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1.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 425, 2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34772366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) with pancreatogastrostomy is a standard surgical procedure for pancreatic head tumors, duodenal tumors and distal cholangiocarcinomas. Post-operative pancreatic fistulas (POPF) are a major complication causing relevant morbidity and mortality. Endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) has become a widely used method for the treatment of intestinal perforations and leakages. Here we report on a pilot single center series of 8 POPF cases specifically caused by dehiscences of the pancreatogastric anastomosis (PGD), successfully managed by EVT. METHODS: We included all patients with PGD after PPPD, who were treated with EVT between 07/2017 and 08/2020. For EVT a vacuum drainage film (EVT film) or open-pore polyurethane foam sponge (EVT sponge) was fixed to a 14Fr or 16Fr suction catheter and placed endoscopically within the PGD for intracavitary EVT with continuous suction between - 100 and - 150 mmHg. The EVT film/sponge was exchanged twice per week. EVT was discontinued when the PGD was sufficiently healed. RESULTS: PGD closure was achieved in 7 of 8 patients after a mean EVT time of 16 days (range 8-38) and 3 EVT film/sponge exchanges (range 1-9). One patient died on day 18 after PPPD from acute hemorrhagic shock, unlikely related to EVT, before effectiveness of EVT could be fully achieved. There were no adverse events directly attributable to EVT. CONCLUSIONS: EVT could be an effective and safe addition to our therapeutic armamentarium in the management of POPF with PGD. Unless prospective comparative studies are available, EVT as minimally invasive therapeutic alternative should be considered individually by an interdisciplinary team involving endoscopists, surgeons and radiologists.


Assuntos
Tratamento de Ferimentos com Pressão Negativa , Fístula Anastomótica/etiologia , Fístula Anastomótica/cirurgia , Humanos , Fístula Pancreática/etiologia , Fístula Pancreática/cirurgia , Pancreaticoduodenectomia/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Piloro/cirurgia
2.
Z Gastroenterol ; 2021 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34741298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portal hypertension (PH) is associated with the development of esophageal or gastric varices, which can cause bleedings with high mortality. Varices can also manifest at sites of stomata. These parastomal varices can cause recurrent variceal bleedings (VB) despite local therapies. We present a case series of parastomal VB due to PH that were managed with implantation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). METHODS: We retrospectively included all patients (pt) from 2 tertiary medical centers with parastomal VB between January 2014 and February 2020 who underwent the TIPS procedure. RESULTS: Nine pt were included. Seven pt had liver cirrhosis, mostly alcohol-related. Two pt had non-cirrhotic PH due to porto-sinusoidal vascular disease (PSD). Four pt had a colostomy, 1 an ileostomy, and 4 an ileal conduit. Malignancy was the leading cause of stoma surgery. All 9 pt suffered from recurrent parastomal VB despite non-selective beta-blocker and/or local therapy (e.g., compression, coagulation, suture ligation, or surgical stoma revision). All pt received TIPS implantation. In 7 pt, TIPS implantation led to sustainable hemostasis. Two pt suffered a bleeding relapse that was attributable to TIPS dysfunction. TIPS revision with coil embolization of the varices terminated the VB sustainably in both pt. CONCLUSIONS: In pt presenting with recurrent stomal bleedings, parastomal varices as a rare complication of PH must be taken into consideration as an underlying cause. In our case series, we managed to sustainably cease parastomal VB by TIPS implantation with or without coil embolization of the ectopic varices.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34573939

