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1.
Neuroimage Clin ; 29: 102568, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524805

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is characterized by marked communication dysfunctions encompassing potential impairments in the processing of social-abstract and non-social-concrete information, especially in everyday situations where multiple modalities are present in the form of speech and gesture. To date, the neurobiological basis of these deficits remains elusive. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, 17 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, and 18 matched controls watched videos of an actor speaking, gesturing (unimodal), and both speaking and gesturing (bimodal) about social or non-social events in a naturalistic way. Participants were asked to judge whether each video contains person-related (social) or object-related (non-social) information. When processing social-abstract content, patients showed reduced activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) only in the gesture but not in the speech condition. For non-social-concrete content, remarkably, reduced neural activation for patients in the left postcentral gyrus and the right insula was observed only in the speech condition. Moreover, in the bimodal conditions, patients displayed improved task performance and comparable activation to controls in both social and non-social content. To conclude, patients with schizophrenia displayed modality-specific aberrant neural processing of social and non-social information, which is not present for the bimodal conditions. This finding provides novel insights into dysfunctional multimodal communication in schizophrenia, and may have potential therapeutic implications.

2.
Neuroimage ; 229: 117745, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454410

RESUMO

Sensory action consequences are highly predictable and thus engage less neural resources compared to externally generated sensory events. While this has frequently been observed to lead to attenuated perceptual sensitivity and suppression of activity in sensory cortices, some studies conversely reported enhanced perceptual sensitivity for action consequences. These divergent findings might be explained by the type of action feedback, i.e., discrete outcomes vs. continuous feedback. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the impact of discrete and continuous action feedback on perceptual and neural processing during action feedback monitoring. During fMRI data acquisition, participants detected temporal delays (0-417 ms) between actively or passively generated wrist movements and visual feedback that was either continuously provided during the movement or that appeared as a discrete outcome. Both feedback types resulted in (1) a neural suppression effect (active

3.
Schizophr Bull ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33433625

RESUMO

Schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) are characterized by disturbed self-other distinction. While previous studies associate abnormalities in the sense of agency (ie, the feeling that an action and the resulting sensory consequences are produced by oneself) with disturbed processing in the angular gyrus, passive movement conditions to isolate contributions of motor predictions are lacking. Furthermore, the role of body identity (ie, visual features determining whether a seen body part belongs to oneself) in self-other distinction is unclear. In the current study, fMRI was used to assess the roles of agency and hand identity in self-other distinction. Patients with SSD and healthy controls (HC) performed active and passive hand movements (agency manipulation) while seeing their own or someone else's hand moving in accordance with their action (hand identity manipulation). Variable delays (0-417 ms) between movement and feedback had to be detected. Our results showed overall lower delay detection performances during active than passive conditions; however, these differences were reduced in patients when the own hand was displayed. On a neural level, we found that in HC, activation in the right angular gyrus was modulated by agency and hand identity. In contrast, agency and hand identity revealed no overlapping activation in patients, due to reduced effects of agency. Importantly, HC and SSD patients shared similar effects of hand identity in the angular gyrus. Our results suggest that disturbances of self-other distinction in SSD are particularly driven by agency, while self-other distinction based on hand identity might be spared.

4.
Neuropsychologia ; 151: 107725, 2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347914

RESUMO

The processing of semantically complex speech is a demanding task which can be facilitated by speech-associated arm and hand gestures. However, the role of age concerning the perception of semantic complexity and the influence of gestures in this context remains unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate if age-related differences are already present in early adulthood during the processing of semantic complexity and gestures. To this end, we analyzed fMRI images of a sample of 38 young and middle-aged participants (age-range: 19-55). They had the task to listen and to watch a narrative. The narrative contained segments varying in the degree of semantic complexity, and they were spontaneously accompanied by gestures. The semantic complexity of the story was measured by the idea density. Consistent with previous findings in young adults, we observed increased activation for passages with lower compared to higher complexity in bilateral temporal areas and the precuneus. BOLD signal in the left frontal and left parietal regions correlated during the perception of complex passages with increasing age. This correlation was reduced for passages presented with gestures. Median-split based post-hoc comparisons confirmed that group differences between younger (19-23 years) and older adults within the early adult lifespan (24-55 years) were significantly reduced in passages with gestures. Our results suggest that older adults within early adulthood adapt to the requirements of highly complex passages activating additional regions when no gesture information is available. Gestures might play a facilitative role with increasing age, especially when speech is complex.

