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1.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S22-S31, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269432

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Civilian and military guidelines recommend early balanced transfusion to patients with life-threatening bleeding. Low titer group O whole blood was introduced as the primary blood product for resuscitation of massive hemorrhage at Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen, Norway, in December 2017. In this report, we describe the whole blood program and present results from the first years of routine use. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Patients who received whole blood from December 2017 to April 2020 were included in our quality registry for massive transfusions. Post-transfusion blood samples were collected to analyze isohemagglutinin (anti-A/-B) and hemolysis markers. Administration of other blood products, transfusion reactions, and patient survival (days 1 and 30) were recorded. User experiences were surveyed for both clinical and laboratory staff. RESULTS: Two hundred and five patients (64% male and 36% female) received 836 units in 226 transfusion episodes. Patients received a mean of 3.7 units (range 1-35) in each transfusion episode. The main indications for transfusion were trauma (26%), gastrointestinal (22%), cardiothoracic/vascular (18%), surgical (18%), obstetric (11%), and medical (5%) bleeding. There was no difference in survival between patients with blood type O when compared with non-group O. Haptoglobin level was lower in the transfusion episodes for non-O group patients, however no clinical hemolysis was reported. No patients had conclusive transfusion-associated adverse events. Both clinical and laboratory staff preferred whole blood to component therapy for massive transfusion. DISCUSSION: The experience from Haukeland University Hospital indicates that whole blood is feasible, safe, and effective for in-hospital treatment of bleeding.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue , Ressuscitação , Reação Transfusional/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Hemólise , Hospitais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Ressuscitação/métodos , Reação Transfusional/sangue , Reação Transfusional/patologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S80-S89, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Collection of non-leukoreduced citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) whole blood is performed in walking blood banks. Blood collected under field conditions may have increased risk of bacterial contamination. This study was conducted to examine the effects of WBC reduction and storage temperature on growth of Escherichia coli (ATCC® 25922™) in CPDA-1 whole blood. METHODS: CPDA-1 whole blood of 450 ml from 10 group O donors was inoculated with E. coli. Two hours after inoculation, the test bags were leukoreduced with a platelet-sparing filter. The control bags remained unfiltered. Each whole blood bag was then split into three smaller bags for further storage at 2-6°C, 20-24°C, or 33-37°C. Bacterial growth was quantified immediately, 2 and 3 h after inoculation, on days 1, 3, 7, and 14 for all storage temperatures, and on days 21 and 35 for storage at 2-6°C. RESULTS: Whole blood was inoculated with a median of 19.5 (range 12.0-32.0) colony-forming units per ml (CFU/ml) E. coli. After leukoreduction, a median of 3.3 CFU/ml (range 0.0-33.3) E. coli remained. In the control arm, the WBCs phagocytized E. coli within 24 h at 20-24°C and 33-37°C in 9 of 10 bags. During storage at 2-6°C, a slow self-sterilization occurred over time with and without leukoreduction. CONCLUSIONS: Storage at 20-24°C and 33-37°C for up to 24 h before leukoreduction reduces the risk of E. coli-contamination in CPDA-1 whole blood. Subsequent storage at 2-6°C will further reduce the growth of E. coli.


Assuntos
Preservação de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos , Adenina/química , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Citratos/química , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Glucose/química , Humanos , Temperatura
3.
Transfusion ; 61 Suppl 1: S313-S325, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current global pandemic has created unprecedented challenges in the blood supply network. Given the recent shortages, there must be a civilian plan for massively bleeding patients when there are no blood products on the shelf. Recognizing that the time to death in bleeding patients is less than 2 h, timely resupply from unaffected locations is not possible. One solution is to transfuse emergency untested whole blood (EUWB), similar to the extensive military experience fine-tuned over the last 19 years. While this concept is anathema in current civilian transfusion practice, it seems prudent to have a vetted plan in place. METHODS AND MATERIALS: During the early stages of the 2020 global pandemic, a multidisciplinary and international group of clinicians with broad experience in transfusion medicine communicated routinely. The result is a planning document that provides both background information and a high-level guide on how to emergently deliver EUWB for patients who would otherwise die of hemorrhage. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Similar plans have been utilized in remote locations, both on the battlefield and in civilian practice. The proposed recommendations are designed to provide high-level guidance for experienced blood bankers, transfusion experts, clinicians, and health authorities. Like with all emergency preparedness, it is always better to have a well-thought-out and trained plan in place, rather than trying to develop a hasty plan in the midst of a disaster. We need to prevent the potential for empty shelves and bleeding patients dying for lack of blood.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Bancos de Sangue/métodos , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Defesa Civil , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Pandemias
6.
J Spec Oper Med ; 20(3): 97-102, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969011