RESUMO

Biliary tract cancer (BTC) refers to a heterogenous group of epithelial malignancies arising along the biliary tree. The highly aggressive nature combined with its silent presentation contribute to the dismal prognosis of this tumor. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) are frequently present in BTC and there is growing evidence regarding their role as therapeutic targets. In this study, we analyzed the immune cell infiltration in BTC and developed a promising immune signature score to predict prognosis in BTC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was carried out on tissue microarray sections from 45 patients with resectable cholangiocarcinoma for the detection of 6-sulfoLacNAc+ monocytes (slanMo), BDCA-2+ plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), CD8+ or CD4+T-lymphocytes, CD103+ cells, GATA3+ cells, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, 7 and 9-expressing cells as well as programmed cell death protein 1 and programmed cell death ligand 1 positive cells. Data from the IHC staining were analyzed and correlated with clinicopathological and survival data. High expression of TLR7, TLR9, and GATA3 was associated with improved overall survival (OS, Log-rank p < 0.05). In addition, TLR9 was associated with better disease-free survival (Log-rank p < 0.05). In the multivariate Cox proportional-hazards model for OS, the TLR/TLR9/GATA3 score was found to be an independent prognostic factor for OS ("Score 2" vs. "Score 0": HR 11.17 95% CI 2.27-54.95, p < 0.01).

4.
Front Physiol ; 12: 720898, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489738

RESUMO

Background: Liver cirrhosis is a relevant comorbidity with increasing prevalence. Postoperative decompensation and development of complications in patients with cirrhosis remains a frequent clinical problem. Surgery has been discussed as a precipitating event for decompensation and complications of cirrhosis, but the underlying pathomechanisms are still obscure. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of abdominal extrahepatic surgery in cirrhosis on portal pressure and fibrosis in a preclinical model. Methods: Compensated liver cirrhosis was induced using tetrachlormethane (CCL4) inhalation and bile duct ligation (BDL) models in rats, non-cirrhotic portal hypertension by partial portal vein ligation (PPVL). Intestinal manipulation (IM) as a model of extrahepatic abdominal surgery was performed. 2 and 7 days after IM, portal pressure was measured in-vivo. Hydroxyproline measurements, Sirius Red staining and qPCR measurements of the liver were performed for evaluation of fibrosis development and hepatic inflammation. Laboratory parameters of liver function in serum were analyzed. Results: Portal pressure was significantly elevated 2 and 7 days after IM in both models of cirrhosis. In the non-cirrhotic model the trend was the same, while not statistically significant. In both cirrhotic models, IM shows strong effects of decompensation, with significant weight loss, elevation of liver enzymes and hypoalbuminemia. 7 days after IM in the BDL group, Sirius red staining and hydroxyproline levels showed significant progression of fibrosis and significantly elevated mRNA levels of hepatic inflammation compared to the respective control group. A progression of fibrosis was not observed in the CCL4 model. Conclusion: In animal models of cirrhosis with continuous liver injury (BDL), IM increases portal pressure, and development of fibrosis. Perioperative portal pressure and hence inflammation processes may be therapeutic targets to prevent post-operative decompensation in cirrhosis.

6.
Immunity ; 54(11): 2650-2669.e14, 2021 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592166

RESUMO

Longitudinal analyses of the innate immune system, including the earliest time points, are essential to understand the immunopathogenesis and clinical course of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Here, we performed a detailed characterization of natural killer (NK) cells in 205 patients (403 samples; days 2 to 41 after symptom onset) from four independent cohorts using single-cell transcriptomics and proteomics together with functional studies. We found elevated interferon (IFN)-α plasma levels in early severe COVD-19 alongside increased NK cell expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) and genes involved in IFN-α signaling, while upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced genes was observed in moderate diseases. NK cells exert anti-SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) activity but are functionally impaired in severe COVID-19. Further, NK cell dysfunction may be relevant for the development of fibrotic lung disease in severe COVID-19, as NK cells exhibited impaired anti-fibrotic activity. Our study indicates preferential IFN-α and TNF responses in severe and moderate COVID-19, respectively, and associates a prolonged IFN-α-induced NK cell response with poorer disease outcome.