5.
Schizophr Res ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229225

RESUMO

Impaired social functioning is a hallmark of schizophrenia and altered functional integration between distant brain regions are expected to account for signs and symptoms of the disorder. The functional neuroarchitecture of a network relevant for social functioning, the mentalizing network, is however poorly understood. In this study we examined dysfunctions of the mentalizing network in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls via dynamic causal modelling and an interactive social decision-making game. Network characteristics were analyzed on a single subject basis whereas graph theoretic metrics such as in-degree, out-degree and edge-connectivity per network node were compared between the groups. The results point to a sparser network structure in patients with schizophrenia and highlight the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex as a disconnected network hub receiving significantly less input from other brain regions in the network. Further analyses suggest that integrating pathways from the right and the left temporo-parietal junction into the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex were less frequently found in patients with schizophrenia. Brain and behavior analyses further suggest that the connectivity-intactness within the entire network is associated with functional interpersonal behavior during the task. Thus, the neurobiological alterations within the mentalizing network in patients with schizophrenia point to a specific integration deficit between core brain regions underlying the generation of higher-order representations and thereby provide a potential treatment target.

6.
Neuroimage ; : 117569, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221446

RESUMO

Electrophysiological studies in rodents allow recording neural activity during threats with high temporal and spatial precision. Although fMRI has helped translate insights about the anatomy of underlying brain circuits to humans, the temporal dynamics of neural fear processes remain opaque and require EEG. To date, studies on electrophysiological brain signals in humans have helped to elucidate underlying perceptual and attentional processes, but have widely ignored how fear memory traces evolve over time. The low signal-to-noise ratio of EEG demands aggregations across high numbers of trials, which will wash out transient neurobiological processes that are induced by learning and prone to habituation. Here, our goal was to unravel the plasticity and temporal emergence of EEG responses during fear conditioning. To this end, we developed a new sequential-set fear conditioning paradigm that comprises three successive acquisition and extinction phases, each with a novel CS+/CS- set. Each set consists of two different neutral faces on different background colors which serve as CS+ and CS-, respectively. Thereby, this design provides sufficient trials for EEG analyses while tripling the relative amount of trials that tap into more transient neurobiological processes. Consistent with prior studies on ERP components, data-driven topographic EEG analyses revealed that ERP amplitudes were potentiated during time periods from 33-60 ms, 108-200 ms, and 468-820 ms indicating that fear conditioning prioritizes early sensory processing in the brain, but also facilitates neural responding during later attentional and evaluative stages. Importantly, averaging across the three CS+/- sets allowed us to probe the temporal evolution of neural processes: Responses during each of the three time windows gradually increased from early to late fear conditioning, while long-latency (460-730 ms) electrocortical responses diminished throughout fear extinction. Our novel paradigm demonstrates how short-, mid-, and long-latency EEG responses change during fear conditioning and extinction, findings that enlighten the learning curve of neurophysiological responses to threat in humans.

7.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(17): 4901-4911, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32808721

RESUMO

Body orientation of gesture entails social-communicative intention, and may thus influence how gestures are perceived and comprehended together with auditory speech during face-to-face communication. To date, despite the emergence of neuroscientific literature on the role of body orientation on hand action perception, limited studies have directly investigated the role of body orientation in the interaction between gesture and language. To address this research question, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) experiment presenting to participants (n = 21) videos of frontal and lateral communicative hand gestures of 5 s (e.g., raising a hand), followed by visually presented sentences that are either congruent or incongruent with the gesture (e.g., "the mountain is high/low…"). Participants underwent a semantic probe task, judging whether a target word is related or unrelated to the gesture-sentence event. EEG results suggest that, during the perception phase of handgestures, while both frontal and lateral gestures elicited a power decrease in both the alpha (8-12 Hz) and the beta (16-24 Hz) bands, lateral versus frontal gestures elicited reduced power decrease in the beta band, source-located to the medial prefrontal cortex. For sentence comprehension, at the critical word whose meaning is congruent/incongruent with the gesture prime, frontal gestures elicited an N400 effect for gesture-sentence incongruency. More importantly, this incongruency effect was significantly reduced for lateral gestures. These findings suggest that body orientation plays an important role in gesture perception, and that its inferred social-communicative intention may influence gesture-language interaction at semantic level.