RESUMO

Based on limited published evidence, physiological principles, clinical experience, and expertise, the author group has developed a consensus statement on the potential for iatrogenic harm with rapid sequence induction (RSI) intubation and positive-pressure ventilation (PPV) on patients in hemorrhagic shock. "In hemorrhagic shock, or any low flow (central hypovolemic) state, it should be noted that RSI and PPV are likely to cause iatrogenic harm by decreasing cardiac output." The use of RSI and PPV leads to an increased burden of shock due to a decreased cardiac output (CO)2 which is one of the primary determinants of oxygen delivery (DO2). The diminishing DO2 creates a state of systemic hypoxia, the severity of which will determine the magnitude of the shock (shock dose) and a growing deficit of oxygen, referred to as oxygen debt. Rapid accumulation of critical levels of oxygen debt results in coagulopathy and organ dysfunction and failure. Spontaneous respiration induced negative intrathoracic pressure (ITP) provides the pressure differential driving venous return. PPV subsequently increases ITP and thus right atrial pressure. The loss in pressure differential directly decreases CO and DO2 with a resultant increase in systemic hypoxia. If RSI and PPV are deemed necessary, prior or parallel resuscitation with blood products is required to mitigate post intervention reduction of DO2 and the potential for inducing cardiac arrest in the critically shocked patient.


Assuntos
Choque Hemorrágico , Humanos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Indução e Intubação de Sequência Rápida , Ressuscitação , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
7.
Transfusion ; 60(12): 2793-2800, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918285

RESUMO

Civilian and military guidelines recommend balanced transfusion to patients with life-threatening bleeding. Early start of transfusion has shown improved survival. Thus, a balanced blood inventory must be available in all levels of health care to ensure early stabilization and damage control resuscitation of patients with bleeding. Whole blood has been reintroduced as a blood product for massive bleeding situations because it affords plasma, red blood cells, and platelets in a balanced ratio in a logistically advantageous way. In this article, we describe how to establish a whole blood-based blood preparedness program in a small rural hospital with limited resources. We present an implementation tool kit, which includes discussions on whole blood program strategies and the process of developing detailed procedures on donor selection, collection, storage, and transfusion management of whole blood. The importance of training and audit of the routines is highlighted, and establishment of an emergency walking blood bank is discussed. We conclude that implementation of a whole blood program is achievable in small rural hospitals and recommend that rural health care facilities at all treatment levels enable early balanced transfusion for patients with life-threatening bleeding by establishing protocols for whole blood-based preparedness.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Seleção do Doador , Hemorragia/terapia , Hospitais Rurais , Ressuscitação , Hemorragia/sangue , Humanos
8.
Anesthesiology ; 133(6): 1173-1183, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This pilot trial focused on feasibility and safety to provide preliminary data to evaluate the hemostatic potential of cold-stored platelets (2° to 6°C) compared with standard room temperature-stored platelets (20° to 24°C) in adult patients undergoing complex cardiothoracic surgery. This study aimed to assess feasibility and to provide information for future pivotal trials. METHODS: A single center two-stage exploratory pilot study was performed on adult patients undergoing elective or semiurgent complex cardiothoracic surgery. In stage I, a two-armed randomized trial, platelets stored up to 7 days in the cold were compared with those stored at room temperature. In the subsequent single-arm stage II, cold storage time was extended to 8 to 14 days. The primary outcome was clinical effect measured by chest drain output. Secondary outcomes were platelet function measured by multiple electrode impedance aggregometry, total blood usage, immediate and long-term (28 days) adverse events, length of stay in intensive care, and mortality. RESULTS: In stage I, the median chest drain output was 720 ml (quartiles 485 to 1,170, n = 25) in patients transfused with room temperature-stored platelets and 645 ml (quartiles 460 to 800, n = 25) in patients transfused with cold-stored platelets. No significant difference was observed. The difference in medians between the room temperature- and cold-stored up to 7 days arm was 75 ml (95% CI, -220, 425). In stage II, the median chest drain output was 690 ml (500 to 1,880, n = 15). The difference in medians between the room temperature arm and the nonconcurrent cold-stored 8 to 14 days arm was 30 ml (95% CI, -1,040, 355). Platelet aggregation in vitro increased after transfusion in both the room temperature- and cold-stored platelet study arms. Total blood usage, number of adverse events, length of stay in intensive care, and mortality were comparable among patients receiving cold-stored and room temperature-stored platelets. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot trial supports the feasibility of platelets stored cold for up to 14 days and provides critical guidance for future pivotal trials in high-risk cardiothoracic bleeding patients.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/fisiologia , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Criopreservação/métodos , Transfusão de Plaquetas , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Agregação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Transfusion ; 60(7): 1544-1551, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32319702

