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1.
Eur J Neurosci ; 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33432641

RESUMO

Emotional facial expressions elicit distinct increased early electrophysiological responses. Many studies report even emotional modulations of very early sensory processing at about 80 and 100 ms after stimulus presentation, indexed by the P1. These early effects are often interpreted to index differential responses to biologically relevant expressions. Since specific spatial frequencies differ between fearful and neutral expressions, it has recently been suggested that these early modulations are substantially driven by such low-level visual differences. However, it remains unclear whether similar P1 effects are also observed in experiments in which no recognizable face information is presented at all. This study investigated this question and explored also whether any effects depend on colour information and attentional conditions. Participants (N = 20) performed a continuous perceptual task of low or high difficultly and were presented with task-irrelevant black/white and colour images of fearful and neutral faces, rendered unrecognizable by doing Fourier phase transformation. ERP findings revealed increased P1 amplitudes for fearful scrambles regardless of experimental conditions. Taken together, our findings show early emotional effects in the absence of any facial expression. Specific low-level frequency information seems to increase P1 amplitudes which thus might have implications for the interpretation of very early sensory emotional expression effects.

2.
Cortex ; 136: 14-27, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33450599

RESUMO

Emotional facial expressions lead to modulations of early event-related potentials (ERPs). However, it has so far remained unclear how far these modulations represent face-specific effects rather than differences in low-level visual features, and to which extent they depend on available processing resources. To examine these questions, we conducted two preregistered independent experiments (N = 40 in each experiment) using different variants of a novel task that manipulates peripheral perceptual load across levels but keeps overall visual stimulation constant. At the display center, we presented task-irrelevant angry, neutral, and happy faces and their Fourier phase-scrambled versions, which preserved low-level visual features. The results of both studies showed load-independent P1 and N170 emotional expression effects. Importantly, by using Bayesian analyses we could confirm that these facial expression effects were face-independent for the P1 but not for the N170 component. We conclude that firstly, ERP modulations during the P1 interval strongly depend on low-level visual information, while the N170 modulation requires the processing of figural facial expression features. Secondly, both P1 and N170 modulations appear to be immune to a large range of variations in perceptual load.

3.
Neuroimage ; 228: 117712, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33387630

RESUMO

In recent years, several ERP components have been identified as potential neural correlates of consciousness (NCC), including early negativities and late positivities. Based on experiments in the visual modality, it has recently been shown that awareness is often confounded with reporting it, possibly overestimating the NCC. It is unknown whether similar constraints also exist in the auditory modality. In order to address this gap, we presented spoken words in a sustained inattentional deafness paradigm. Electrophysiological responses were obtained in three physically identical experimental conditions that differed only with respect to the participants' instructions. Participants were either left uninformed or informed about the presence of spoken words while confronted with an auditory distractor task (U/I condition), informed about the words while exposed to the same task as before (I condition), or requested to respond to the now task-relevant speech stimuli (TR condition). After completion of the U/I condition, only informed participants reported awareness of the words. In ERPs, awareness of words in the U/I and I condition was accompanied by an anterior auditory awareness negativity (AAN). Only when stimuli were task-relevant, i.e., during the TR condition, late positivities emerged. Taken together, these results indicate that early negativities but not late positivities index awareness across sensory modalities. Thus, they provide evidence for a recurrent processing framework, which highlights the importance of early sensory processing in conscious perception.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33155747

RESUMO

In a previous study, we investigated the resting-state fMRI effective connectivity (EC) between the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the laterobasal (LB), centromedial (CM), and superficial (SF) amygdala. We found strong negative EC from all amygdala nuclei to the BNST, while the BNST showed positive EC to the amygdala. However, the validity of these findings remains unclear, since a reproduction in different samples has not been done. Moreover, the association of EC with measures of anxiety offers deeper insight, due to the known role of the BNST and amygdala in fear and anxiety. Here, we aimed to reproduce our previous results in three additional samples. We used spectral Dynamic Causal Modeling to estimate the EC between the BNST, the LB, CM, and SF, and its association with two measures of self-reported anxiety. Our results revealed consistency over samples with regard to the negative EC from the amygdala nuclei to the BNST, while the positive EC from BNST to the amygdala was also found, but weaker and more heterogenic. Moreover, we found the BNST-BNST EC showing a positive and the CM-BNST EC, showing a negative association with anxiety. Our study suggests a reproducible pattern of negative EC from the amygdala to the BNST along with weaker positive EC from the BNST to the amygdala. Moreover, less BNST self-inhibition and more inhibitory influence from the CM to the BNST seems to be a pattern of EC that is related to higher anxiety.

