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1.
Cell ; 179(3): 589-603, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607513

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have focused primarily on populations of European descent, but it is essential that diverse populations become better represented. Increasing diversity among study participants will advance our understanding of genetic architecture in all populations and ensure that genetic research is broadly applicable. To facilitate and promote research in multi-ancestry and admixed cohorts, we outline key methodological considerations and highlight opportunities, challenges, solutions, and areas in need of development. Despite the perception that analyzing genetic data from diverse populations is difficult, it is scientifically and ethically imperative, and there is an expanding analytical toolbox to do it well.

3.
PLoS Genet ; 15(6): e1008164, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31194737

RESUMO

Chronic pain is highly prevalent worldwide and represents a significant socioeconomic and public health burden. Several aspects of chronic pain, for example back pain and a severity-related phenotype 'chronic pain grade', have been shown previously to be complex heritable traits with a polygenic component. Additional pain-related phenotypes capturing aspects of an individual's overall sensitivity to experiencing and reporting chronic pain have also been suggested as a focus for investigation. We made use of a measure of the number of sites of chronic pain in individuals within the UK general population. This measure, termed Multisite Chronic Pain (MCP), is a complex trait and its genetic architecture has not previously been investigated. To address this, we carried out a large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) of MCP in ~380,000 UK Biobank participants. Our findings were consistent with MCP having a significant polygenic component, with a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) heritability of 10.2%. In total 76 independent lead SNPs at 39 risk loci were associated with MCP. Additional gene-level association analyses identified neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, nervous system development, cell-cycle progression and apoptosis genes as enriched for genetic association with MCP. Genetic correlations were observed between MCP and a range of psychiatric, autoimmune and anthropometric traits, including major depressive disorder (MDD), asthma and Body Mass Index (BMI). Furthermore, in Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses a causal effect of MCP on MDD was observed. Additionally, a polygenic risk score (PRS) for MCP was found to significantly predict chronic widespread pain (pain all over the body), indicating the existence of genetic variants contributing to both of these pain phenotypes. Overall, our findings support the proposition that chronic pain involves a strong nervous system component with implications for our understanding of the physiology of chronic pain. These discoveries may also inform the future development of novel treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Asma/fisiopatologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Dor Crônica/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurogênese/genética , Plasticidade Neuronal/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Reino Unido
4.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168069

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of psychiatric phenotypes have tended to focus on categorical diagnoses, but to understand the biology of mental illness it may be more useful to study traits which cut across traditional boundaries. Here, we report the results of a GWAS of mood instability as a trait in a large population cohort (UK Biobank, n = 363,705). We also assess the clinical and biological relevance of the findings, including whether genetic associations show enrichment for nervous system pathways. Forty six unique loci associated with mood instability were identified with a SNP heritability estimate of 9%. Linkage Disequilibrium Score Regression (LDSR) analyses identified genetic correlations with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), Bipolar Disorder (BD), Schizophrenia, anxiety, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Gene-level and gene set analyses identified 244 significant genes and 6 enriched gene sets. Tissue expression analysis of the SNP-level data found enrichment in multiple brain regions, and eQTL analyses highlighted an inversion on chromosome 17 plus two brain-specific eQTLs. In addition, we used a Phenotype Linkage Network (PLN) analysis and community analysis to assess for enrichment of nervous system gene sets using mouse orthologue databases. The PLN analysis found enrichment in nervous system PLNs for a community containing serotonin and melatonin receptors. In summary, this work has identified novel loci, tissues and gene sets contributing to mood instability. These findings may be relevant for the identification of novel trans-diagnostic drug targets and could help to inform future stratified medicine innovations in mental health.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7339, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31089183

RESUMO

CADM2 has been associated with a range of behavioural and metabolic traits, including physical activity, risk-taking, educational attainment, alcohol and cannabis use and obesity. Here, we set out to determine whether CADM2 contributes to mechanisms shared between mental and physical health disorders. We assessed genetic variants in the CADM2 locus for association with phenotypes in the UK Biobank, IMPROVE, PROCARDIS and SCARFSHEEP studies, before performing meta-analyses. A wide range of metabolic phenotypes were meta-analysed. Psychological phenotypes analysed in UK Biobank only were major depressive disorder, generalised anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, neuroticism, mood instability and risk-taking behaviour. In UK Biobank, four, 88 and 172 genetic variants were significantly (p < 1 × 10-5) associated with neuroticism, mood instability and risk-taking respectively. In meta-analyses of 4 cohorts, we identified 362, 63 and 11 genetic variants significantly (p < 1 × 10-5) associated with BMI, SBP and CRP respectively. Genetic effects on BMI, CRP and risk-taking were all positively correlated, and were consistently inversely correlated with genetic effects on SBP, mood instability and neuroticism. Conditional analyses suggested an overlap in the signals for physical and psychological traits. Many significant variants had genotype-specific effects on CADM2 expression levels in adult brain and adipose tissues. CADM2 variants influence a wide range of both psychological and metabolic traits, suggesting common biological mechanisms across phenotypes via regulation of CADM2 expression levels in adipose tissue. Functional studies of CADM2 are required to fully understand mechanisms connecting mental and physical health conditions.