Assuntos
COVID-19/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Interferon-alfa/sangue , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA-Seq , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Transcriptoma/genética , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(38): e27082, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559100

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after liver transplantation (LT) remains a major therapeutic challenge. In recent years, new molecular-targeted therapies, such as cabozantinib, have been approved for the treatment of advanced HCC. However, clinical experience with these new drugs in the treatment of HCC in the LT setting is very limited. PATIENT CONCERNS: In 2003, a 36-year-old woman was referred to the hospital with right upper abdominal pain. DIAGNOSIS: An initial ultrasound of the liver demonstrated a large unclear lesion of the left lobe of the liver. The magnet resonance imaging findings confirmed a multifocal inoperable HCC in a non-cirrhotic liver. Seven years after receiving a living donor LT, pulmonary and intra-hepatic recurrence of the HCC was radiologically diagnosed and histologically confirmed. INTERVENTIONS: Following an interdisciplinary therapy concept consisting of surgical, interventional-radiological (with radiofrequency ablation [RFA]) as well as systemic treatment, the patient achieved a survival of more than 10 years after tumor recurrence. As systemic first line therapy with sorafenib was accompanied by grade 3 to 4 toxicities, such as mucositis, hand-foot skin reaction, diarrhea, liver dysfunction, and hyperthyroidism, it had to be discontinued. After switching to cabozantinib from June 2018 to April 2020, partial remission of all tumor manifestations was achieved. The treatment of the remaining liver metastasis could be completed by RFA. The therapy with cabozantinib was well tolerated, only mild arterial hypertension and grade 1 to 2 mucositis were observed. Liver transplant function was stable during the therapy, no drug interaction with immunosuppressive drugs was observed. OUTCOMES: More than 10 years survival after recurrence of HCC after living-donor LT due to intensive multimodal therapy concepts, including surgery, RFA, and systemic therapy with cabozantinib in the second line therapy. LESSONS: In conclusion, this report highlights the tolerability and effectiveness of cabozantinib for the treatment of HCC recurrence after LT. We show that our patient with a late recurrence of HCC after LT benefitted from intensive multimodal therapy concepts, including surgery, RFA, and systemic therapy.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Transplante de Fígado , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Adulto , Anilidas/administração & dosagem , Anilidas/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/secundário , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Metástase Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/uso terapêutico , Ablação por Radiofrequência
8.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(9): e04782, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504700

RESUMO

Although ruxolitinib contributes to immunomodulation and can lead to severe infections, it seems a feasible treatment strategy for patients with polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis after liver transplantation.

9.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34432848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of portal hypertension is multifactorial and includes pathologic intrahepatic angiogenesis, whereby TIPS insertion is an effective therapy of portal hypertension associated complications. While angiogenin is a potent contributor to angiogenesis in general, little is known about its impact on TIPS function over time. METHODS: In a total of 118 samples from 47 patients, angiogenin concentrations were measured in portal and inferior caval vein plasma at TIPS insertion (each blood compartment n = 23) or angiographic intervention after TIPS (each blood compartment n = 36) and its relationship with patient outcome was investigated. RESULTS: Angiogenin levels in the inferior caval vein were significantly higher compared to the portal vein (P = 0.048). Ten to 14 days after TIPS, inferior caval vein angiogenin level correlated inversely with the portal systemic pressure gradient (P<0.001), measured invasively during control angiography. Moreover, patients with TIPS revision during this angiography, showed significantly lower angiogenin level in the inferior caval vein compared to patients without TIPS dysfunction (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION: In cirrhosis patients with complications of severe portal hypertension, circulating levels of angiogenin are derived from the injured liver. Moreover, angiogenin levels in the inferior caval vein after TIPS may predict TIPS dysfunction.

