transportation departments, the central laboratory, and the explosives unit of the company. Of the 35,837 cohort members, 12,729 (35.5%) had died (2,373 of them of cancer, including 10 of mesothelioma), 18,799 (52.5%) were known to be alive at the end of the observation period (2015), and 4,309 (12.0%) were censored before the end of 2015. Mean follow-up duration was 21.7 years in men and 25.9 years in women. The mean age at death was 59.4 years in men and 66.5 years in women. This is the largest occupational cohort of chrysotile workers to date, and the only one with a large proportion of exposed female workers.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(11): 1342-1347, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32440685

RESUMO

It has been suggested that the association between self-reported occupational noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma (VS), found in several studies, represents recall bias. Therefore, we aimed to study the relationship in a large case-control study using occupational noise measurements. We performed a case-control study using data from Sweden for 1,913 VS cases diagnosed in 1961-2009 and 9,566 age- and sex-matched population controls. We defined occupational history by linkage to national censuses from 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990. We estimated occupational noise exposure for each case and control using a job-exposure matrix. There was no association between occupational noise exposure and VS. Among subjects assessed as ever exposed to occupational noise levels of ≥85 dB (214 cases and 1,142 controls), the odds ratio for VS per 5 years of exposure was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 0.90, 1.17). Workers with noise levels of ≥85 dB for at least 15 years (5-year latency period), showed no increased risk of VS (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.73, 1.31) compared with those who had never been exposed to noise levels of 75 dB or higher. In summary, our large study does not support an association between occupational noise exposure and VS.

7.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 412-421, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMO

Rationale: Millions of workers around the world are exposed to respirable crystalline silica. Although silica is a confirmed human lung carcinogen, little is known regarding the cancer risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype. However, little is known regarding the disease risks associated with low levels of exposure and risks by cancer subtype.Objectives: We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks.Methods: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 control subjects. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.27) to 1.45 (95% confidence interval, 1.31-1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (P trend < 0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in nonsilicotics and in current, former, and never-smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (P trend ≤ 0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Supermultiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; superadditive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes.Conclusions: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. An exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Dióxido de Silício , Silicose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(3): 402-411, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMO

Rationale: Although the carcinogenicity of diesel engine exhaust has been demonstrated in multiple studies, little is known regarding exposure-response relationships associated with different exposure subgroups and different lung cancer subtypes.Objectives: We expanded on a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including three additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations.Methods: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men.Measurements and Main Results: Our study included 16,901 lung cancer cases and 20,965 control subjects. In men, exposure response between EC and lung cancer was observed: odds ratios ranged from 1.09 (95% CI, 1.00-1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI, 1.30-1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC lung cancer exposure response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including in never-smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined.Conclusions: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Grandes/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Pequenas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Emissões de Veículos , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá/epidemiologia , Carbono , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores Sexuais
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(1): 30-37, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31498409

RESUMO

The Monographs produced by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) apply rigorous procedures for the scientific review and evaluation of carcinogenic hazards by independent experts. The Preamble to the IARC Monographs, which outlines these procedures, was updated in 2019, following recommendations of a 2018 expert advisory group. This article presents the key features of the updated Preamble, a major milestone that will enable IARC to take advantage of recent scientific and procedural advances made during the 12 years since the last Preamble amendments. The updated Preamble formalizes important developments already being pioneered in the Monographs program. These developments were taken forward in a clarified and strengthened process for identifying, reviewing, evaluating, and integrating evidence to identify causes of human cancer. The advancements adopted include the strengthening of systematic review methodologies; greater emphasis on mechanistic evidence, based on key characteristics of carcinogens; greater consideration of quality and informativeness in the critical evaluation of epidemiological studies, including their exposure assessment methods; improved harmonization of evaluation criteria for the different evidence streams; and a single-step process of integrating evidence on cancer in humans, cancer in experimental animals, and mechanisms for reaching overall evaluations. In all, the updated Preamble underpins a stronger and more transparent method for the identification of carcinogenic hazards, the essential first step in cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Animais , Humanos , Agências Internacionais/organização & administração , Motivação , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Vigilância em Saúde Pública
10.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 943-952, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Poeira , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Epidemiology ; 31(1): 145-154, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577634