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing numbers of emergency medical service agencies and hospitals are developing the capability to administer blood products to patients with hemorrhagic shock. Cold-stored whole blood (WB) is the only single product available to prehospital providers who aim to deliver a balanced resuscitation strategy. However, there are no data on the safety and in vitro characteristics of prehospital stored WB. This study aimed to describe the effects on in vitro quality of storing WB at remote helicopter bases in thermal insulating containers. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a two-armed single-center study. Twenty units (test) were stored in airtight thermal insulating containers, and 20 units (controls) were stored according to routine procedures in the Haukeland University Hospital Blood Bank. Storage conditions were continuously monitored during emergency medical services missions and throughout remote and blood bank storage. Hematologic and metabolic variables, viscoelastic properties, and platelet (PLT) aggregation were measured on Days 1, 8, 14, and 21. RESULTS: Storage conditions complied with the EU guidelines throughout remote and in-hospital storage for 21 days. There were no significant differences in PLT aggregation, viscoelastic properties, and hematology variables between the two groups. Minor significantly lower pH, glucose, and base excess and higher lactate were observed after storage in airtight containers. CONCLUSION: Forward cold storage of WB is safe and complies with EU standards. No difference is observed in hemostatic properties. Minor differences in metabolic variables may be related to the anaerobic conditions within the thermal box.


Assuntos
Resgate Aéreo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Preservação de Sangue , Agregação Plaquetária , Plaquetas/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
10.
Transfusion ; 60(5): 1042-1049, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some jurisdictions require leukoreduction of cellular blood components. The only whole blood collection set with a platelet-saving filter uses citrate-phosphate-dextrose (CPD) as storage solution. Substituting CPD with citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA-1) increases shelf life from 21 to 35 days. This would simplify prehospital and rural resupply and reduce wastage. We investigated in vitro quality and hemostatic properties of CPDA-1 whole blood leukoreduced with a platelet-saving filter. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: CPDA-1 whole blood was leukoreduced using a platelet-saving filter and stored 35 days. EDQM requirements, hematology, metabolic parameters, thromboelastography, light transmission aggregometry, fibrinogen, factor VIII, and interleukin-6 were measured on Days 0, 1, 14, 21, and 35 and compared to non-leukoreduced blood. RESULTS: All units met EDQM requirements. Leukoreduction yielded residual white blood cell count <1 × 106 and 87% platelet recovery on Day 1. It caused reduction in thromboelastography parameters, but not aggregometry response. No hemolysis >0.8% was observed. Factor VIII was higher on Day 35 in the leukoreduced group, 37.9 (95% CI: 26.0, 49.8) versus 13.8 (9.4, 18.2) IU/dL. In both groups, aggregation was significantly reduced by Day 14. Thromboelastography showed remaining platelet activity on Day 35, MA 46.9 (42.1, 51.7) in the leukoreduced and 44.3 (39.6, 49.0) mm in the non-leukoreduced group. Fibrinogen was within reference ranges at Day 35 (>2 g/dL). Interleukin-6 was not detectable. CONCLUSION: Leukoreducing CPDA-1 whole blood with a platelet-saving filter did not compromise hemostatic properties. We encourage development of a single bag CPDA-1 whole blood collection set with in-line platelet-saving filter.