8.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(8): 849-859, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734299

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking increases the likelihood of developing anxiety disorders, among them panic disorder (PD). While brain structures altered by smoking partly overlap with morphological changes identified in PD, the modulating impact of smoking as a potential confounder on structural alterations in PD has not yet been addressed. In total, 143 PD patients (71 smokers) and 178 healthy controls (62 smokers) participated in a multicenter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. T1-weighted images were used to examine brain structural alterations using voxel-based morphometry in a priori defined regions of the defensive system network. PD was associated with gray matter volume reductions in the amygdala and hippocampus. This difference was driven by non-smokers and absent in smoking subjects. Bilateral amygdala volumes were reduced with increasing health burden (neither PD nor smoking > either PD or smoking > both PD and smoking). As smoking can narrow or diminish commonly observed structural abnormalities in PD, the effect of smoking should be considered in MRI studies focusing on patients with pathological forms of fear and anxiety. Future studies are needed to determine if smoking may increase the risk for subsequent psychopathology via brain functional or structural alterations.

9.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(13): 3541-3554, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432387

RESUMO

The feeling of being addressed is the first step in a complex processing stream enabling successful social communication. Social impairments are a relevant characteristic of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Here, we investigated a mechanism which-if impaired-might contribute to withdrawal or isolation in MDD, namely, the neural processing of social cues such as body orientation and gesture. During funtional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquisition, 33 patients with MDD and 43 healthy control subjects watched video clips of a speaking actor: one version with a gesture accompanying the speech and one without gesture. Videos were filmed simultaneously from two different viewpoints: one with the actor facing the viewer head-on (frontal) and one side-view (lateral). After every clip, the participants were instructed to evaluate whether they felt addressed or not. Despite overall comparable addressment ratings and a large overlap in activation patterns in MDD and healthy subjects for gesture processing, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral superior/middle frontal cortex, and right angular gyrus were more strongly activated in patients than in healthy subjects for the frontal conditions. Our analyses revealed that patients showed specifically higher activation than healthy subjects for the frontal condition without gesture in regions including the posterior cingulate cortex, left prefrontal cortex, and the left hippocampus. We conclude that MDD patients can recognize and interpret social cues such as gesture or body orientation; however, they seem to require more neural resources. This additional effort might affect successful communication and contribute to social isolation in MDD.

10.
Neuroimage Clin ; 27: 102268, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32361414

RESUMO

Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS-I) impacts on fear/anxiety-like behavior in animals. In humans, the short (S) allele of a functional promotor polymorphism of NOS1 (NOS1 ex1f-VNTR) has been shown to be associated with higher anxiety and altered fear conditioning in healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus (AMY/HIPP). Here, we explore the role of NOS1 ex1f-VNTR as a pathophysiological correlate of panic disorder and agoraphobia (PD/AG). In a sub-sample of a multicenter cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) randomized controlled trial in patients with PD/AG (n = 48: S/S-genotype n=15, S/L-genotype n=21, L/L-genotype n=12) and healthy control subjects, HS (n = 34: S/S-genotype n=7, S/L-genotype n=17, L/L-genotype=10), a differential fear conditioning and extinction fMRI-paradigm was used to investigate how NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotypes are associated with differential neural activation in AMY/HIPP. Prior to CBT, L/L-allele carriers showed higher activation than S/S-allele carriers in AMY/HIPP. A genotype × diagnosis interaction revealed that the S-allele in HS was associated with a pronounced deactivation in AMY/HIPP, while patients showed contrary effects. The interaction of genotype × stimulus type (CS+, conditioned stimulus associated with an aversive stimulus vs. CS-, unassociated) showed effects on differential learning in AMY/HIPP. All effects were predominately found during extinction. Genotype associated effects in patients were not altered after CBT. Low statistical power due to small sample size in each subgroup is a major limitation. However, our findings provide first preliminary evidence for dysfunctional neural fear conditioning/extinction associated with NOS1 ex1f-VNTR genotype in the context of PD/AG, shedding new light on the complex interaction between genetic risk, current psychopathology and treatment-related effects.

