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1.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 123, 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420255

RESUMO

Childhood maltreatment is associated with adverse effects on the brain, and an increased risk for psychopathology, including mood and substance use disorders. Individuals vary on the degree to which they exhibit neurobiological and clinical differences following maltreatment. Individuals with bipolar disorder exhibit greater magnitude of maltreatment-related prefrontal-paralimbic gray matter volume (GMV) deficits compared to typically developing individuals. It is unclear if greater structural differences stem from greater neural vulnerability to maltreatment in bipolar disorder, or if they relate to presence of other clinical features associated with childhood maltreatment, e.g., elevated prevalence of comorbid substance use disorders. To investigate this, we compared young adults with a family history of bipolar disorder (n = 21), but who did not fulfill diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder, with typically developing young adults without a family history of bipolar disorder (n = 26). Participants completed structural neuroimaging, clinical and family history interviews, and assessment of childhood maltreatment and recent alcohol and cannabis use patterns. We examined relations between childhood maltreatment and prefrontal-paralimbic GMV by modeling main effects of maltreatment and family history group by maltreatment interactions on prefrontal-paralimbic GMV. We also examined relations between maltreatment and associated GMV changes with recent alcohol and cannabis use. Childhood maltreatment correlated with lower ventral, rostral and dorsolateral prefrontal and insular cortical GMV across all participants regardless of the presence or absence of familial history of bipolar disorder. However, exploratory analyses did reveal greater maltreatment-related GMV differences in individuals with prodromal symptoms of depression. Lower insula GMV was associated with greater frequency of cannabis use across all participants and greater quantity of alcohol use only in those with familial risk for bipolar disorder. Results suggest familial risk for bipolar disorder, and presumably genetic risk, may relate to outcomes following childhood maltreatment and should be considered in prevention/early intervention strategies.

2.
J Affect Disord ; 279: 671-679, 2020 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33190118

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are highly prevalent in bipolar disorder, however the developmental etiology of this comorbidity remains unknown. Structural differences in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) have been linked to problematic drinking in bipolar disorder and typically developing youth, with evidence implicating variations in OFC in differential subjective response to alcohol in typical development. METHODS: Subjective response to alcohol, recent alcohol use, impulsivity, and variation in OFC gray matter volume were investigated in 48 emerging adults (24 with bipolar disorder, 24 typically developing). On average 1.5 years later, drinking patterns were reassessed and relations between subjective response and changes in alcohol use were explored. RESULTS: Groups did not differ in baseline alcohol use or subjective response. At baseline, decreased subjective response to alcohol was associated with increased alcohol use in both groups. Lower gray matter volume in medial OFC in bipolar disorder was associated with increased subjective response to alcohol, whereas lower gray matter volume in OFC in typically developing participants was associated with decreased subjective response to alcohol. Increase in alcohol use (baseline to follow-up) was associated with increased baseline subjective response to alcohol in bipolar disorder, and decreased baseline subjective response in the typically developing group. LIMITATIONS: Preliminary study with a small sample size. CONCLUSION: Underlying OFC biology may contribute to differences in alcohol sensitivity in bipolar disorder which may also relate to prospective changes in alcohol use patterns. Future studies are needed to examine how these factors prospectively relate to development of AUDs in bipolar disorder.

3.
Psychiatry Res ; 294: 113516, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160217

RESUMO

Over 2.3 million people in the United States live with bipolar disorder. Sixty percent of those with a bipolar disorder diagnosis attempt suicide at least once in their lifetime and up to 19% die by suicide. However, the neurobiology of suicide attempts in bipolar disorder remains unclear. We studied the gray matter volume (GMV) of 81 participants with a bipolar-I diagnosis (age-range: 14-34 years old) and 40 healthy participants (age-range 14.7-32 years old) to compare their neuroanatomy and histories of suicide attempt. In the bipolar group, 42 were manic with ages ranging from 14-30.6 years, and 39 were depressed with ages ranging from 14-34.3 years). Twenty three bipolar participants had a suicide attempt history, and 58 had no suicide attempt history. All participants completed behavioral/diagnostic assessments and MRI. We focused on a predefined frontolimbic circuitry in bipolar disorder versus controls to first identify diagnostic GMV correlates and to specifically identify GMV correlates for suicide attempt history. We found reduced GMV in bipolar diagnosis versus controls in the subgenual cingulate and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. Our observed regional GMV reductions were associated with histories of suicide attempts and measures of individual variations in current suicidal ideation at the time of scanning.