Assuntos
Adenina/química , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/métodos , Citratos/química , Temperatura Baixa , Glucose/química , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos/métodos , Fosfatos/química , Adenina/farmacologia , Sangue/efeitos dos fármacos , Plaquetas/citologia , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Preservação de Sangue/normas , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/normas , Citratos/farmacologia , Filtração/métodos , Glucose/farmacologia , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemostasia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos/normas , Fosfatos/farmacologia , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Controle de Qualidade , Refrigeração/métodos
11.
Transfusion ; 59(8): 2652-2661, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cold storage of platelets may extend shelf life compared to room temperature storage. This study aimed to investigate in vitro platelet quality and function in cold-stored and delayed-cold-stored nonagitated apheresis platelets in platelet additive solution during storage for 21 days. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Ten double apheresis platelet concentrates in 37% plasma/63% PAS-IIIM were split into two groups; nonagitated 2 to 6°C storage (CSPs) and delayed cold storage (DCSPs) with 7 days agitated storage at 20-24°C followed by nonagitated cold storage for 14 additional days. Platelet count, metabolism, viscoelastic properties, and aggregation ability were measured on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21. RESULTS: All platelet units, both CSPs and DCSPs, complied with the EU guidelines throughout storage for 21 days. Swirling was not detectable after cold storage. Cold storage improved platelet function; however, DCSP on Day 7 showed poorer results compared to CSP. Cold storage slowed down metabolism, with lower lactate and higher glucose concentrations in the CSP compared to the DCSP throughout storage for 21 days. CONCLUSION: Cold storage of platelets improved platelet function in in vitro assays, even though delayed cold storage on Day 7 showed poorer results compared to continuous cold storage. This difference could be explained by accelerated metabolism and higher glucose consumption during the period of room temperature storage. Cold storage and delayed cold storage could ease inventory management. Further studies investigating the in vitro and clinical effects of cold-stored and delayed-cold-stored platelets are encouraged.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Preservação de Sangue , Temperatura Baixa , Plaquetoferese , Plaquetas/citologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Função Plaquetária , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Transfusion ; 59(S2): 1446-1452, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980744

RESUMO

The shift toward using a transfusion strategy in a ratio to mimic whole blood (WB) functionality has revitalized WB as a viable option to replace severe blood loss in civilian health care. A military-civilian collaboration has contributed to the reintroduction of WB at Haukeland University Hospital in Bergen, Norway. WB has logistical and hemostatic advantages in both the pre- and in-hospital settings where the goal is a perfectly timed balanced transfusion strategy. In this paper, we describe an event leading to activation of our emergency WB collection strategy for the first time. We evaluate the feasibility of our civilian walking blood bank (WBB) to cover the need of a massive amount of blood in an emergency situation. The challenges are discussed in relation to the different stages of the event with the recommendations for improvement in practice. We conclude that the use of pre-screened donors as a WBB in a civilian setting is feasible. The WBB can provide platelet containing blood components for balanced blood resuscitation in a clinically relevant time frame.