6.
Neurology ; 92(23): e2691-e2698, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028125

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test for interactions between APOE ε4 genotype and lifestyle factors on worse cognitive abilities in UK Biobank. METHODS: Using UK Biobank cohort data, we tested for interactions between APOE ε4 allele presence, lifestyle factors of alcohol intake, smoking, total physical activity and obesity, and sex, on cognitive tests of reasoning, information processing speed, and executive function (n range = 70,988-324,725 depending on the test). We statistically adjusted for potential confounders of age, sex, deprivation, cardiometabolic conditions, and educational attainment. RESULTS: There were significant associations between APOE ε4 and worse cognitive abilities, independent of potential confounders, and between lifestyle risk factors and worse cognitive abilities; however, there were no interactions at multiple correction-adjusted p < 0.05, against our hypotheses. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not provide support for the idea that ε4 genotype increases vulnerability to the negative effects of lifestyle risk factors on cognitive ability, but rather support a primarily outright association between APOE ε4 genotype and worse cognitive ability.

7.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30903549

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein (APOE) e4 genotype is an accepted risk factor for accelerated cognitive aging and dementia, though its neurostructural substrates are unclear. The deleterious effects of this genotype on brain structure may increase in magnitude into older age. This study aimed to investigate in UK Biobank the association between APOE e4 allele presence vs. absence and brain imaging variables that have been associated with worse cognitive abilities; and whether this association varies by cross-sectional age. We used brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and genetic data from a general-population cohort: the UK Biobank (N = 8395 after exclusions). We adjusted for the covariates of age in years, sex, Townsend social deprivation scores, smoking history and cardiometabolic diseases. There was a statistically significant association between APOE e4 genotype and increased (i.e. worse) white matter (WM) hyperintensity volumes (standardised beta = 0.088, 95% confidence intervals = 0.036 to 0.139, P = 0.001), a marker of poorer cerebrovascular health. There were no associations with left or right hippocampal, total grey matter (GM) or WM volumes, or WM tract integrity indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD). There were no statistically significant interactions with age. Future research in UK Biobank utilising intermediate phenotypes and longitudinal imaging hold significant promise for this area, particularly pertaining to APOE e4's potential link with cerebrovascular contributions to cognitive aging.

8.
EBioMedicine ; 41: 517-525, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicide is a major issue for global public health. Suicidality describes a broad spectrum of thoughts and behaviours, some of which are common in the general population. Although suicide results from a complex interaction of multiple social and psychological factors, predisposition to suicidality is at least partly genetic. METHODS: Ordinal genome-wide association study of suicidality in the UK Biobank cohort comparing: 'no suicidality' controls (N = 83,557); 'thoughts that life was not worth living' (N = 21,063); 'ever contemplated self-harm' (N = 13,038); 'act of deliberate self-harm in the past' (N = 2498); and 'previous suicide attempt' (N = 2666). OUTCOMES: We identified three novel genome-wide significant loci for suicidality (on chromosomes nine, 11 and 13) and moderate-to-strong genetic correlations between suicidality and a range of psychiatric disorders, most notably depression (rg 0·81). INTERPRETATION: These findings provide new information about genetic variants relating to increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Future work should assess the extent to which polygenic risk scores for suicidality, in combination with non-genetic risk factors, may be useful for stratified approaches to suicide prevention at a population level. FUND: UKRI Innovation-HDR-UK Fellowship (MR/S003061/1). MRC Mental Health Data Pathfinder Award (MC_PC_17217). MRC Doctoral Training Programme Studentship at the University of Glasgow (MR/K501335/1). MRC Doctoral Training Programme Studentship at the Universities of Glasgow and Edinburgh. UKRI Innovation Fellowship (MR/R024774/1).