11.
Int J Hyperthermia ; 38(2): 65-74, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34420445

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is an innovative noninvasive procedure for local ablation of different benign and malignant tumors. Preliminary data of animal studies suggest an ablation-associated immune response after HIFU that is induced by cell necrosis and release of intracellular components. The aim of this study is to evaluate if a HIFU-induced early sterile inflammatory reaction is initiated after ablation of uterine fibroids (UF) and pancreatic carcinoma (PaC) which might contribute to the therapeutic effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A hundred patients with PaC and 30 patients with UF underwent US-guided HIFU treatment. Serum markers of inflammation (leukocytes, CRP, IL-6) and LDH in both collectives as well as tumor markers CA 19-9, CEA and CYFRA in PaC patients were determined in sub-cohorts before and directly after HIFU (0, 2, 5 and 20 h post-ablation) as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up. Peri-/post interventional imaging included contrast-enhanced MRI of both cohorts and an additional CT scan of PaC patients. RESULTS: An early post-ablation inflammatory response was observed in both groups with a significant increase of leukocytes, CRP and LDH within the first 20 h after HIFU. Interestingly, IL-6 was increased at 20 h after HIFU in PaC patients. A significant reduction of tumor volumes was observed during one year follow-up (p < .001) for both tumor entities demonstrating effective treatment outcome. CONCLUSION: Tumor ablation with HIFU induces an early sterile inflammation that might serve as a precondition for long-term tumor immunity and a sustainable therapeutic effect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Abdominais , Ablação por Ultrassom Focalizado de Alta Intensidade , Neoplasias Uterinas , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Inflamação/diagnóstico por imagem , Laboratórios , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(7): 1265-1277, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278174

RESUMO

Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a syndrome associated with organ failure and high short-term mortality. Presence of ACLF at interventions, such as surgery or transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), has been shown to determine outcome, but those interventions have also been attributed to precipitate ACLF in different studies. However, dedicated investigation for the risk of ACLF development in these interventions, especially in elective settings, has not been conducted. Patients with cirrhosis undergoing elective surgery were propensity score matched and compared to patients receiving TIPS. The primary endpoint was ACLF development within 28 days after the respective procedure. The secondary endpoint was 3-month and 1-year mortality. In total, 190 patients were included. Within 28 days, ACLF developed in 24% of the surgery and 3% of the TIPS cohorts, with the highest ACLF incidence between 3 and 8 days. By day 28 after the procedure, ACLF improved in the TIPS cohort. In both cohorts, patients developing ACLF within 28 days after surgery or TIPS placement showed significantly worse survival than patients without ACLF development at follow-up. After 12 months, mortality was significantly higher in the surgery cohort compared to the TIPS cohort (40% vs. 23%, respectively; P = 0.031). Regression analysis showed a European Foundation Chronic Liver Failure Consortium acute decompensation (CLIF-C AD) score ≥50 and surgical procedure as independent predictors of ACLF development. CLIF-C AD score ≥50, C-reactive protein, and ACLF development within 28 days independently predicted 1-year mortality. Conclusion: Elective surgical interventions in patients with cirrhosis precipitate ACLF development and ultimately death, but TIPS plays a negligible role in the development of ACLF. Elective surgery in patients with CLIF-C AD ≥50 should be avoided, while the window of opportunity would be CLIF-C AD <50.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282787

RESUMO

Dendritic cells (DC) as professional antigen presenting cells are able to prime T-cells against the tumor-associated antigen α-fetoprotein (AFP) for immunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, a strong immunosuppressive tumor environment limits their efficacy in patients. The co-stimulation with CD40Ligand (CD40L) is critical in the maturation of DC and T-cell priming. In this study, the impact of intratumoral (i.t.) CD40L-expressing DC to improve vaccination with murine (m)AFP-transduced DC (Ad-mAFP-DC) was analyzed in subcutaneous (s.c.) and orthotopic murine HCC. Murine DC were adenovirally transduced with Ad-mAFP or Ad-CD40L. Hepa129-mAFP-cells were injected into the right flank or the liver of C3H-mice to induce subcutaneous (s.c.) and orthotopic HCC. For treatments, 106 Ad-mAFP-transduced DC were inoculated s.c. followed by 106 CD40L-expressing DC injected intratumorally (i.t.). S.c. inoculation with Ad-mAFP-transduced DC, as vaccine, induced a delay of tumor-growth of AFP-positive HCC compared to controls. When s.c.-inoculation of Ad-mAFP-DC was combined with i.t.-application of Ad-CD40L-DC synergistic antitumoral effects were observed and complete remissions and long-term survival in 62% of tumor-bearing animals were achieved. Analysis of the tumor environment at different time points revealed that s.c.-vaccination with Ad-mAFP-DC seems to stimulate tumor-specific effector cells, allowing an earlier recruitment of effector T-cells and a Th1 shift within the tumors. After i.t. co-stimulation with Ad-CD40L-DC, production of Th1-cytokines was strongly increased and accompanied by a robust tumor infiltration of mature DC, activated CD4+-, CD8+-T-cells as well as reduction of regulatory T-cells. Moreover, Ad-CD40L-DC induced tumor cell apoptosis. Intratumoral co-stimulation with CD40L-expressing DC significantly improves vaccination with Ad-mAFP-DC in pre-established HCC in vivo. Combined therapy caused an early and strong Th1-shift in the tumor environment as well as higher tumor apoptosis, leading to synergistic tumor regression of HCC. Thus, CD40L co-stimulation represents a promising tool for improving DC-based immunotherapy of HCC.