Assuntos
Bancos de Sangue , Doadores de Sangue , Segurança do Sangue , Seleção do Doador , Hospitais Militares , Medicina Militar , Bancos de Sangue/organização & administração , Bancos de Sangue/normas , Segurança do Sangue/métodos , Segurança do Sangue/normas , Seleção do Doador/organização & administração , Seleção do Doador/normas , Feminino , Hospitais Militares/organização & administração , Hospitais Militares/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/organização & administração , Medicina Militar/normas , Noruega
13.
J Spec Oper Med ; 18(4): 37-55, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30566723

RESUMO

TCCC has previously recommended interventions that can effectively prevent 4 of the top 5 causes of prehospital preventable death in combat casualties-extremity hemorrhage, junctional hemorrhage, airway obstruction, and tension pneumothorax- and deaths from these causes have been markedly reduced in US combat casualties. Noncompressible torso hemorrhage (NCTH) is the last remaining major cause of preventable death on the battlefield and often causes death within 30 minutes of wounding. Increased use of whole blood, including the capability for massive transfusion, if indicated, has the potential to increase survival in casualties with either thoracic and/or abdominopelvic hemorrhage. Additionally, Zone 1 Resuscitative Endovascular Balloon Occlusion of the Aorta (REBOA) can provide temporary control of bleeding in the abdomen and pelvis and improve hemodynamics in casualties who may be approaching traumatic cardiac arrest as a result of hemorrhagic shock. Together, these two interventions are designated Advanced Resuscitative Care (ARC) and may enable casualties with severe NCTH to survive long enough to reach the care of a surgeon. Although Special Operations units are now using whole blood far-forward, this capability is not routinely present in other US combat units at this point in time. REBOA is not envisioned as care that could be accomplished by a unit medic working out of his or her aid bag. This intervention should be undertaken only by designated teams of advanced combat medical personnel with special training and equipment.


Assuntos
Medicina Militar , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ressuscitação , Humanos
14.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_2): 44-51, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189061

RESUMO

Whole blood is the preferred product for resuscitation of severe traumatic hemorrhage. It contains all the elements of blood that are necessary for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, in nearly physiologic ratios and concentrations. Group O whole blood that contains low titers of anti-A and anti-B antibodies (low titer group O whole blood) can be safely transfused as a universal blood product to patients of unknown blood group, facilitating rapid treatment of exsanguinating patients. Whole blood can be stored under refrigeration for up to 35 days, during which it retains acceptable hemostatic function, though supplementation with specific blood components, coagulation factors or other adjuncts may be necessary in some patients. Fresh whole blood can be collected from pre-screened donors in a walking blood bank to provide effective resuscitation when fully tested stored whole blood or blood components are unavailable and the need for transfusion is urgent. Available clinical data suggest that whole blood is at least equivalent if not superior to component therapy in the resuscitation of life-threatening hemorrhage. Low titer group O whole blood can be considered the standard of care in resuscitation of major hemorrhage.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/normas , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Bancos de Sangue/métodos , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/métodos , Transfusão de Sangue/tendências , Hemorragia/terapia , Humanos , Militares , Ressuscitação/métodos
15.
Mil Med ; 183(suppl_2): 36-43, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30189070

RESUMO

Damage control resuscitation (DCR) is a strategy for resuscitating patients from hemorrhagic shock to rapidly restore homeostasis. Efforts are focused on blood product transfusion with whole blood or component therapy closely approximating whole blood, limited use of crystalloid to avoid dilutional coagulopathy, hypotensive resuscitation until bleeding control is achieved, empiric use of tranexamic acid, prevention of acidosis and hypothermia, and rapid definitive surgical control of bleeding. Patients receiving uncrossmatched Type O blood in the emergency department and later receiving cumulative transfusions of 10 or more red blood cell units in the initial 24-hour post-injury (massive transfusion) are widely recognized as being at increased risk of morbidity and mortality due to exsanguination. Ideally, these patients should be rapidly identified, however anticipating transfusion needs is challenging. Useful indicators of massive transfusion reviewed in this guideline include: systolic blood pressure <110 mmHg, heart rate > 105 bpm, hematocrit <32%, pH < 7.25, injury pattern (above-the-knee traumatic amputation especially if pelvic injury is present, multi-amputation, clinically obvious penetrating injury to chest or abdomen), >2 regions positive on Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan, lactate concentration on admission >2.5, admission international normalized ratio ≥1.2-1.4, near infrared spectroscopy-derived StO2 < 75% (in practice, rarely available), BD > 6 meq/L. Unique aspects of out-of-hospital DCR (point of injury, en-route, and remote DCR) and in-hospital (Medical Treatment Facilities: Role 2b/Forward surgical teams - role 3/ combat support hospitals) are reviewed in this guideline, along with pediatric considerations.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue/normas , Ressuscitação/métodos , Procedimentos Médicos e Cirúrgicos sem Sangue/métodos , Homeostase/fisiologia , Humanos , Medicina Militar/métodos , Medicina Militar/normas , Choque Hemorrágico/tratamento farmacológico , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(6S Suppl 1): S3-S13, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799823

