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BJU Int ; 119(6): 846-853, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27981711


OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of sorafenib dose escalation in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Intra-patient dose escalation may enhance the clinical benefit of targeted anticancer agents in metastatic disease. In this non-randomised, open-label, Phase 2b study, treatment-naïve patients with mRCC were initially treated with the standard oral sorafenib dose [400 mg twice daily (BID)]. Two dose escalations were planned, each 200 mg BID after 28 days at the prior level. Dose reductions, interruptions, or delayed escalations were used to manage adverse events (AEs). The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population, which comprised patients with ≥6 months of treatment including ≥4 months of therapy at their highest tolerated dose. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. RESULTS: In all, 83 patients received sorafenib. The dose received for the longest duration was 400, 600, and 800 mg BID in 48.2%, 15.7%, and 24.1% of patients, respectively. The ORR was 44.4% [n = 8/18; 95% confidence interval (CI) 21.5-69.2] and 17.9% (n = 12/67; 95% CI 9.6-29.2) in the mITT and ITT populations, respectively. The median (95% CI) PFS was 7.4 (6.0-11.7) months (ITT). The most common AEs of any grade were hand-foot skin reaction (66.3%) and diarrhoea (63.9%). CONCLUSION: Sorafenib demonstrated clinical benefit in treatment-naïve patients with mRCC. However, relatively few patients could sustain doses of >400 mg BID. There was evidence that, where tolerated, escalation from the standard sorafenib dose may have enhanced clinical benefit. However, this study does not support dose escalation for most patients with treatment-naïve mRCC. Alternative protocols for sorafenib dose escalation could be explored.

Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma de Células Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma de Células Renais/secundário , Neoplasias Renais/tratamento farmacológico , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Niacinamida/administração & dosagem , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sorafenibe , Resultado do Tratamento
J Clin Oncol ; 30(25): 3084-92, 2012 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22851564


PURPOSE: This trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of sorafenib plus gemcitabine/cisplatin in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable stage IIIB to IV nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between February 2007 and March 2009, 904 patients were randomly assigned to daily sorafenib (400 mg twice a day) or matching placebo plus gemcitabine (1,250 mg/m(2) per day on days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m(2) on day 1) for up to six 21-day cycles. Because of safety findings from the Evaluation of Sorafenib, Carboplatin and Paclitaxel Efficacy in NSCLC (ESCAPE) trial, patients with squamous cell histology were withdrawn from the trial in February 2008 and excluded from analysis. The primary end point was overall survival (OS), and secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and time-to-progression (TTP). RESULTS: The primary analysis population consisted of 772 patients (sorafenib, 385; placebo, 387); the two groups had similar demographic and baseline characteristics. Median OS was similar in the sorafenib and placebo groups (12.4 v 12.5 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.98; P = .401). By investigator assessment, sorafenib improved median PFS (6.0 v 5.5 months; HR, 0.83; P = .008) and TTP (6.1 v 5.5 months; HR, 0.73; P < .001). Grade 3 to 4 drug-related adverse events more than two-fold higher in the sorafenib group included hand-foot skin reaction (8.6% v 0.3%), fatigue (7.3% v 3.6%), rash (5.7% v 0.5%), and hypertension (4.2% v 1.8%). No unexpected toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: This study did not meet its primary end point of improved OS when sorafenib was added to first-line gemcitabine/cisplatin in patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. Identification of predictive biomarkers is warranted in future trials of sorafenib.

Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Benzenossulfonatos/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/mortalidade , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Cisplatino/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/administração & dosagem , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Progressão da Doença , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Niacinamida/análogos & derivados , Compostos de Fenilureia , Placebos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Sorafenibe , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
Am J Clin Dermatol ; 7(4): 259-62, 2006.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16901186


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sertaconazole, an imidazole antifungal drug, has been proven to have broad and potent antifungal activity. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics of sertaconazole nail patches, developed for treatment of onychodystrophy and onychomycosis, were investigated in healthy volunteers. The objective of the study was to investigate the penetration of sertaconazole into the nail and plasma and the residual sertaconazole concentration in patches after 1 week of application onto the nails. METHODS: In a double-blind study, 16 healthy adults were treated with a 2.2 cm2 nail patch containing sertaconazole 3.63 mg and another patch containing no antifungal agent, which were placed on the left and right thumbnail of each subject, respectively (or vice versa), in a randomized order. The treatment period was 6 weeks and the patches were replaced weekly. Nail clippings, used nail patches, and blood samples were investigated to determine sertaconazole concentrations. RESULTS: Sertaconazole was detected in all sertaconazole-treated nail samples with mean concentrations of >100 microg/g, which exceeds the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for all relevant fungi in this context. Measurements of the residual dose in the patches suggested that 16-71% of the active ingredient had penetrated into the nail. No plasma sertaconazole concentrations could be detected. CONCLUSION: By virtue of their positive influence (occlusion) on water and lipid metabolism in dystrophic nails, nail patches should have beneficial therapeutic effects in onychodystrophic conditions. Addition of the antifungal agent sertaconazole adds broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. In this study, the concentrations of sertaconazole in the nails were shown to be well above the MIC values for pathogenic fungi relevant to onychomycosis. No systemic absorption of the active ingredient was detectable, which should exclude unwanted systemic effects of the drug.

Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Unhas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem
Arzneimittelforschung ; 55(6): 338-42, 2005.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16032974


The purpose of this open study was to evaluate the rate and extent of the penetration of sertaconazole nitrate (CAS 99592-32-2, Zalaïn) penetration into the stratum corneum/lucidum of the human skin. Selected areas of 9 cm2 each of the back skin of 12 healthy volunteers were exposed over 8 different time intervals (between 0 and 48 h) to 100 mg of a 2% cream preparation of the compound or to placebo. Using a HPLC-assay the relative amounts of the applied dose of sertaconazole nitrate were determined in the residual cream of the skin surface as well as in 3 layers of the epidermis obtained by the stripping technique. Sertaconazole nitrate was shown to penetrate into the stratum corneum shortly after application, disappearing from the application areas with a mean apparent half-life of approximately 60 h. Immediately after topical application the residual amount of the applied mean dose of 2103 +/- 146.3 microg on the skin's surface was 88.9 +/- 2.3%, decreasing steadily to 52.4 +/- 8.5% after 48 h. A relevant amount of the applied dose (5.3 +/- 3.0%) was recovered from the stratum corneum already 30 min after application, and 3 h after administration a plateau was reached (6.9 +/- 3.2) which could be maintained until 48 h. A gradient from the site of application to the epidermis was apparent since the amounts recovered in The estimated average level of sertaconazole nitrate for a volume of 1 mL of stratum corneum after application of 100 mg cream was 1409 microg immediately after application and reached a plateau at 3 h with 9029 microg. Although not directly measured, the results also gave information about the mean amount of sertaconazole nitrate that penetrated through the stratum corneum and deeper layers allowing an estimate of the total mean amount of compound penetrating into the skin. The relative portion of this amount steadily increased from 1.1% of the applied dose at 0 h to 24.1% at 12 h, 34.2% at 24 h and finally to 37.6% of dose after 48 h of exposure. In view of the high target organ levels of the compound maintained over days, its rapid appearance in the stratum corneum after application and the earlier finding that Sertaconazole nitrate is not distributed into blood in substantial quantities the pharmacokinetic properties of this antifungal preparation therapy can be regarded as favourable.

Antifúngicos/farmacocinética , Imidazóis/farmacocinética , Absorção Cutânea , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Administração Tópica , Adulto , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/efeitos adversos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Meia-Vida , Humanos , Imidazóis/administração & dosagem , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pomadas , Pele/química , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos
Clin Drug Investig ; 23(6): 387-94, 2003.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17535049


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this multicentre, double-blind, vehicle-controlled study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of once-daily topical application of sertaconazole 2% cream compared with corresponding vehicle cream in the treatment of patients with tinea of glabrous skin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 400 patients were recruited at seven investigational sites; 144 patients in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and 127 in the per-protocol (PP) population were treated for 3 weeks with either sertaconazole 2% once daily or corresponding vehicle cream. To evaluate therapeutic efficacy and safety, microscopic examination of native preparations, mycological cultures, and clinical assessment of the state of the lesion (objective and subjective monitoring of symptoms) were analysed after 3 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: Based on these parameters, in both the PP and ITT populations, sertaconazole cream 2% once daily induced a higher cure rate than the vehicle cream: 82% of the PP population (vehicle cream control 61%; p = 0.014) and 83% of the ITT population (vehicle cream control 59%; p = 0.003) randomised to sertaconazole with a previously positive mycological culture showed negative culture results after sertaconazole treatment. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding frequency and severity of adverse effects. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that treatment of superficial dermatomycoses with sertaconazole 2% cream for 3 weeks is efficient and safe. The once-daily application regimen may improve patient compliance, which has been shown to be of exceptional importance for successful treatment of dermatomycoses of the glabrous skin.