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2.
Surgery ; 2021 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Total gastrectomy for gastric cancer is associated with significant 30-day mortality, but this endpoint may underestimate the short-term mortality of the procedure. METHODS: Retrospective analysis was performed using the National Cancer Database (2004-2015). Patients who underwent total gastrectomy for stage I to III gastric adenocarcinoma were identified and divided into cohorts based on 90-day mortality. Predictors of mortality were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression, and annual trends in mortality rates were calculated by Joinpoint Regression. RESULTS: Of the 5,484 patients who underwent total gastrectomy, 90-day and 30-day mortality rates were 9.1% and 4.7%, respectively. Factors associated with 90-day mortality included increasing age (odds ratio 1.0, P < .001), income below the median (odds ratio 1.2, P = .039), Charlson-Deyo score ≥2 (odds ratio 1.4, P = .039), treatment at low-volume facilities (odds ratio 1.5, P < .001), N1 (odds ratio 2.0, P < .001), N2 (odds ratio 2.0, P < .001), or N3 (odds ratio 2.7, P < .001) stage disease, having <16 lymph nodes harvested (odds ratio 1.5, P < .001), and lack of treatment with chemotherapy (3.7, P < .001). Lack of health insurance (odds ratio 4.1, P = .080), and positive microscopic margins (odds ratio 1.3, P = .080) were correlated, but not significantly associated, with 90-day mortality. The 90-day mortality rate significantly declined from 14.3% in 2004 to 7.9% in 2015 (P = .006), and the 30-day mortality rate significantly declined from 7.7% in 2004 to 4.8% in 2015 (P = .009). CONCLUSION: Nearly half of the deaths within 90 days after total gastrectomy for cancer occur beyond 30 days postoperative. Ninety-day mortality has improved over time, but rates remain high, suggesting the need for improved out-of-hospital postoperative care beyond 30 days.

3.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549653

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act's Medicaid expansion is associated with earlier diagnosis and improved care among lower socioeconomic status populations with cancer, but its impact on melanoma is undefined. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of Medicaid expansion with stage of diagnosis and use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in nonelderly adult patients with newly diagnosed clinically localized melanoma. METHODS: Quasi-experimental, difference-in-differences retrospective cohort analysis using data from the National Cancer Database from 2010 to 2017. Patients from expansion versus nonexpansion states and diagnosed before (2010-2013) versus after (2014-2017) expansion were identified. RESULTS: Of 83,322 patients, 46.6% were female, and the median age was 55 years (interquartile range, 49-60). After risk adjustment, Medicaid expansion was associated with a decrease in the diagnosis of T1b stage or higher melanoma (odds ratio [OR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.98; P = .011) and decrease in uninsured status (OR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.52-0.72; P < .001) but was not associated with a difference in sentinel lymph node biopsy performance when indicated (OR, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.95-1.20; P = .29). LIMITATIONS: Retrospective study using a national database. CONCLUSION: In this study of patients with clinically localized melanoma, Medicaid expansion was associated with a decrease in the diagnosis of later T-stage tumors.

5.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2021 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591480

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Preoperative biopsy (PBx) is often recommended for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS), but its utilization rate and impact on perioperative management and outcomes remains undefined. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, patients who underwent resection of non-metastatic RPS were identified (2006-2014). Patients who did and did not undergo PBx of the primary tumor were compared using propensity matching, and factors associated with survival were assessed by multivariable analysis. RESULTS: Of 2620 patients, 1110 (42.4%) underwent PBx. Factors significantly associated with performance of PBx included male sex [odds ratio (OR) 1.2, P = 0.035], tumor size ≤ 5 cm (OR 1.5, P = 0.012), tumor size > 5 to ≤ 10 cm (OR 1.3, P = 0.009), non-well-differentiated liposarcoma histology (OR 2.0, P ≤ 0.001), and treatment at a high-volume center (OR 1.3, P = 0.021). Receipt of PBx was significantly associated with administration of neoadjuvant radiation (OR 8.8, P < 0.001) or systemic therapy (OR 3.3, P < 0.001), radical surgical resection (OR 1.6, P < 0.001), and complete tumor resection (OR 1.5, P < 0.003). Neoadjuvant radiation [hazard ratio (HR) 0.7, P = 0.003] and complete tumor resection (HR 0.6, P < 0.001) were significantly associated with improved overall survival (OS). Performance of PBx was not associated with OS (HR 1.1, P = 0.070), and following propensity matching, 5-year OS did not differ between the two groups (56.5% PBx vs 58.4% no PBx, P = 0.247). CONCLUSIONS: A minority of patients with non-metastatic RPS undergo PBx. PBx does not negatively impact survival, but may indirectly improve outcomes in select patients by virtue of receipt of neoadjuvant therapy and attainment of complete tumor resection.