RESUMO

The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research (THOR) Network has developed a consensus statement on the role of permissive hypotension in remote damage control resuscitation (RDCR). A summary of the evidence on permissive hypotension follows the THOR Network position on the topic. In RDCR, the burden of time in the care of the patients suffering from noncompressible hemorrhage affects outcomes. Despite the lack of published evidence, and based on clinical experience and expertise, it is the THOR Network's opinion that the increase in prehospital time leads to an increased burden of shock, which poses a greater risk to the patient than the risk of rebleeding due to slightly increased blood pressure, especially when blood products are available as part of prehospital resuscitation.The THOR Network's consensus statement is, "In a casualty with life-threatening hemorrhage, shock should be reversed as soon as possible using a blood-based HR fluid. Whole blood is preferred to blood components. As a part of this HR, the initial systolic blood pressure target should be 100 mm Hg. In RDCR, it is vital for higher echelon care providers to receive a casualty with sufficient physiologic reserve to survive definitive surgical hemostasis and aggressive resuscitation. The combined use of blood-based resuscitation and limiting systolic blood pressure is believed to be effective in promoting hemostasis and reversing shock".


Assuntos
Hidratação/métodos , Ressuscitação/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Pressão Sanguínea , Hidratação/normas , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Ressuscitação/normas , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia
18.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(6S Suppl 1): S125-S131, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29613950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of implementing damage control resuscitation principles pre-hospital has been at the expense of several logistic burdens including the requirements for resupply, and the question of donor safety during the development of whole blood programs. Previous studies have reported effects on physical performance after blood donation; however, none have investigated the effects of blood donation on cognitive performance. METHOD: We describe a prospective double-blinded, randomized, controlled study comprised of a battery of tests: three cognitive tests, and VO2max testing on a cycle ergometer. Testing was performed 7 days before blinded donation (baseline day), immediately after donation (Day 0), and 7 days (Day 7) after donation. The inclusion criteria included being active blood donors at the Haukeland University Hospital blood bank, where eligibility requirements were met on the testing days, and providing informed consent. Participants were randomized to either the experimental (n = 26) or control group (n = 31). Control group participants underwent a 'mock donation" in which a phlebotomy needle was placed but blood was not withdrawn. RESULTS: In the experimental group, mean ± SEM VO2max declined 6% from 41.35 ± 1.7 mLO2/(min·kg) at baseline to 39.0 ± 1.6 mLO2/(min·kg) on Day 0 and increased to 40.51 ± 1.5 mLO2/(min·kg) on Day 7. Comparable values in the control group were 42.1 ± 1.8 mLO2/(min·kg) at baseline, 41.6 ± 1.8 mLO2/(min·kg)) on Day 1 (1% decline from baseline), and 41.8 ± 1.8 mLO2/(min·kg) on Day 7.Comparing scores of all three cognitive tests on Day 0 and Day 7 showed no significant differences (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our main findings are that executive cognitive and physical performances were well maintained after whole blood donation in healthy blood donors. The findings inform postdonation guidance on when donors may be required to return to duty. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Randomized, controlled, double-blinded prospective trial study, level 1.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue , Cognição , Aptidão Física , Adulto , Doadores de Sangue/psicologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Função Executiva , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Consumo de Oxigênio , Estudos Prospectivos , Teste de Stroop , Fatores de Tempo
19.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(6S Suppl 1): S93-S103, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29538232