15.
Liver Int ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34328259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Immunoglobulin G4-associated cholangitis (IAC) is characterized by distinctly elevated immunoglobulin G4 in serum (sIgG4) and responds well to corticosteroid therapy. Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) is a progressive liver disease without causal treatment options usually not responding to immunosuppression. Increased serum levels of sIgG4 in patients with PSC, that do not meet criteria of IAC, have been reported in 10%-25%. Therefore, we aimed to characterize this subgroup of patients in a retrospective, multicenter study. METHODS: sIgG4 values of 289 patients with PSC from three German university hospitals were analysed. Patients with elevated sIgG4 levels were identified and further characterized by clinical and biochemical parameters and by cholangiographic presentation. Clinical endpoints, death and liver transplantation were compared between groups. Parameters associated with outcome were identified with Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: 14.5% of patients with PSC showed increased sIgG4 levels (PSC-IgG4), presented with significantly higher (P < .02) albumin, aspartate-aminotransferase, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase and had a significant lower prevalence of a concomitant autoimmune hepatitis (P = .025). Cholangiogram obtained via ERC showed extrahepatic dominant strictures more often in the PSC-IgG4 subgroup (P = .047). The disease severity models Amsterdam-Oxford-Score (P = .018) and Mayo-Risk-Score (P = .025) predicted lower survival rates for the PSC-IgG4 subgroup. Transplant-free survival after first diagnosis of PSC was shorter in patients with elevated sIgG4 (11.6 vs 15.1 years, P = .001). CONCLUSION: Patients with PSC and elevated sIgG4 should be considered as a distinct subgroup, characterized by different clinical and cholangiographical features and are associated with an inferior outcome.

16.
Zentralbl Chir ; 146(3): 283-295, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34154010

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition in hospitalised patients is an important and underestimated problem, with a negative impact on outcome and survival - not only in surgical patients. There is a discrepancy between optimal treatment as defined in relevant guidelines on clinical nutrition and the clinical reality. The Main reason for this discrepancy is the lack of established structures for nutrition medicine as an integral part of clinical routines. The necessary structural development is impaired mainly by the lack of resources, but in isolated cases also by the lack of appreciation of the problem. Therefore, practicability and feasibility with regard to local conditions are pivotal for sustainable improvement in a nutrition strategy in hospitalised patients. METHODS: We describe the institutional and procedural measures taken at a tertiary referral centre to implement a nutrition medicine strategy. The underlying nutrition medicine methodology and definitions are introduced and practical implementation at our centre is illustrated by four examples of ongoing projects. RESULTS: Using the described systematics, structural changes were implemented at our centre within one year that allowed malnutrition screening, the treatment of patients with complex nutritional care and improvements in the nutritive status of hospitalised patients by ongoing and future project initiatives. SUMMARY: The successfully implemented structural change at the University Hospital of Bonn described here may serve as a modular example for other hospitals striving to improve clinical nutrition and outcome in hospitalised patients.