11.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 127(11): 1527-1537, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468273

RESUMO

While DNA methylation patterns have been studied for a role in the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders, the role of the enzymes establishing DNA methylation-DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs)-has yet to be investigated. In an effort to investigate DNMT genotype-specific effects on dimensional anxiety traits in addition to the categorical phenotype of panic disorder, 506 panic disorder patients and 3112 healthy participants were assessed for anxiety related cognition [Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire (ACQ)], anxiety sensitivity [Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI)] as well as pathological worry [Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ)] and genotyped for five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the DNMT3A (rs11683424, rs1465764, rs1465825) and DNMT3B (rs2424932, rs4911259) genes, which have previously been found associated with clinical and trait-related phenotypes. There was no association with the categorical phenotype panic disorder. However, a significant association was discerned between DNMT3A rs1465764 and PSWQ scores in healthy participants, with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. In addition, a marginally significant association between questionnaire scores (PSWQ, ASI) in healthy participants and DNMT3B rs2424932 was detected, again with the minor allele conveying a protective effect. The present results suggest a possible minor role of DNMT3A and DNMT3B gene variation in conveying resilience towards anxiety disorders. As the observed associations indicated a protective effect of two SNPs particularly with pathological worry, future studies are proposed to explore these variants in generalized anxiety disorder rather than panic disorder.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 110, 2020 04 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317621

RESUMO

Extinction learning is suggested to be a central mechanism during exposure-based cognitive behavioral psychotherapy. A positive association between the patients' pretreatment extinction learning performance and treatment outcome would corroborate the hypothesis. Indeed, there is first correlational evidence between reduced extinction learning and therapy efficacy. However, the results of these association studies may be hampered by extinction-training protocols that do not match treatment procedures. Therefore, we developed an extinction-training protocol highly tailored to the procedure of exposure therapy and tested it in two samples of 46 subjects in total. By using instructed fear acquisition training, including a consolidation period overnight, we wanted to ensure that the conditioned fear response was well established prior to extinction training, which is the case in patients with anxiety disorders prior to treatment. Moreover, the extinction learning process was analyzed on multiple response levels, comprising unconditioned stimulus (US) expectancy ratings, autonomic responses, defensive brain stem reflexes, and neural activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Using this protocol, we found robust fear conditioning and slow-speed extinction learning. We also observed within-group heterogeneity in extinction learning, albeit a stable fear response at the beginning of the extinction training. Finally, we found discordance between different response systems, suggesting that multiple processes are involved in extinction learning. The paradigm presented here might help to ameliorate the association between extinction learning performance assessed in the laboratory and therapy outcomes and thus facilitate translational science in anxiety disorders.

13.
Cortex ; 127: 17-28, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155474

RESUMO

The distinction between different facial emotions is crucial for interpersonal communication. Shared neural circuits for facial emotion production and perception are considered to facilitate the ability to understand other's emotional state via mirror neuron mechanisms. Little is known about how diverse emotions differentially activate the Mirror Neuron System (MNS) during facial expression processing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task, 178 healthy subjects perceived and produced emotional (happy vs angry) and non-emotional (lip-protrusion vs no movement) facial expressions. Dynamic facial expressions were displayed as 5 sec video clips. We identified three overlapping networks of neural activation for happy, angry, and non-emotional (lip-protrusion) facial expression production and perception. Importantly, this overlap was largely due to the common motor component of facial expressions. However, for happy facial expressions, we found specific MNS activation in the right temporal pole. For angry facial expressions we found such activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus, pars orbitalis, and the cerebellum (lobules VII and VIII). We extend knowledge on mirror neuron mechanisms as our results provide evidence for emotion specific shared neural activation for the production and perception of facial emotions. This emotion specific representation of other's emotion in one's own neural production system might facilitate understanding of other's mental or emotional states.