4.
Bipolar Disord ; 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Altered activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, as well as subcortical and amygdala projection sites, was previously reported during a first manic episode in youth with bipolar disorder and observed to be associated with treatment response. To extend these findings, we investigated functional connectivity among these regions in first-episode manic participants who remitted after 8 weeks of treatment compared to those who did not. METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar disorder (60% female) during their first manic episode were recruited and received 8 weeks of treatment. Twenty-one remitted following treatment. Participants completed fMRI scans, at baseline and following 8 weeks of treatment, while performing a continuous performance task with emotional and neutral distractors. A healthy comparison group (n = 41) received fMRI evaluations at the same intervals. Differences in functional connectivity of the amygdala and caudate with the rostral anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices at baseline (and changes in functional connectivity following treatment) were modeled between groups. RESULTS: At baseline, non-remitters showed an increase in positive connectivity between right anterior cingulate and caudate and a loss of negative connectivity between right anterior cingulate and amygdala, compared to healthy participants. Individuals who remitted following treatment showed an increase in negative connectivity between amygdala and left anterior cingulate 8 weeks following treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence of alterations in anterior cingulate amygdala and caudate functional connectivity in bipolar disorder non-remitters during a first manic episode and changes in anterior cingulate functional connectivity associated with remission suggesting targets to predict treatment response. Registered at ClinicalTrials.Gov; Functional and Neurochemical Brain Changes in First-episode Bipolar Mania. NCT00609193. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00609193?term=strakowskirank=1.

5.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(5): 481-488, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132115

RESUMO

Objectives: To prospectively investigate whether baseline clinical characteristics and medication exposure predict development of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. Methods: Youth aged 9-20 years with at least one biological parent with bipolar disorder and no prior history of mood or psychotic episodes (n=93) were prospectively evaluated and treated naturalistically during the study. Participants were divided into two groups: converters, defined as those who met DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode during follow-up (n=19); or non-converters (n=74). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between baseline clinical variables and medication exposure during follow-up and risk of developing a first mood episode (conversion). Results: Multivariate regression analyses showed that baseline anxiety disorders and subsyndromal mood disorders were associated with increased risk of conversion during follow-up. Adding medication exposure to the multivariate model showed that exposure to antidepressants during follow-up was associated with increased risk of conversion. Conclusions: Caution should be used when treating bipolar offspring with anxiety and/or emerging depressive symptoms using antidepressant agents, given the increased risk of developing a major mood disorder.

6.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876131

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether poor antidepressant tolerability is associated with functional brain changes in children and adolescents of parents with bipolar I disorder (at-risk youth). METHODS: Seventy-three at-risk youth (ages 9-20 years old) who participated in a prospective study and had an available baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan were included. Research records were reviewed for the incidence of adverse reactions related to antidepressant exposure during follow-up. The sample was divided among at-risk youth without antidepressant exposure (n=21), at-risk youth with antidepressant exposure and no adverse reaction (n=12), at-risk youth with antidepressant-related adverse reaction (n=21), and healthy controls (n=20). The fMRI task was a continuous performance test with emotional distracters. Region-of-interest mean activation in brain areas of the fronto-limbic emotional circuit was compared among groups. RESULTS: Right amygdala activation in response to emotional distracters significantly differed among groups (F3,66 = 3.1, p = 0.03). At-risk youth with an antidepressant-related adverse reaction had the lowest amygdala activation, while at-risk youth without antidepressant exposure had the highest activation (p = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: Decreased right amygdala activation in response to emotional distracters is associated with experiencing an antidepressant-related adverse reaction in at-risk youth. Further studies to determine whether amygdala activation is a useful biomarker for antidepressant-related adverse events are needed.