5.
Soc Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243096

RESUMO

Higher social relevance has been shown to modulate event-related potentials (ERPs). It is unclear whether such modulations can be observed if one only imagines stimuli to be socially relevant. In a preregistered EEG study (N = 40), participants were presented neutral, positive and negative personality-descriptive adjectives, and given a subsequent feedback revealing whether or not the adjective described their personality. While it was emphasized that feedback occurred randomly, participants were asked either to treat the feedback information as randomly chosen or to imagine it represented a veridical social feedback. Imagined social context increased EPN, P3, and LPP amplitudes to feedback. Importantly, social context and emotional content interacted, resulting in enhanced processing of imagined social negative feedback for the N1 and EPN. These results demonstrate that social attributions can easily be elicited by instructions, modulating early and late processing stages, speaking for a strong affiliation motive.

6.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32714249

RESUMO

A growing body of evidence suggests a role of the insular cortex (IC) and the basal ganglia (BG) in the experience, expression, and recognition of disgust. However, human lesion research, probing this structure-function link, has yielded rather disparate findings in single cases of unilateral and bilateral damage to these areas. Comparative group approaches are needed to elucidate whether disgust-related deficits specifically follow damage to the IC-BG system, or whether there might be a differential hemispheric contribution to disgust processing. We examined emotional processing by means of a comprehensive emotional test battery in four patients with left- and four patients with right-hemispheric lesions to the IC-BG system as well as in 19 healthy controls. While single tests did not provide clear-cut separations of patient groups, composite scores indicated selective group effects for disgust. Importantly, left-lesioned patients presented attenuated disgust composites, while right-lesioned patients showed increased disgust composites, as compared to each other and controls. These findings propose a left-hemispheric basis of disgust, potentially due to asymmetrical representations of autonomic information in the human forebrain. The present study provides the first behavioral evidence of hemispheric lateralization of a specific emotion in the human brain, and contributes to neurobiological models of disgust.

7.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 15(7): 765-774, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701163

RESUMO

The processing of fearful facial expressions is prioritized by the human brain. This priority is maintained across various information processing stages as evident in early, intermediate and late components of event-related potentials (ERPs). However, emotional modulations are inconsistently reported for these different processing stages. In this pre-registered study, we investigated how feature-based attention differentially affects ERPs to fearful and neutral faces in 40 participants. The tasks required the participants to discriminate either the orientation of lines overlaid onto the face, the sex of the face or the face's emotional expression, increasing attention to emotion-related features. We found main effects of emotion for the N170, early posterior negativity (EPN) and late positive potential (LPP). While N170 emotional modulations were task-independent, interactions of emotion and task were observed for the EPN and LPP. While EPN emotion effects were found in the sex and emotion tasks, the LPP emotion effect was mainly driven by the emotion task. This study shows that early responses to fearful faces are task-independent (N170) and likely based on low-level and configural information while during later processing stages, attention to the face (EPN) or-more specifically-to the face's emotional expression (LPP) is crucial for reliable amplified processing of emotional faces.

8.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32596977

RESUMO

The ENIGMA group on Generalized Anxiety Disorder (ENIGMA-Anxiety/GAD) is part of a broader effort to investigate anxiety disorders using imaging and genetic data across multiple sites worldwide. The group is actively conducting a mega-analysis of a large number of brain structural scans. In this process, the group was confronted with many methodological challenges related to study planning and implementation, between-country transfer of subject-level data, quality control of a considerable amount of imaging data, and choices related to statistical methods and efficient use of resources. This report summarizes the background information and rationale for the various methodological decisions, as well as the approach taken to implement them. The goal is to document the approach and help guide other research groups working with large brain imaging data sets as they develop their own analytic pipelines for mega-analyses.