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Various established occupational lung carcinogens are also suspected risk factors for laryngeal cancer. However, individual studies are often inadequate in size to investigate this relatively rare outcome. Other limitations include imprecise exposure assessment and inadequate adjustment for confounders. METHODS: This study applied a quantitative job exposure matrix (SYN-JEM) for four established occupational lung carcinogens to five case-control studies within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. We used occupational histories for 2256 laryngeal cancer cases and 7857 controls recruited from 1989 to 2007. We assigned quantitative exposure levels for asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined (to address highly correlated exposures) via SYN-JEM. We assessed effects of occupational exposure on cancer risk for males (asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined) and females (asbestos and respirable crystalline silica), adjusting for age, study, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and asbestos exposure where relevant. RESULTS: Among females, odds ratios (ORs) were increased for ever versus never exposed. Among males, P values for linear trend were <0.05 for estimated cumulative exposure (all agents) and <0.05 for exposure duration (respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and chromium-VI and nickel combined); strongest associations were for asbestos at >90th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 1.6), respirable crystalline silica at 30+ years duration (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.7) and 75th-90th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8), chromium-VI at >75th percentile cumulative exposure (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.2, 3.0), and chromium-VI and nickel combined at 20-29 years duration (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1, 2.2). CONCLUSIONS: These findings support hypotheses of causal links between four lung carcinogens (asbestos, respirable crystalline silica, chromium-VI, and nickel) and laryngeal cancer.

12.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(9): 603-610, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296664

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Study carcinogenicity of inorganic lead, classified as 'probably carcinogenic' to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (brain, lung, kidney and stomach). METHODS: We conducted internal and external analyses for cancer incidence in two cohorts of 29 874 lead-exposed workers with past blood lead data (Finland, n=20 752, Great Britain=9122), with 6790 incident cancers. Exposure was maximum measured blood lead. RESULTS: The combined cohort had a median maximum blood lead of 29 µg/dL, a mean first blood lead test of 1977, and was 87% male. Significant (p<0.05) positive trends, using the log of maximum blood lead, were found for brain cancer (malignant), Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung cancer and rectal cancer, while a significant negative trend was found for melanoma. Borderline significant positive trends (0.05≤p≤0.10) were found for oesophageal cancer, meningioma and combined malignant/benign brain cancer. Categorical analyses reflected these trends. Significant interactions by country were found for lung, brain and oesophageal cancer, with Finland showing strong positive trends, and Great Britain showing modest or no trends. Larynx cancer in Finland also showed a positive trend (p=0.05). External analyses for high exposure workers (maximum blood lead >40 µg/dL) showed a significant excess for lung cancer in both countries combined, and significant excesses in Finland for brain and lung cancer. The Great Britain data were limited by small numbers for some cancers, and limited variation in exposure. CONCLUSIONS: We found strong positive incidence trends with increasing blood lead level, for several outcomes in internal analysis. Two of these, lung and brain cancer, were sites of a priori interest.


Assuntos
Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/sangue , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Neoplasias/sangue , Doenças Profissionais/sangue , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ ; 365: l2327, 2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31243001