7.
J Biopharm Stat ; : 1-15, 2020 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897808

RESUMO

A Data Monitoring Committee (DMC) evaluates patient safety in a clinical trial of an investigational intervention through periodic review of adverse events (AEs) and clinical safety assessments. Our aim was to construct DMC report displays to enhance the DMC safety review through use of graphics and clear identification and adjustment for missing data caused by early discontinuations and ongoing study participation. Suggested displays include a study snapshot graph, enhanced adverse event incidence tables including the incidence density and plotted incidence proportions, line graphs in place of by-patient listings, and trend plots in place of tables for continuous assessments.

8.
J Psychiatr Res ; 127: 62-74, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485434

RESUMO

Suicidal behaviors are strongly linked with mood disorders, but the specific neurobiological and functional gene-expression correlates for this linkage remain elusive. We performed neuroimaging-guided RNA-sequencing in two studies to test the hypothesis that imaging-localized gray matter volume (GMV) loss in mood disorders, harbors gene-expression changes associated with disease morbidity and related suicide mortality in an independent postmortem cohort. To do so, first, we conducted study 1 using an anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) MRI meta-analysis including a total of 47 voxel-based morphometry (VBM) publications (i.e. 26 control versus (vs) major depressive disorder (MDD) studies, and 21 control vs bipolar disorder (BD) studies) in 2387 (living) participants. Study 1 meta-analysis identified a selective anterior insula cortex (AIC) GMV loss in mood disorders. We then used this results to guide study 2 postmortem tissue dissection and RNA-Sequencing of 100 independent donor brain samples with a life-time history of MDD (N = 30), BD (N = 37) and control (N = 33). In study 2, exploratory factor-analysis identified a higher-order factor representing number of Axis-1 diagnoses (e.g. substance use disorders/psychosis/anxiety, etc.), referred to here as morbidity and suicide-completion referred to as mortality. Comparisons of case-vs-control, and factor-analysis defined higher-order-factor contrast variables revealed that the imaging-identified AIC GMV loss sub-region harbors differential gene-expression changes in high morbidity-&-mortality versus low morbidity-&-mortality cohorts in immune, inflammasome, and neurodevelopmental pathways. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis further identified co-activated gene modules for psychiatric morbidity and mortality outcomes. These results provide evidence that AIC anatomical signature for mood disorders are possible correlates for gene-expression abnormalities in mood morbidity and suicide mortality.

9.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 42(5): 481-488, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32401870

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To prospectively investigate whether baseline clinical characteristics and medication exposure predict development of major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder. METHODS: Youth aged 9-20 years with at least one biological parent with bipolar disorder and no prior history of mood or psychotic episodes (n=93) were prospectively evaluated and treated naturalistically during the study. Participants were divided into two groups: converters, defined as those who met DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode during follow-up (n=19); or non-converters (n=74). Logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between baseline clinical variables and medication exposure during follow-up and risk of developing a first mood episode (conversion). RESULTS: Multivariate regression analyses showed that baseline anxiety disorders and subsyndromal mood disorders were associated with increased risk of conversion during follow-up. Adding medication exposure to the multivariate model showed that exposure to antidepressants during follow-up was associated with increased risk of conversion. CONCLUSIONS: Caution should be used when treating bipolar offspring with anxiety and/or emerging depressive symptoms using antidepressant agents, given the increased risk of developing a major mood disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno Bipolar/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Humanos , Pais , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32008167