9.
Neuropsychologia ; 146: 107529, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553724

RESUMO

High perceptual load is thought to impair the early processing of task-irrelevant distractors. In contrast, for emotional faces, previous studies have shown that early event-related potentials (ERPs), the P1, the N170, and, albeit to a lesser degree, the EPN, are relatively resistant to perceptual load manipulations. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between load and processing of emotional distractor faces have been neglected so far. In this preregistered EEG study (N = 40), we investigated effects of perceptual load and different interstimulus intervals (ISIs) on ERPs to fearful and neutral task-irrelevant faces. We used a task with identical visual input regardless of perceptual load (high vs. low), and four ISIs between task and face onset (100 ms, 300 ms, 600 ms, 900 ms). Results show that emotional ERP modulations depend on load manipulations as well as on specific ISIs between the perceptual task and face onset. Emotional P1 effects were modulated by load, irrespective of the ISI, while emotional N170 and EPN effects were independent of load, but modulated by the ISI. In particular, emotion effects for the EPN were only observed after a prolonged period between load task and face onset (ISI900), suggesting a strong vulnerability of this component to any competing task. Taken together, our findings show that early ERP components for fearful expressions show dissociable responses to load and timing manipulations.

10.
Psychophysiology ; 57(9): e13597, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390215

RESUMO

Prioritized processing of fearful compared to neutral faces is reflected in behavioral advantages such as lower detection thresholds, but also in enhanced early and late event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral advantages have recently been associated with the spatial frequency spectrum of fearful faces, better fitting the human contrast sensitivity function than the spectrum of neutral faces. However, it is unclear whether and to which extent early and late ERP differences are due to low-level spatial frequency spectrum information or high-level representations of the facial expression. In this pre-registered EEG study (N = 38), the effects of fearful-specific spatial frequencies on event-related ERPs were investigated by presenting faces with fearful and neutral expressions whose spatial frequency spectra were manipulated so as to contain either the average power spectra of neutral, fearful, or both expressions combined. We found an enlarged N170 to fearful versus neutral faces, not interacting with spatial frequency. Interactions of emotional expression and spatial frequencies were observed for the P1 and Early Posterior Negativity (EPN). For both components, larger emotion differences were observed when the spectrum contained neutral as opposed to fearful frequencies. Importantly, for the EPN, fearful and neutral expressions did not differ anymore when inserting fearful frequencies into neutral expressions, whereas typical emotion differences were found when faces contained average or neutral frequencies. Our findings show that N170 emotional modulations are unaffected by expression-specific spatial frequencies. However, expression-specific spatial frequencies alter early and mid-latency ERPs. Most notably, the EPN to neutral expressions is boosted by adding fearful spectra-but not vice versa.

11.
Psychophysiology ; 57(9): e13585, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306463

RESUMO

The temporal dynamics of top-down voluntary and bottom-up driven emotional attention are a matter of debate. Both emotion and task-relevance have been shown to affect the early posterior negativity (EPN) and the late positive potential (LPP) during the processing of emotional pictures, whereas there are mixed findings related to interactions of emotion and task-relevance. In this preregistered study, we used Bayesian models to test this interplay between emotion and task-relevance. Participants (N = 104) were presented negative, neutral, and positive International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures, and block-wise were asked to respond either to negative, neutral, or positive pictures, rendering one stimulus category task-relevant and the remaining stimuli task-irrelevant. Bayesian models showed evidence for the absence of interactions between task-relevance and emotion. Furthermore, models showed parallel emotion and task effects for the EPN and late stages of the LPP. Additional interactive effects were found during an early LPP interval (400 to 600 ms), with increased LPP amplitudes when emotion was rendered task-relevant. Taken together, the results revealed distinct but parallel temporal onsets of task-relevance and emotion effects, followed by task and emotion interactions in the early LPP. Thus, based on this high-powered study employing Bayesian analysis, evidence is provided that interactions between task-relevance and emotion do not emerge before the LPP time window. These results further inform theories proposing early parallel and late interactive processes of the emotional salience of stimuli and top-down attention.