Assuntos
Desnutrição , Humanos , Desnutrição/terapia , Programas de Rastreamento , Avaliação Nutricional , Estado Nutricional , Centros de Atenção Terciária
17.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 526, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971845

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immigration has taken the central stage in world politics, especially in the developed countries like Germany, where the continuous flow of immigrants has been well documented since 1960s. Strikingly, emerging data suggest that migrant patients have a poorer response to the treatment and lower survival rates in their new host country, raising concerns about health disparities. Herein, we present our investigation on the treatment response rate and cancer survival in German patients with and without an immigrant background that were treated at our comprehensive cancer center in Germany. METHODS: Initially, we considered 8162 cancer patients treated at the Center for Integrated Oncology (CIO), University Hospital Bonn, Germany (April 2002-December 2015) for matched-pair analysis. Subsequently, the German patients with a migration background and those from the native German population were manually identified and catalogued using a highly specific name-based algorithm. The clinical parameters such as demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, defined staging criteria, and primary therapy were further adjusted. Using these stringent criteria, a total of 422 patients (n = 211, Germans with migration background; n = 211, native German population) were screened to compare for the treatment response and survival rates (i.e., 5-year overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to progression). RESULTS: Compared to the cohort with migration background, the cohort without migration background was slightly older (54.9 vs. 57.9 years) while having the same sex distribution (54.5% vs. 55.0% female) and longer follow-up time (36.9 vs. 42.6 months). We did not find significant differences in cancer survival (5-year overall survival, P = 0.771) and the response rates (Overall Remission Rate; McNemar's test, P = 0.346) between both collectives. CONCLUSION: Contrary to prior reports, we found no significant differences in cancer survival between German patients with immigrant background and native German patients. Nevertheless, the advanced treatment protocols implemented at our comprehensive cancer center may possibly account for the low variance in outcome. To conduct similar studies with a broader perspective, we propose that certain risk factors (country-of-origin-specific infections, dietary habits, epigenetics for chronic diseases etc.) should be considered, specially in the future studies that will recruit new arrivals from the 2015 German refugee crisis.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Análise por Pareamento , Neoplasias/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Liver Int ; 41(9): 2139-2148, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bacterial translocation drives liver disease progression. We investigated whether functional genetic variants in toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5), the receptor for bacterial flagellin, affect the risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Healthy controls (n = 212), patients with alcohol abuse without liver disease (n = 382), and patients from a discovery cohort of alcohol-associated cirrhosis (n = 372 including 79 HCC cases), a validation cohort of alcohol-associated cirrhosis (n = 355 including 132 HCC cases), and a cohort of cirrhosis due to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 145 including 62 HCC cases) were genotyped for the TLR5 rs5744174 and rs5744168 polymorphisms. Chemokine levels were measured by ELISA in patients' sera and supernatants of flagellin-stimulated healthy monocytes. RESULTS: Frequency of the TLR5 rs5744174 TT genotype was similar in healthy controls (33%), controls with alcohol abuse (34%), and patients with alcohol-associated cirrhosis in the discovery (28%), validation (33%), and NASH cohort (31%). The TT genotype was enriched in patients with versus without HCC in the discovery, validation, and NASH cohort (41% vs 25%; 39% vs 29%; 40% vs 24%; p < .05 each). This genotype remained a risk factor for HCC (OR = 1.9; p = .01) after multivariate correction for age, gender, diabetes, and carriage of the PNPLA3 148M variant. Interleukin-8 induction in monocytes from healthy controls and serum levels of interleukin-8 and CXCL1 from cirrhotic patients with the TT genotype were significantly increased versus C allele carriers. CONCLUSION: The TLR5 rs5744174 polymorphism, affecting immune response to flagellin, is linked to occurrence of HCC in cirrhosis caused by steatohepatitis.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptor 5 Toll-Like/genética
19.
Eur J Haematol ; 107(2): 229-245, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934412