RESUMO

Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (bipolar offspring) are at increased risk for developing mood disorders, but strategies to predict mood episodes are unavailable. In this study, we used support vector machine (SVM) to characterize the potential of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in predicting the first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring. From a longitudinal neuroimaging study, 19 at-risk youth who developed their first mood episode (converters), and 19 without mood episodes during follow-up (non-converters) were selected and matched for age, sex and follow-up time. Baseline 1H-MRS data were obtained from anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC). Glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), choline (Cho), N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), and phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr + Cr) levels were calculated. SVM with a linear kernel was adopted to classify converters and non-converters based on their baseline metabolites. SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters across all regions for Cho (accuracy = 76.0%), but not for other metabolites. Considering all metabolites within each region, SVM allowed the significant classification of converters and non-converters for left VLPFC (accuracy = 76.5%), but not for right VLPFC or ACC. The combined mI, PCr + Cr, and Cho from left VLPFC achieved the highest accuracy differentiating converters from non-converters (79.0%). Our findings from this exploratory study suggested that 1H-MRS levels of mI, Cho, and PCr + Cr from left VLPFC might be useful to predict the development of first mood episode in youth bipolar offspring using machine learning. Future studies that prospectively examine and validate these metabolites as predictors of mood episodes in high-risk individuals are necessary.

11.
J Behav Health Serv Res ; 47(3): 331-345, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076949

RESUMO

Serious mental health conditions peak in prevalence and incidence during the transition to adulthood (approximately ages 16-25). Young adults are at high risk for discontinuation of care when no longer eligible for child mental health services. This study uses state administrative data to examine service continuation among those aging out of child system services in Texas (N = 3135). Most (63.5%) did not enroll in adult services following their 18th birthday. Binary logistic regression analyses found that significant predictors of child-to-adult service continuation included (1) a serious primary mental health diagnosis (i.e., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder), (2) risks to self and others, and (3) number of prior-year mental health services received. These findings suggest that historical mental health policies and practices may contribute to service disconnection at age 18 in Texas. Implications for mental health policy and system reform locally and nationally are discussed.

12.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(6): 503-513, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025452

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder is marked by progressive symptomatic changes, which have been linked with episode-related structural findings-particularly in the prefrontal cortex. However, few studies have examined neurofunctional and neurochemical effects of disease burden. In this study, we compared first- and multi-episode bipolar individuals. We hypothesized that the latter would demonstrate evidence of neurophysiological differences consistent with a model of progressive functional degradation of these networks. METHODS: First- and multi-episode manic bipolar subjects participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) including a continuous performance task with emotional distractors, and in single-voxel (1 H) magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). A priori fMRI regions-of-interest (ROI) included structures comprising prefrontal-striatal-amygdala networks; (1 H)MRS voxels were placed within bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Both ROI and voxel-based brain activation in response to emotional stimuli, and neurochemical concentrations derived from (1 H)MRS were compared across bipolar groups. RESULTS: Multi-episode bipolar subjects showed relatively lower regional activation across prefrontal-striatal-amygdala networks, including bilateral VLPFC, orbitofrontal cortex, ACC, putamen, caudate, and amygdala. Exploratory whole-brain, voxel-based analysis suggested additional areas of lower activation extending into Brodmann area 22, posterior parietal regions, and right thalamus. Glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) concentrations were also relatively lower in the ACC of multi-episode subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Disease burden, exemplified by multiple affective episodes is associated with evidence of widespread decrements in affective network activity. Lower ACC NAA concentration is similarly consistent with a model of progressive functional deficits. These findings support the functional significance of previously observed progressive structural changes throughout these regions.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Ácido Aspártico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Aspártico/metabolismo , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/fisiopatologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Tálamo/fisiopatologia
13.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 286: 53-59, 2019 04 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903953