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether sleep traits have a causal effect on risk of breast cancer. DESIGN: Mendelian randomisation study. SETTING: UK Biobank prospective cohort study and Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) case-control genome-wide association study. PARTICIPANTS: 156 848 women in the multivariable regression and one sample mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis in UK Biobank (7784 with a breast cancer diagnosis) and 122 977 breast cancer cases and 105 974 controls from BCAC in the two sample MR analysis. EXPOSURES: Self reported chronotype (morning or evening preference), insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration in multivariable regression, and genetic variants robustly associated with these sleep traits. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Breast cancer diagnosis. RESULTS: In multivariable regression analysis using UK Biobank data on breast cancer incidence, morning preference was inversely associated with breast cancer (hazard ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 0.98 per category increase), whereas there was little evidence for an association between sleep duration and insomnia symptoms. Using 341 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with chronotype, 91 SNPs associated with sleep duration, and 57 SNPs associated with insomnia symptoms, one sample MR analysis in UK Biobank provided some supportive evidence for a protective effect of morning preference on breast cancer risk (0.85, 0.70, 1.03 per category increase) but imprecise estimates for sleep duration and insomnia symptoms. Two sample MR using data from BCAC supported findings for a protective effect of morning preference (inverse variance weighted odds ratio 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 0.93 per category increase) and adverse effect of increased sleep duration (1.19, 1.02 to 1.39 per hour increase) on breast cancer risk (both oestrogen receptor positive and oestrogen receptor negative), whereas evidence for insomnia symptoms was inconsistent. Results were largely robust to sensitivity analyses accounting for horizontal pleiotropy. CONCLUSIONS: Findings showed consistent evidence for a protective effect of morning preference and suggestive evidence for an adverse effect of increased sleep duration on breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Sono , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ritmo Circadiano , Comorbidade , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
15.
Lancet Oncol ; 20(4): e208-e217, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30942182

RESUMO

Smokeless tobacco is consumed by 356 million people globally and is a leading cause of head and neck cancers. However, global efforts to control smokeless tobacco use trail behind the progress made in curbing cigarette consumption. In this Policy Review, we describe the extent of the policy implementation gap in smokeless tobacco control, discuss key reasons on why it exists, and make recommendations on how to bridge this gap. Although 180 countries have agreed that the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is the best approach to control the demand and supply of smokeless tobacco, only 138 (77%) Parties define smokeless tobacco in their statutes. Only 34 (19%) Parties tax or report taxing smokeless tobacco products, six (3%) measure content and emissions of smokeless tobacco products, and 41 (23%) mandate pictorial health warnings on these products. Although awareness of the harms related to smokeless tobacco is growing in many parts of the world, few Parties collect or present data on smokeless tobacco use under global or national surveillance mechanisms (eg, Global Tobacco Surveillance System and WHO STEPwise). Only 16 (9%) Parties have implemented a comprehensive ban on smokeless tobacco advertisement, promotion, and sponsorships. Globally, a smaller proportion of smokeless tobacco users are advised to quit the use of smokeless tobacco products compared to tobacco users. Use of smokeless tobacco is becoming a global cause of concern, requiring a greater commitment on the full implementation of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control measures.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco sem Fumaça/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/normas , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Controle Social Formal , Tabaco sem Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Organização Mundial da Saúde
16.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(5): 1519-1535, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pesticides are commonly used in agriculture, and previous studies endorsed the need to further investigate the possible association between their use and risk of lymphoid malignancies in agricultural workers. METHODS: We investigated the relationship of ever use of 14 selected pesticide chemical groups and 33 individual active chemical ingredients with non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies (NHL) overall or major subtypes, in a pooled analysis of three large agricultural worker cohorts. Pesticide use was derived from self-reported history of crops cultivated combined with crop-exposure matrices (France and Norway) or self-reported lifetime use of active ingredients (USA). Cox regression models were used to estimate cohort-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), which were combined using random effects meta-analysis to calculate meta-HRs. RESULTS: During follow-up, 2430 NHL cases were diagnosed in 316 270 farmers accruing 3 574 815 person-years under risk. Most meta-HRs suggested no association. Moderately elevated meta-HRs were seen for: NHL and ever use of terbufos (meta-HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.39); chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma and deltamethrin (1.48, 1.06-2.07); and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and glyphosate (1.36, 1.00-1.85); as well as inverse associations of NHL with the broader groups of organochlorine insecticides (0.86, 0.74-0.99) and phenoxy herbicides (0.81, 0.67-0.98), but not with active ingredients within these groups, after adjusting for exposure to other pesticides. CONCLUSIONS: Associations of pesticides with NHL appear to be subtype- and chemical-specific. Non-differential exposure misclassification was an important limitation, showing the need for refinement of exposure estimates and exposure-response analyses.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Linfoma não Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Praguicidas , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 58: 25-32, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30445228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is inadequate evidence to determine whether there is an effect of alcohol consumption on lung cancer risk. We conducted a pooled analysis of data from the International Lung Cancer Consortium and the SYNERGY study to investigate this possible association by type of beverage with adjustment for other potential confounders. METHODS: Twenty one case-control studies and one cohort study with alcohol-intake data obtained from questionnaires were included in this pooled analysis (19,149 cases and 362,340 controls). Adjusted odds ratios (OR) or hazard ratios (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each measure of alcohol consumption. Effect estimates were combined using random or fixed-effects models where appropriate. Associations were examined for overall lung cancer and by histological type. RESULTS: We observed an inverse association between overall risk of lung cancer and consumption of alcoholic beverages compared to non-drinkers, but the association was not monotonic. The lowest risk was observed for persons who consumed 10-19.9 g/day ethanol (OR vs. non-drinkers = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.91), where 1 drink is approximately 12-15 g. This J-shaped association was most prominent for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). The association with all lung cancer varied little by type of alcoholic beverage, but there were notable differences for SCC. We observed an association with beer intake (OR for ≥20 g/day vs nondrinker = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.90). CONCLUSIONS: Whether the non-monotonic associations we observed or the positive association between beer drinking and squamous cell carcinoma reflect real effects await future analyses and insights about possible biological mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etiologia , Idoso , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 222(1): 22-29, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30174219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent and comprehensive estimates for the number of new cancer cases in France attributable to occupational exposures are lacking. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the number of new cancer cases attributable to occupational exposures, using a newly developed methodology and the most recent data, for a comprehensive set of occupational carcinogens in France in 2015. METHODS: Surveys among employees, the national labor force data, a cohort of agricultural workers, national monitoring of workers exposed to ionizing radiation and job-exposure matrix in France were used. The number and proportion of new cancer cases attributable to established occupational carcinogens (Group 1) was estimated using estimation of lifetime exposure and risk estimates from cohort studies. Cancer data were obtained from the French Cancer Registries Network. RESULTS: In France in 2015, an estimated 7905 new cancer cases, 7336 among men and 569 among women, were attributable to occupational exposures, representing 2.3% of all new cancer cases (3.9% and 0.4% among men and women respectively). Among men and women, lung cancer was impacted the most, followed by mesothelioma and bladder cancer in men, and by mesothelioma and ovary in women. These cancers contributed to 89% of the total cancers attributable to occupational carcinogens in men, and to 80% in women. The main contributing occupational agent was asbestos among men (45%) and women (60%). CONCLUSIONS: Currently, occupational exposures contribute to a substantial burden of cancer in France. Enhanced monitoring and implementation of protective labor policies could potentially prevent a large proportion of these cancers.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(8): 593-603, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769352