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Damage control resuscitation principles advocate the use of blood to treat traumatic hemorrhage. Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, but making blood components available far forward presents logistical challenges due to shelf life and storage requirements. Whole blood simplifies logistics and enables collection in the field but can cause leukocyte-related transfusion reactions. A field-adapted leukoreduction system must be fast and safe, and storage of whole blood should preserve hemostatic function. METHODS: Blood was collected using Imuflex WB-SP and leukoreduced at 0, 150, or 300 mm Hg. Additional bags were stored at 4°C for 21 days unagitated, mixed daily, agitated or head-over-heel rotated, at 22°C for 3 days, or 32°C for 2 hours. Hematology, coagulation, CD62P/CD42b, thromboelastography (TEG)/thromboelastometry (ROTEM), and Multiplate was performed. RESULTS: Filtration time was 35 ± 1, 14 ± 0, and 9 ± 0 minutes at 0, 150, and 300 mm Hg, respectively. One of 10 units at 150 mm Hg and 4 of 11 at 300 mm Hg had residual whole blood cells greater than 5.0 × 10 per unit. One of 11 at 300 mm Hg had platelet recovery of less than 80%. Hemolysis was less than 0.2%. Filtration decreased thromboelastography/thromboelastometry and Multiplate aggregation response. Stored at 4°C, α and MA/MCF moderately decreased regardless of mixing. Significant loss of aggregation response and increased CD62P expression was seen by Day 10. By Day 3, storage at 22°C caused loss of most aggregation. Two-hour storage at 32°C did not significantly affect hemostatic capacity. CONCLUSION: Forced filtration reduced leukoreduction time, but increased residual whole blood cells reduced hemostatic function. Aggregation response deteriorated early in storage, while viscoelastic assays decreased more gradually. Mixing showed no benefits. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic study, level IV.


Assuntos
Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas , Transfusão de Sangue/métodos , Hemostasia , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Preservação de Sangue/efeitos adversos , Preservação de Sangue/métodos , Coleta de Amostras Sanguíneas/efeitos adversos , Exsanguinação/terapia , Feminino , Flores , Hematócrito , Hemofiltração/métodos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Procedimentos de Redução de Leucócitos/métodos , Masculino , Medicina Militar/métodos , Agregação Plaquetária , Tromboelastografia
20.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 84(6S Suppl 1): S77-S82, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389837

RESUMO

Many standard trauma management guidelines advocate the early use of endotracheal intubation (ETI) and positive pressure ventilation as key treatment interventions in hemorrhagic shock. The evidence for using these airway and ventilation strategies to manage a circulation problem is unclear. The potentially harmful effects of drug-assisted intubation and positive pressure ventilation include reduced cardiac output, apnea, hypoxia, hypocapnea (due to inadvertent hyperventilation), and unnecessarily prolonged on-scene times. Conversely, the beneficial effects of spontaneous negative pressure ventilation on cardiac output are well described. Few studies, however, have attempted to explore the potential advantages of a strategy of delayed intubation and ventilation (together with a policy of aggressive volume replacement) in shocked trauma patients. Given the lack of evidence, the decision making around how, when, and where to subject shocked trauma patients to intubation and positive pressure ventilation remains complex. If providers choose to delay intubation, they must have the appropriate skills to safely manage the airway and recognize the need for subsequent intervention. If they decide to perform intubation and positive pressure ventilation, they must understand the potential risks and how best to minimize them. We suggest that for patients with hemorrhagic shock who do not have a compromised airway and who are able to maintain adequate oxygen saturation (or mentation if monitoring is unreliable), a strategy of delayed intubation should be strongly encouraged. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Review article, level IV.


Assuntos
Intubação Intratraqueal , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/complicações , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/terapia , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Intubação Intratraqueal/métodos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/efeitos adversos , Respiração com Pressão Positiva/métodos
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