7.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230747

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) can decrease lymph node basin (LNB) recurrences in patients with clinically evident melanoma lymph node (LN) metastases following lymphadenectomy, but its role in the era of modern systemic therapies (ST), immune checkpoint or BRAF/MEK inhibitors, is unclear. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients at four institutions who underwent lymphadenectomy (1/1/2010-12/31/2019) for clinically evident melanoma LN metastases and received neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant ST with RT, or ST alone, but met indications for RT, were identified. Comparisons were made between ST alone and ST/RT groups. The primary outcome was 3-year cumulative incidence (CI) of LNB recurrence. Secondary outcomes included 3-year incidences of in-transit/distant recurrence and survival estimates. RESULTS: Of 98 patients, 76 received ST alone and 22 received ST/RT. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last follow-up was 44.6 months. The ST/RT group had fewer inguinal node metastases (ST 36.8% versus ST/RT 9.1%; P = 0.04), and more extranodal extension (ST 50% versus ST/RT 77.3%; P = 0.02) and positive lymphadenectomy margins (ST 2.6% versus ST/RT 13.6%; P = 0.04). The 3-year CI of LNB recurrences was lower for the ST/RT group compared with the ST group (13.9% versus 25.2%), but this reduction was not statistically significant (P = 0.36). Groups did not differ significantly in in-transit/distant recurrences (P = 0.24), disease-free survival (P = 0.14), or melanoma-specific survival (P = 0.20). CONCLUSIONS: In the era of modern ST, RT may still have value in reducing LNB recurrences in melanoma with clinical LN metastases. Further research should focus on whether select patient populations derive benefit from combination therapy, and optimizing indications for RT following neoadjuvant ST.

8.
J Cutan Pathol ; 47(12): 1196-1199, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740977

RESUMO

We report a case of tumor-to-tumor metastasis of a cutaneous malignant melanoma to a synchronous thyroid Hurthle cell carcinoma. A 42-year-old male underwent a biopsy of right inguinal lymphadenopathy which showed metastatic melanoma. The primary lesion was identified on his right posterior leg, and staging workup discovered a synchronous left thyroid lobe nodule concerning for a follicular neoplasm. He underwent excision of the primary melanoma, right inguinal lymphadenectomy, and total thyroidectomy. The resected thyroid contained a 6.6-cm, well-encapsulated left-sided nodule, red-brown in color and homogenous in consistency, with areas of focal hemorrhage and no grossly identifiable calcification. Microscopically, large tumor cells with distinct cell borders were present, with deeply eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm, large nuclei with prominent nucleoli, and loss of polarity consistent with oncocytes. A microscopic single focus of vascular invasion was identified, and a diagnosis of angioinvasive Hurthle cell carcinoma was made. Within the Hurthle cell carcinoma, multiple deposits of metastatic melanoma were seen. These findings were indicative of tumor-to-tumor metastasis of the cutaneous melanoma to the angioinvasive Hurthle cell carcinoma. Our findings show the ability of melanoma to metastasize to a pre-existing neoplasm.

9.
Ann Surg Oncol ; 27(8): 2915-2926, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has transformed melanoma treatment, but optimal sequencing of ICB and surgery for clinically evident nodal metastasis remains undefined. We evaluated adjuvant-only (AT) and neoadjuvant/adjuvant (NAT) ICB with respect to survival outcomes in this patient population. METHODS: Patients who underwent lymphadenectomy (1 January 2011 to 31 July 2018) and received perioperative ICB at an academic center were identified. AT was defined as postoperative ICB, and NAT was defined as one to two cycles of ICB prior to resection with continuation of therapy following surgery. Three-year disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional recurrence-free survival (LRFS), distant disease-free survival (DDFS), and melanoma-specific survival (MSS) were estimated. RESULTS: Of 59 patients, 18 (31%) received AT and 41 (69%) received NAT. The AT and NAT groups did not differ in age (median 53 vs. 62 years, p = 0.16) or stage (IIIB 33% vs. 29%, IIIC 56% vs. 68%, IIID 11% vs. 2%, p = 0.34). Although 3-year DFS did not differ significantly by treatment sequencing (NAT vs. AT, hazard ratio [HR] 0.56, p = 0.17), NAT was associated with improved 3-year DDFS (HR 0.38, p = 0.028). Of 39 NAT patients with evaluable pathologic response, 23 (59%) and 5 (13%) had a pathologic partial response (pPR) and pathologic complete response (pCR), respectively. Patients with pPR/pCR experienced improved 3-year DFS (HR 0.16, p = 0.001), LRFS (HR 0.17, p = 0.003), and DDFS (HR 0.26, p = 0.029) compared with those with no response. Three-year MSS did not differ significantly by response (p = 0.062). CONCLUSION: NAT may be associated with improved 3-year DDFS compared with AT sequencing, and allows for early assessment of pathologic response. Further prospective evaluation of treatment sequencing is warranted.

10.
J Burn Care Res ; 39(4): 640-644, 2018 06 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901798

RESUMO

Burn injury results in a severe systemic inflammatory response which is associated with the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), even without associated inhalation injury. Venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) has been implemented in various cases of ARDS to provide support and allow for protective lung ventilation strategies. We report the case of a 27-year-old man presenting with a 60% total body surface area partial thickness burn who developed refractory ARDS with Murray Score of 3.75. ECMO was initiated on hospital day 9 for a total of 10 days with concurrent lung-protective ventilation. He subsequently recovered and was discharged on hospital day 48. ECMO should be considered as an adjunctive strategy in burn patients without inhalation injury to minimize ventilator-induced lung injury when high levels of support are needed to achieve adequate ventilation in patients with ARDS.