RESUMO

We examined the effects of lisdexamfetamine (LDX) treatment on ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC) and striatal brain activation in binge eating disorder (BED). We hypothesized that participants with BED have an abnormal brain response to palatable food cues, and that VPFC and striatal regions would respond to such cues after LDX treatment. Twenty women with moderate to severe BED consented to a 12-week, open-label trial of LDX with fMRI before and after treatment. Twenty obese women without BED served as healthy controls and received one fMRI. LDX was started at 30 mg/d with a target of 70 mg/d at week 12. At baseline, women with BED showed greater activation in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), striatum, and globus pallidus to food pictures and brain activation to food pictures predicted clinical outcome at 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of LDX treatment, BED women showed significant reductions in globus pallidus activation. Reductions in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) and thalamus activation specifically correlated with binge eating and obsessive-compulsive symptom reductions, respectively. Results suggest that BED is characterized by an abnormally large VPFC-subcortical brain response to palatable foods that LDX treatment helps modify. Moreover, VPFC-subcortical activation at baseline is a potential biomarker of LDX response.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/uso terapêutico , Rede Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Corpo Estriado/diagnóstico por imagem , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/fisiologia , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Obesidade/diagnóstico por imagem , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Bipolar Disord ; 21(4): 330-341, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30864200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate neurochemical abnormalities in the left and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of youth at risk for bipolar disorder using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy before and after their first mood episode. METHODS: Children and adolescents offspring of parents with bipolar I disorder (at-risk group, n = 117) and matched healthy controls (HC group, n = 61) were recruited at the University of Cincinnati. At-risk subjects had no lifetime major mood and psychotic disorders at baseline, and were followed up every 4 months to monitor for development of a major depressive, manic, hypomanic, or mixed mood episode. Levels of N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), phosphocreatine plus creatine (PCr + Cr), choline-containing compounds, myo-inositol, and glutamate were determined using LCModel and corrected for partial volume effects. RESULTS: There were no baseline differences in metabolite levels for any of the brain regions between at-risk and HC youth. Nineteen at-risk subjects developed a first mood episode during follow-up. Survival analyses showed that baseline PCr + Cr levels in the left VLPFC significantly predicted a mood episode during follow-up in the at-risk group (HR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.27-0.82, P = 0.008). There were no longitudinal changes in metabolites levels in the VLPFC and ACC before and after a mood episode in at-risk subjects. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence for abnormal proton spectroscopy metabolite levels in the VLPFC and ACC of at-risk youth, prior and after the development of their first mood episode. Preliminary findings of association between baseline PCr + Cr levels in the left VLPFC and risk to develop a mood episode warrant further investigation.


Assuntos
Sintomas Afetivos , Transtorno Bipolar , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Creatina/análise , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Fosfocreatina/análise , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Adolescente , Adulto , Sintomas Afetivos/diagnóstico , Sintomas Afetivos/metabolismo , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Criança , Creatina/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Medição de Risco/métodos
15.
J Affect Disord ; 242: 1-4, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying correlates of capacity to provide informed consent among individuals with bipolar disorder is essential for patient protection. As part of a clinical trial involving approved, standard treatments, we investigated relationships between clinical characteristics and capacity to provide informed consent in adults with bipolar disorder using the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR). After administering the MacCAT-CR, continuing participants in the trial were capable of and provided informed consent. METHODS: Trained, board-certified psychiatrists administered the MacCAT-CR to potential study participants (N = 50) after they provided informed consent, but prior to initiation of study procedures. RESULTS: Higher Schedule for Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) scores were significantly correlated with worse MacCAT-CR Understanding and Appreciation (p < 0.04) subscale scores; lower Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores and higher Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scores were significantly correlated with worse Reasoning and Understanding subscale scores (p < 0.03); and patients with comorbid substance use disorders (SUD) had better Appreciation and Reasoning subscale scores (p < 0.05). LIMITATIONS: The MacCAT-CR identifies areas where participants need explanation. However, there is not a predetermined score to indicate understanding of study procedures and therefore input from a trained clinician is needed to determine capacity to provide informed consent. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that certain measures of illness severity are associated with lower levels of capacity to provide informed consent among adults with bipolar disorder. This study provides important information for clinicians and researchers to consider when obtaining informed consent in this population.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Consentimento Livre e Esclarecido/psicologia , Competência Mental/psicologia , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resolução de Problemas
16.
Psychiatr Serv ; 70(2): 130-134, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30526340