12.
J Neurosci ; 40(14): 2906-2913, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122954

RESUMO

To date it is poorly understood how and when deviance processing interacts with awareness and task relevance. Furthermore, an important issue in the study of consciousness is the prevalent confound of conscious perception with the requirement of reporting it. This study addresses these topics using a no-report inattentional blindness paradigm with a visual oddball sequence of geometrical shapes presented to male and female human participants. Electrophysiological responses were obtained in three physically identical Phases A-C that differed only with respect to the instructions: (A) participants were uninformed about the shapes and attended an unrelated foreground task (inattentional blind), (B) were informed about the shapes but still attended the foreground task, and (C) attended the shapes. Conscious processing of shapes was indexed by the visual awareness negativity but not a P3. Deviance processing was associated with the visual mismatch negativity independently of consciousness and task relevance. The oddball P3, however, only emerged when the stimuli were task relevant, and was absent for consciously perceived but task irrelevant stimuli. The P3 thus does not represent a reliable marker of stimulus awareness. This result pattern supports the view of hierarchical predictive processing, where lower levels display automatic deviance processing, whereas higher levels require attention and task relevance.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To react to potentially important changes in our environment it is fundamental to detect deviations from regularities of sensory input. It has yet to be understood how awareness and task relevance of this input interact with deviance processing. We investigated the role of awareness in deviance detection while at the same time circumventing the confound of awareness and report by means of a no-report paradigm. Our results suggest that early processes are elicited automatically, whereas, contrary to prominent theories, late processes do not depend on awareness but on task-based attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1898, 2020 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024891

RESUMO

The factors that drive amygdalar responses to emotionally significant stimuli are still a matter of debate - particularly the proneness of the amygdala to respond to negatively-valenced stimuli has been discussed controversially. Furthermore, it is uncertain whether the amygdala responds in a modality-general fashion or whether modality-specific idiosyncrasies exist. Therefore, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study systematically investigated amygdalar responding to stimulus valence and arousal of emotional expressions across visual and auditory modalities. During scanning, participants performed a gender judgment task while prosodic and facial emotional expressions were presented. The stimuli varied in stimulus valence and arousal by including neutral, happy and angry expressions of high and low emotional intensity. Results demonstrate amygdalar activation as a function of stimulus arousal and accordingly associated emotional intensity regardless of stimulus valence. Furthermore, arousal-driven amygdalar responding did not depend on the visual and auditory modalities of emotional expressions. Thus, the current results are consistent with the notion that the amygdala codes general stimulus relevance across visual and auditory modalities irrespective of valence. In addition, whole brain analyses revealed that effects in visual and auditory areas were driven mainly by high intense emotional facial and vocal stimuli, respectively, suggesting modality-specific representations of emotional expressions in auditory and visual cortices.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Córtex Auditivo/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Auditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Vias Neurais/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Córtex Visual/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
14.
Int J Methods Psychiatr Res ; 29(2): e1812, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31814209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Embedded in the Collaborative Research Center "Fear, Anxiety, Anxiety Disorders" (CRC-TRR58), this bicentric clinical study aims at identifying biobehavioral markers of treatment (non-)response by applying machine learning methodology with an external cross-validation protocol. We hypothesize that a priori prediction of treatment (non-)response is possible in a second, independent sample based on multimodal markers. METHODS: One-session virtual reality exposure treatment (VRET) with patients with spider phobia was conducted on two sites. Clinical, neuroimaging, and genetic data were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and after 6 months. The primary and secondary outcomes defining treatment response are as follows: 30% reduction regarding the individual score in the Spider Phobia Questionnaire and 50% reduction regarding the individual distance in the behavioral avoidance test. RESULTS: N = 204 patients have been included (n = 100 in Würzburg, n = 104 in Münster). Sample characteristics for both sites are comparable. DISCUSSION: This study will offer cross-validated theranostic markers for predicting the individual success of exposure-based therapy. Findings will support clinical decision-making on personalized therapy, bridge the gap between basic and clinical research, and bring stratified therapy into reach. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT03208400).