14.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 110, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210849

RESUMO

Dysfunctional social communication is one of the most stable characteristics in patients with schizophrenia that also affects quality of life. Interpreting abstract speech and integrating nonverbal modalities is particularly affected. Considering the impact of communication on social life but failure to treat communication dysfunctions with usual treatment, we will investigate the possibility to improve verbal and non-verbal communication in schizophrenia by applying a multimodal speech-gesture training (MSG training). Here we describe the newly developed MSG training program and the study design for the first clinical investigation. The intervention contains perceptive rating (match/mismatch of sentence and gesture) and memory tasks (n-back tasks), imitation and productive tasks (e.g., SG fluency-similar to verbal fluency where words are accompanied by gesture). In addition, we offer information about gesture as meta-learning element as well as homework for reasons of transfer to everyday life as part of every session. In the MSG training intervention, we offer eight sessions (60 min each) of training. The first pilot study is currently conducted as a single-center, randomized controlled trial of speech-gesture intervention versus wait-list control with a follow-up. Outcomes are measured through pre-post-fMRI and standardized psychological questionnaires comparing two subject groups (30 patients with schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls). Patients and healthy controls are randomized in two intervention groups (with 20 being in the wait-training group and 10 in the training-follow-up group). With our study design we will be able to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the MSG training intervention on behavioral and neural levels. Clinical Trial Registration: DRKS.de, identifier DRKS00015118.

15.
Cortex ; 126: 153-172, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078820

RESUMO

Social group membership modulates the neural processing of emotional facial expressions, which, in turn, recruits part of the neural production system. However, little is known about how mixed - and potentially conflicting - social identity cues affect this mechanism. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that incongruent cues of two group memberships (ethnic and experimentally created minimal groups) elicit conflict processing for neutral and, in particular, angry facial expressions. We further expected this interaction of ethnic group, minimal group and emotion to also modulate activation in an emotional production-perception network. Twenty-two healthy German subjects saw dynamic angry and neutral facial expressions, presented in short video clips during functional MRI scanning. All depicted actors belonged to an ethnic in- or outgroup (German or Turkish descent) as well as an ad hoc experimentally created minimal in- or outgroup. Additionally, subjects produced angry or neutral expressions themselves. The whole-brain interaction of ethnic group, minimal group and emotion revealed activity in the right parietal lobule and left cerebellum. Both showed strongest activation for angry faces with conflicting group memberships (e.g., 'ethnic outgroup/minimal ingroup'). In addition, a sub-region of the left cerebellum cluster was also activated for both perceiving and producing angry versus neutral expressions. These results suggest that incongruent group members displaying angry facial expressions elicit conflict processing. Group interaction effects in an emotional production-perception network further indicate stronger neural resonance for incongruent group members.

16.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 41(9): 2474-2489, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32090439

RESUMO

Forward models can predict sensory consequences of self-action, which is reflected by less neural processing for actively than passively generated sensory inputs (BOLD suppression effect). However, it remains open whether forward models take the identity of a moving body part into account when predicting the sensory consequences of an action. In the current study, fMRI was used to investigate the neural correlates of active and passive hand movements during which participants saw either an on-line display of their own hand or someone else's hand moving in accordance with their movement. Participants had to detect delays (0-417 ms) between their movement and the displays. Analyses revealed reduced activation in sensory areas and higher delay detection thresholds for active versus passive movements. Furthermore, there was increased activation in the hippocampus, the amygdala, and the middle temporal gyrus when someone else's hand was seen. Most importantly, in posterior parietal (angular gyrus and precuneus), frontal (middle, superior, and medial frontal gyrus), and temporal (middle temporal gyrus) regions, suppression for actively versus passively generated feedback was stronger when participants were viewing their own compared to someone else's hand. Our results suggest that forward models can take hand identity into account when predicting sensory action consequences.