Assuntos
Queimaduras/complicações , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea , /terapia , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino
11.
Mil Med ; 181(6): 553-9, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27244065

RESUMO

U.S. Army Forward Surgical Teams (FSTs) are elite, multidisciplinary units that are highly mobile, and rapidly deployable. The mission of the FST is to provide resuscitative and damage control surgery for stabilization of life-threatening injuries in austere environments. The Army Trauma Training Center began in 2001 at the University of Miami Ryder Trauma Center under the direction of COL T. E. Knuth, MC USA (Ret.), as a multimodality combination of lectures, laboratory exercises, and clinical experiences that provided the only predeployment mass casualty and clinical trauma training center for all FSTs. Each of the subsequent five directors has restructured the training based on dynamic feedback from trainees, current military needs, and on the rapid advances in combat casualty care. We have highlighted these evolutionary changes at the Army Trauma Training Center in previous reviews. Under the current director, LTC J. M. Seery, MC USA, there are new team-building exercises, mobile learning modules and simulators, and other alternative methods in the mass casualty exercise. This report summarizes the latest updates to the state of the art training since the last review.


Assuntos
Educação/tendências , Medicina Militar/educação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/tendências , Guerra , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Currículo/tendências , Humanos , Incidentes com Feridos em Massa , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Enfermeiras Anestesistas , Treinamento por Simulação , Cirurgiões , Estados Unidos , Recursos Humanos
12.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 79(4): 617-21, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26402536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the population ages, mortality from falls will soon exceed that from all other forms of injury. Tremendous resources are focused on this problem, but how these patients die is unclear. To fill this gap, we tested the hypothesis that falls among the elderly are related to patient, rather than to injury factors when compared with falls among younger adults. METHODS: From January 2002 to December 2012, 7,293 fall admissions were reviewed. Data are reported as mean ± SD if normally distributed or median (interquartile range) if not. RESULTS: In 2002 to 2007, 25% of all falls were in elderly patients (≥65 years), but in 2008 to 2012, this proportion increased to 30% (p < 0.001). When comparing adult (n = 5,216) with elderly (n = 2,077) admissions, characteristics were as follow: Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 8 (4-13) versus 9 (5-17), length of stay (in days) of 3 (1-7) versus 6 (2-11), and mortality of 3.8% versus 13.7% (all p < 0.001). After controlling for variables associated with mortality using multiple logistic regression, elderly age was the strongest independent predictor of mortality (odds ratio, 8.18; confidence interval, 4.88-13.71). When comparing adult (n = 198) with elderly (n = 285) fatalities, ground-level falls occurred in 31% versus 91%, ISS was 27 (25-41) versus 25 (16-36), and length of stay (in days) was 2 (0-6) versus 4 (1-11) (all p < 0.001). Death occurred directly from fall in 82% versus 63%, from complications in 10% versus 20%, and from a fatal event preceding the fall in 8% vs. 17% (all p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The proportion of fall admissions in the elderly is growing in this trauma system. Elderly age is the strongest independent predictor of mortality following a fall. In those who die, death is less likely a direct effect of the fall. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Epidemiologic study, level III.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Centros de Traumatologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Sinais Vitais
13.
J Surg Res ; 196(1): 1-7, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25796108

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our purpose was to analyze modern major vascular injury (MVI) patterns in pediatric trauma, interventions performed, and outcomes at a level 1 trauma center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2000-December 2012, all pediatric admissions (≤17 y) were reviewed. RESULTS: Of 1928 pediatric admissions, 103 (5.3%) sustained MVI. This cohort was 85% male, age 15 ± 3 y, 55% black, 58% penetrating, injury severity score of 23 ± 15, with a length of stay of 8 (5) days. Firearm-related injury (47%) was the most common mechanism. Location of injuries included the extremities (50.5%), abdomen/pelvis (29.1%), and chest/neck (20.4%). Operative procedures included repair/bypass (71.4%), ligation (12.4%), amputation (10.5%), or temporary shunt (2.9%). Only three injuries (2.9%) were treated endovascularly. MVI patients had a mortality rate of 19.4%, higher than the overall pediatric trauma population of 3.5% (P < 0.001). After logistic regression, independent risk factors of mortality were vascular injury to the neck (odds ratio [OR]: 6.5; confidence interval (CI): 1.1-39.3), abdomen/pelvis (OR: 16.3; CI: 3.13-80.2), and chest (OR: 49.0; CI: 3.0-794.5). CONCLUSIONS: MVI in children more commonly results from firearm-related injury. The mortality rate associated with MVI is profoundly higher than that of the overall pediatric trauma population. These findings underscore the major public health concern of firearm-related injury in children.


Assuntos
Lesões do Sistema Vascular/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/mortalidade
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