15.
Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci ; 14(5): 493-503, 2019 05 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972417

RESUMO

In neuroscientific studies, the naturalness of face presentation differs; a third of published studies makes use of close-up full coloured faces, a third uses close-up grey-scaled faces and another third employs cutout grey-scaled faces. Whether and how these methodological choices affect emotion-sensitive components of the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) is yet unclear. Therefore, this pre-registered study examined ERP modulations to close-up full-coloured and grey-scaled faces as well as cutout fearful and neutral facial expressions, while attention was directed to no-face oddballs. Results revealed no interaction of face naturalness and emotion for any ERP component, but showed, however, large main effects for both factors. Specifically, fearful faces and decreasing face naturalness elicited substantially enlarged N170 and early posterior negativity amplitudes and lower face naturalness also resulted in a larger P1.This pattern reversed for the LPP, showing linear increases in LPP amplitudes with increasing naturalness. We observed no interaction of emotion with face naturalness, which suggests that face naturalness and emotion are decoded in parallel at these early stages. Researchers interested in strong modulations of early components should make use of cutout grey-scaled faces, while those interested in a pronounced late positivity should use close-up coloured faces.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Expressão Facial , Adulto , Atenção , Cor , Eletroencefalografia , Movimentos Oculares , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 4795, 2019 03 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30886233

RESUMO

The ability to learn from feedback, especially under social scrutiny, is an essential prerequisite for successful interaction with the environment. Patients suffering from social anxiety disorder (SAD) have been proposed to show altered processing of and learning from feedback, especially depending on social context. However, the neural basis and behavioral consequences of altered reinforcement learning in SAD are not clear yet. In the present event-related potentials (ERPs) study, 34 SAD patients and 30 healthy control subjects (HC) performed an adapted version of a probabilistic feedback learning task in two distinct social conditions. In the observation condition, participants were observed by a confederate; in the control condition, they performed the task without being observed. Patients as compared to healthy controls experienced more subjective discomfort under social observation. Moreover, they showed better learning from negative feedback in the control condition, but reduced learning from negative feedback in the observation condition. This effect correlated with reduced differentiation of positive and negative feedback in the time range of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) under high action-feedback contingency. In addition, SAD patients demonstrated increased FRN amplitudes in the first half of the observation condition, in particular to positive feedback. The present results demonstrate that processing of and learning from feedback are altered in SAD, especially under social scrutiny. In particular, it appears that SAD patients do not process positive information adequately on the neural level, which may impair their ability to differentiate between negative and positive outcomes.


Assuntos
Potenciais Evocados , Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Fobia Social/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Comportamento Social
17.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(9): 2723-2735, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829454

RESUMO

The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the laterobasal nucleus (LB), centromedial nucleus (CM), and superficial nucleus (SF) of the amygdala form an interconnected dynamical system, whose combined activity mediates a variety of behavioral and autonomic responses in reaction to homeostatic challenges. Although previous research provided deeper insight into the structural and functional connections between these nuclei, studies investigating their resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) connectivity were solely based on undirected connectivity measures. Here, we used high-quality data of 391 subjects from the Human Connectome Project to estimate the effective connectivity (EC) between the BNST, the LB, CM, and SF through spectral dynamic causal modeling, the relation of the EC estimates with age and sex as well as their stability over time. Our results reveal a time-stable asymmetric EC structure with positive EC between all amygdala nuclei, which strongly inhibited the BNST while the BNST exerted positive influence onto all amygdala nuclei. Simulation of the impulse response of the estimated system showed that this EC structure shapes partially antagonistic (out of phase) activity flow between the BNST and amygdala nuclei. Moreover, the BNST-LB and BNST-CM EC parameters were less negative in males. In conclusion, our data points toward partially separated information processing between BNST and amygdala nuclei in the resting-state.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiologia , Conectoma/métodos , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Núcleos Septais/fisiologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Rede Nervosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Núcleos Septais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
18.
Neuroimage Clin ; 22: 101735, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878610