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Steroid refractory graft-vs-host disease (sr-GvHD) represents a challenging complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Intestinal microbiota (IM) diversity and dysbiosis were identified as influencing factors for the development of acute GvHD. Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is hypothesized to restore IM dysbiosis, but there is limited knowledge about the significance of FMT in the treatment of sr-GvHD. OBJECTIVES: We studied the effects of FMT on sr-GvHD in allo-HCT patients from two German tertiary clinical centers (n = 11 patients; period: March 2017 until July 2019). To assess safety and clinical efficacy, we analyzed clinical data pre- and post-FMT (day -14 to +30 relative to FMT). Moreover, IM were analyzed in donor samples and in a subset of patients pre- and post-FMT by 16S rRNA sequencing. RESULTS: Post-FMT, we observed no intervention-associated, systemic inflammatory responses and only minor side effects (5/11 patients: abdominal pain and transformation of peristalsis-each 3/11 and vomiting-1/11). Stool frequencies and volumes were significantly reduced [pre- vs post-FMT (d14): P < .05, respectively] as well as clear attenuation regarding both grading and staging of sr-GvHD was present upon FMT. Moreover, IM analyses revealed an increase of alpha diversity as well as a compositional shifts toward the donor post-FMT. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, we observed positive effects on sr-GVHD after FMT without the occurrence of major adverse events. Although these findings are in line with published data on beneficial effects of FMT in sr-GvHD, further randomized clinical studies are urgently needed to better define the clinical validity including mode of action.

20.
JHEP Rep ; 3(3): 100264, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34013182

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Smaller 8-mm diameter transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) appear to be more beneficial than larger 10-mm TIPS stent-grafts, but lack the ability for secondary dilation in cases of clinical ineffectiveness. Underdilated VIATORR® TIPS stent grafts (VTS) expand passively, whereas novel VIATORR Controlled Expansion (VCX) stent grafts do not. This study evaluated the impact on survival of underdilated VCX compared with VTS in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. Methods: This was a prospective case-control study including patients with cirrhosis receiving TIPS using 10-mm VCX underdilated to 8 mm. Patients with cirrhosis receiving 10-mm VTS underdilated to 8 mm were matched for age, sex, indication for TIPS, and liver function. Results: A total of 114 patients (47 VCX, 47 VTS, and 20 fully dilated VCX/VTS) were included. After TIPS implantation, underdilated VCX diameter was 8.0 (7.8-9.2) mm at a median time of 359 (87-450) days, compared with VTS at 9.9 (9.7-10.0) mm (p <0.001). The portosystemic pressure gradient immediately after TIPS procedure and after 7 days did not change significantly in VCX [mean 9.4 (± 0.8) vs. 10.4 (± 0.7) mmHg, p = 0.115). Hospital readmission rates for hepatic encephalopathy were 23% (n = 11) vs 51% (n = 24) for VCX and VTS (p <0.001), respectively. Patients with VCX had significantly lower rates of large-volume paracentesis (n = 5 [11%] vs. n = 10 [21%], p = 0.017) and heart failure (n = 1 [2%] vs. n = 7 [15%], p = 0.015). One-year mortality for underdilated VCX and VTS was 15% (n = 7) and 30% (n = 14) and, for fully dilated VCX/VTS, was 45% (n = 9) (log-rank p = 0.008), respectively. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that VCX stent grafts underdilated to 8 mm do not passively expand to nominal diameter and suggests reduced hospital readmissions because of hepatic encephalopathy, uncontrolled ascites, and heart failure, and improved 1-year survival compared with underdilated VTS. Lay summary: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) improves survival in selected patients with liver cirrhosis and acute variceal bleeding or refractory ascites. Smaller 8-mm diameter TIPS stent grafts appear to improve patient outcome compared with larger 10-mm diameter stent grafts. Novel VIATORR® Controlled Expansion (VCX) stent grafts facilitate safe and stable underdilation to 8 mm of large 10-mm diameter stent grafts with improved patient outcome (survival, hepatic encephalopathy, ascites and heart failure) compared with legacy VIATORR TIPS stent graft (VTS). Thus, the use of underdilated VCX could preserve heart function. Clinical Trials Registration: The study is registered at Clinicaltrials.govNCT03628807.

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