RESUMO

The recognition of occupational carcinogens is important for primary prevention, compensation and surveillance of exposed workers, as well as identifying causes of cancer in the general population. This study updates previously published lists of known occupational carcinogens while providing additional information on cancer type, exposure scenarios and routes, and discussing trends in the identification of carcinogens over time. Data were extracted from International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) Monographs covering the years 1971-2017, using specific criteria to ensure occupational relevance and provide high confidence in the causality of observed exposure-disease associations. Selected agents were substances, mixtures or types of radiation classified in IARC Group 1 with 'sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity' in humans from studies of exposed workers and evidence of occupational exposure documented in the pertinent monograph. The number of known occupational carcinogens has increased over time: 47 agents were identified as known occupational carcinogens in 2017 compared with 28 in 2004. These estimates are conservative and likely underestimate the number of carcinogenic agents present in workplaces. Exposure to these agents causes a wide range of cancers; cancers of the lung and other respiratory sites, followed by skin, account for the largest proportion. The dominant routes of exposure are inhalation and dermal contact. Important progress has been made in identifying occupational carcinogens; nevertheless, there is an ongoing need for research on the causes of work-related cancer. Most workplace exposures have not been evaluated for their carcinogenic potential due to inadequate epidemiologic evidence and a paucity of quantitative exposure data.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Humanos
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