RESUMO

Anticipation of potentially threatening social situations is a key process in social anxiety disorder (SAD). In other anxiety disorders, recent research of neural correlates of anticipation of temporally unpredictable threat suggests a temporally dissociable involvement of amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) with phasic amygdala responses and sustained BNST activation. However, the temporal profile of amygdala and BNST responses during temporal unpredictability of threat has not been investigated in patients suffering from SAD. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate neural activation in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and the BNST during anticipation of temporally unpredictable aversive (video camera observation) relative to neutral (no camera observation) events in SAD patients compared to healthy controls (HC). For the analysis of fMRI data, we applied two regressors (phasic/sustained) within the same model to detect temporally dissociable brain responses. The aversive condition induced increased anxiety in patients compared to HC. SAD patients compared to HC showed increased phasic activation in the CeA and the BNST for anticipation of aversive relative to neutral events. SAD patients as well as HC showed sustained activity alterations in the BNST for aversive relative to neutral anticipation. No differential activity during sustained threat anticipation in SAD patients compared to HC was found. Taken together, our study reveals both CeA and BNST involvement during threat anticipation in SAD patients. The present results point towards potentially SAD-specific threat processing marked by elevated phasic but not sustained CeA and BNST responses when compared to HC.


Assuntos
Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Antecipação Psicológica/fisiologia , Fobia Social/diagnóstico por imagem , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Núcleos Septais/diagnóstico por imagem , Comportamento Social , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Fobia Social/metabolismo , Fobia Social/psicologia , Núcleos Septais/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 2415, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787382

RESUMO

Despite considerable effort, the neural correlates of altered threat-related processing in panic disorder (PD) remain inconclusive. Mental imagery of disorder-specific situations proved to be a powerful tool to investigate dysfunctional threat processing in anxiety disorders. The current functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at investigating brain activation in PD patients during disorder-related script-driven imagery. Seventeen PD patients and seventeen healthy controls (HC) were exposed to newly developed disorder-related and neutral narrative scripts while brain activation was measured with fMRI. Participants were encouraged to imagine the narrative scripts as vividly as possible and they rated their script-induced emotional states after the scanning session. PD patients rated disorder-related scripts as more arousing, unpleasant and anxiety-inducing as compared to HC. Patients relative to HC showed elevated activity in the right amygdala and the brainstem as well as decreased activity in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and the medial and lateral prefrontal cortex to disorder-related vs. neutral scripts. The results suggest altered amygdala/ brainstem and prefrontal cortex engagement and point towards the recruitment of brain networks with opposed activation patterns in PD patients during script-driven imagery.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Medo/fisiologia , Transtorno de Pânico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Tonsila do Cerebelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tonsila do Cerebelo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Emoções/fisiologia , Medo/psicologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagens, Psicoterapia/métodos , Imaginação/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Transtorno de Pânico/diagnóstico por imagem , Projetos Piloto , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
Soc Neurosci ; 14(1): 114-124, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29115181

RESUMO

This study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response times (RTs). It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo. RTs and ERPs replicated flanker compatibility effects, with faster responses and increased P3a on compatible trials. In line with the hypotheses, ERPs revealed distinct coding of social and non-social nogo in the conflict-sensitive N2 which showed a compatibility effect only for social nogo, and in the attention/memory-related P3b which was larger for social relative to non-social nogo. The P3a did not distinguish between social and non-social nogo, but was larger for compatible and smaller for go trials. Contrary to our hypotheses, RTs were faster after social relative to non-social nogo. Hence, the representation of the co-actor's response in joint action modulates conflict processing reflected in the N2 and response discrimination and evaluation reflected in the P3b and may facilitate subsequent responses in the context of social versus non-social nogo.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Inibição Psicológica , Relações Interpessoais , Comportamento Social , Percepção Social , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Potencial Evocado P300 , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
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