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The authors examined electronic medical record (EMR) outpatient data to determine whether African Americans with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were more likely than non-Latino whites to screen positive for major depression. METHODS: EMR data for 1,657 patients at Rutgers University Behavioral Health Care certified community outpatient clinics were deidentified and accrued for 9 months starting July 1, 2017. A Fisher's exact test was used to compare differences in the proportion of patients with positive screens for major depression (cutoff score of ≥15 on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire) among African-American and non-Latino white patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. RESULTS: Among patients diagnosed as having schizophrenia, African Americans were more likely than non-Latino whites (p<.003) to screen positive for major depression. The between-group difference in positive screens was not significant among patients diagnosed as having schizoaffective disorder. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with findings from a large body of literature suggesting that racial differences in the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the United States result in part from clinicians underemphasizing the relevance of mood symptoms among African Americans compared with other racial-ethnic groups. If the results are replicated, a case could be made that routine screening for major depression in community mental health settings could reduce racial disparities in schizophrenia diagnoses.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Psicóticos/diagnóstico , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
17.
J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol ; 28(6): 379-386, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Prior studies have shown that youth with bipolar disorder demonstrate neurofunctional changes in key prefrontal and subcortical brain regions implicated in emotional regulation following treatment with pharmacological agents. We recently reported a large response rate (>60%) to quetiapine (QUET) for treating depressive symptoms in adolescents with bipolar depression. This study investigates the neurofunctional effects of QUET using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: Thirty-three unmedicated subjects, 10-17 years of age, with a current depressive episode (Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised [CDRS-R] > 40) associated with bipolar I or II disorder were recruited in a two-site randomized, placebo (PBO)-controlled trial of QUET monotherapy for treatment of bipolar depression in adolescents. Twenty-three of these participants (nine male) underwent an MRI scan at baseline, then were randomized to QUET or PBO, followed for 8 weeks, and at the end of their study participation underwent another MRI scan. During the fMRI scan, subjects viewed negative and neutral pictures and rated the valence of each picture. RESULTS: Sixteen subjects had usable data at both time points: 10 subjects randomized to QUET, and 6 randomized to PBO. For QUET subjects, lower baseline activation in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (p < 0.005) and higher baseline activation in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (p = 0.0024) predicted greater improvement in CDRS-R scores from baseline to follow-up. When QUET and PBO groups were combined (n = 16), region-of-interest activation did not significantly predict change in CDRS-R. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline activation patterns in dorsal and ventral portions of the prefrontal cortex that are critical for the regulation of emotion-predicted response, but only within the QUET group. Thus, specific medications may be more effective in the context of specific prefrontal activation patterns in youth with bipolar depression. Larger studies of these youth would help to clarify the effects of QUET on brain activation.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
J Affect Disord ; 234: 14-19, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29522938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The neurophysiological substrates of cognition and emotion, as seen with fMRI, are generally explained using modular structures. The present study was designed to probe the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing in bipolar and healthy individuals using factor analysis and compare the results with current conceptions of the neurophysiology of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess patterns of covariation among brain regions-of-interest activated during the Continuous Performance Task with Emotional and Neutral Distractors in healthy and bipolar individuals without a priori constraints on the number or composition of latent factors. RESULTS: Results indicated a common cognitive-emotional network consisting of prefrontal, medial temporal, limbic, parietal, anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate modules. However, reduced brain activation to emotional stimuli in the frontal, medial temporal and limbic modules was apparent in the bipolar relative to the healthy group, potentially accounting for emotional dysregulation in bipolar disorder. LIMITATIONS: This study is limited by a relatively small sample size recruited at a single site. The results have yet to be validated on a larger independent sample. CONCLUSIONS: Although the modular structure of cognitive-emotional processing is similar in bipolar and healthy individuals, activation in response to emotional/neutral cues varies. These findings are not only consistent with recent conceptions of mood regulation in bipolar disorder, but also suggest that regional activation can be considered within tighter modular structures without compromising data interpretation. This demonstration may serve as a template for data reduction in future region-of-interest analyses to increase statistical power.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adulto , Afeto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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