17.
Am J Psychiatry ; 177(3): 254-264, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has been hypothesized to act by reducing the pathologically enhanced semantic, anxiety-related associations of patients with panic disorder. This study investigated the effects of CBT on the behavioral and neural correlates of the panic-related semantic network in patients with panic disorder. METHODS: An automatic semantic priming paradigm specifically tailored for panic disorder, in which panic symptoms (e.g., "dizziness") were primed by panic triggers (e.g., "elevator") compared with neutral words (e.g., "bottle"), was performed during functional MRI scanning with 118 patients with panic disorder (compared with 150 healthy control subjects) before and 42 patients (compared with 52 healthy control subjects) after an exposure-based CBT. Neural correlates were investigated by comparing 103 pairs of matched patients and control subjects at the baseline (for patients) or T1 (for control subjects) assessment and 39 pairs at the posttreatment or T2 assessment. RESULTS: At baseline or T1, patients rated panic-trigger/panic-symptom word pairs with higher relatedness and higher negative valence compared with healthy control subjects. Patients made faster lexical decisions to the panic-symptom words when they were preceded by panic-trigger words. This panic-priming effect in patients (compared with control subjects) was reflected in suppressed neural activation in the left and right temporal cortices and insulae and enhanced activation in the posterior and anterior cingulate cortices. After CBT, significant clinical improvements in the patient group were observed along with a reduction in relatedness and negative valence rating and attenuation of neural activation in the anterior cingulate cortex for processing of panic-trigger/panic-symptom word pairs. CONCLUSIONS: The findings support a biased semantic network in panic disorder, which is normalized after CBT. Attenuation of anterior cingulate cortex activation for processing of panic-related associations provides a potential mechanism for future therapeutic interventions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno de Pânico/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno de Pânico/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Neuroimage ; 206: 116309, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669300

RESUMO

Tool use is one of the most remarkable skills of the human species, enabling complex interactions with the environment. To establish such interactions, we predict the sensory consequences of our actions based on a copy of the motor command (efference copy), leading to an attenuated perception and neural suppression of the sensory input. Here, we investigated whether and how tools can be incorporated into these predictions. We hypothesized that similar predictive mechanisms are used for both hand and tool use actions, but that additional resources are needed to integrate the tool. During fMRI data acquisition, 19 healthy participants used either their right hand or a tool to hold the handle of a movement device. To manipulate the effect of the efference copy, the handle was moved either actively by participants or passively by the movement device. The sensory outcome, consisting of a real-time video of the hand or tool movement shown on a screen, was presented with varying delays (0-417 ms). Participants reported their perception of such delays. The processing of hand and tool movements yielded largely similar results when comparing active against passive conditions: Active movements were in both cases associated with worse delay detection performances. Moreover, during both hand and tool use actions, active movements led to a downregulation of sensory (somatosensory, visual) areas as well as the right cerebellum and right posterior parietal cortex, as assessed by a conjunction analysis. By contrast, an interaction analysis indicated differential processing of active vs. passive movements in hand vs. tool conditions in the left postcentral gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus (MTG), and bilateral caudate nuclei. Our findings provide behavioral and neural support that hand and tool actions share similar mechanisms for sensory predictions. We propose that the MTG and (sensori)motor areas (postcentral gyrus, caudate nuclei) contribute to these predictions by optimizing them to the physics of the end effector (hand or tool). Collectively, these results suggest that the brain dynamically adjusts sensorimotor predictive models to anticipate the dynamics of the end effector, be it a hand or a tool.

20.
Schizophr Res ; 216: 175-183, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31882274

RESUMO

Integrating visual and auditory information during gesture-speech integration (GSI) is important for successful social communication, which is often impaired in schizophrenia. Several studies suggested the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) to be a relevant multisensory integration site. However, intact STS activation patterns were often reported in patients. Thus, here we used Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) to analyze whether information processing in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) is impaired during GSI on network level. We investigated GSI in three different samples. First, we replicated a recently published connectivity model for GSI in a healthy subject group (n = 19). Second, we investigated differences between patients with SSD and a matched healthy control group (n = 17 each). Participants were presented videos of an actor performing intrinsically meaningful gestures accompanied by spoken sentences in German or Russian, or just telling a German sentence without gestures. Across all groups, fMRI analyses revealed similar activation patterns, and DCM analyses resulted in the same winning model for GSI. This finding directly replicates previous results. However, patients revealed significantly reduced connectivity in the verbal pathway (from left middle temporal gyrus (MTG) to left STS). The clinical significance of this connection is supported by its correlations with the severity of concretism and a subscale of negative symptoms (SANS). Our model confirms the importance of the pSTS as integration site during audio-visual integration. Patients showed generally intact connectivity during GSI, but revealed impaired information transfer via the verbal pathway. This might be the basis of interpersonal communication problems in patients with SSD.

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