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Suicídio , Adulto , Idoso , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Reino Unido
9.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203896, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240446

RESUMO

There are currently no reliable approaches for correctly identifying which patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) will respond well to antidepressant therapy. However, recent genetic advances suggest that Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) could allow MDD patients to be stratified for antidepressant response. We used PRS for MDD and PRS for neuroticism as putative predictors of antidepressant response within three treatment cohorts: The Genome-based Therapeutic Drugs for Depression (GENDEP) cohort, and 2 sub-cohorts from the Pharmacogenomics Research Network Antidepressant Medication Pharmacogenomics Study PRGN-AMPS (total patient number = 760). Results across cohorts were combined via meta-analysis within a random effects model. Overall, PRS for MDD and neuroticism did not significantly predict antidepressant response but there was a consistent direction of effect, whereby greater genetic loading for both MDD (best MDD result, p < 5*10-5 MDD-PRS at 4 weeks, ß = -0.019, S.E = 0.008, p = 0.01) and neuroticism (best neuroticism result, p < 0.1 neuroticism-PRS at 8 weeks, ß = -0.017, S.E = 0.008, p = 0.03) were associated with less favourable response. We conclude that the PRS approach may offer some promise for treatment stratification in MDD and should now be assessed within larger clinical cohorts.

10.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 178, 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181555

RESUMO

Risk-taking behaviour is an important component of several psychiatric disorders, including attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Previously, two genetic loci have been associated with self-reported risk taking and significant genetic overlap with psychiatric disorders was identified within a subsample of UK Biobank. Using the white British participants of the full UK Biobank cohort (n = 83,677 risk takers versus 244,662 controls) for our primary analysis, we conducted a genome-wide association study of self-reported risk-taking behaviour. In secondary analyses, we assessed sex-specific effects, trans-ethnic heterogeneity and genetic overlap with psychiatric traits. We also investigated the impact of risk-taking-associated SNPs on both gene expression and structural brain imaging. We identified 10 independent loci for risk-taking behaviour, of which eight were novel and two replicated previous findings. In addition, we found two further sex-specific risk-taking loci. There were strong positive genetic correlations between risk-taking and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Index genetic variants demonstrated effects generally consistent with the discovery analysis in individuals of non-British White, South Asian, African-Caribbean or mixed ethnicity. Polygenic risk scores comprising alleles associated with increased risk taking were associated with lower white matter integrity. Genotype-specific expression pattern analyses highlighted DPYSL5, CGREF1 and C15orf59 as plausible candidate genes. Overall, our findings substantially advance our understanding of the biology of risk-taking behaviour, including the possibility of sex-specific contributions, and reveal consistency across ethnicities. We further highlight several putative novel candidate genes, which may mediate these genetic effects.

11.
EBioMedicine ; 35: 279-287, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30120083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Circadian rhythms are fundamental to health and are particularly important for mental wellbeing. Disrupted rhythms of rest and activity are recognised as risk factors for major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of low relative amplitude (RA), an objective measure of rest-activity cycles derived from the accelerometer data of 71,500 UK Biobank participants. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for low RA were used to investigate potential associations with psychiatric phenotypes. OUTCOMES: Two independent genetic loci were associated with low RA, within genomic regions for Neurofascin (NFASC) and Solute Carrier Family 25 Member 17 (SLC25A17). A secondary GWAS of RA as a continuous measure identified a locus within Meis Homeobox 1 (MEIS1). There were no significant genetic correlations between low RA and any of the psychiatric phenotypes assessed. However, PRS for low RA was significantly associated with mood instability across multiple PRS thresholds (at PRS threshold 0·05: OR = 1·02, 95% CI = 1·01-1·02, p = 9·6 × 10-5), and with major depressive disorder (at PRS threshold 0·1: OR = 1·03, 95% CI = 1·01-1·05, p = 0·025) and neuroticism (at PRS threshold 0·5: Beta = 0·02, 95% CI = 0·007-0·04, p = 0·021). INTERPRETATION: Overall, our findings contribute new knowledge on the complex genetic architecture of circadian rhythmicity and suggest a putative biological link between disrupted circadian function and mood disorder phenotypes, particularly mood instability, but also major depressive disorder and neuroticism. FUNDING: Medical Research Council (MR/K501335/1).

12.
Curr Diab Rep ; 18(8): 59, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938349

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established. This review collates the available evidence and assesses the shared genetic background between T2D and CVD: the causal contribution of common risk factors to T2D and CVD and how genetics can be used to improve drug development and clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of T2D and CVD support a shared genetic background but minimal individual locus overlap. Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses show that T2D is causal for CVD, but GWAS of CVD, T2D and their common risk factors provided limited evidence for individual locus overlap. Distinct but functionally related pathways were enriched for CVD and T2D genetic associations reflecting the lack of locus overlap and providing some explanation for the variable associations of common risk factors with CVD and T2D from MR analyses.

13.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 5(6): 507-514, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29776774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disruption of sleep and circadian rhythmicity is a core feature of mood disorders and might be associated with increased susceptibility to such disorders. Previous studies in this area have used subjective reports of activity and sleep patterns, but the availability of accelerometer-based data from UK Biobank participants permits the derivation and analysis of new, objectively ascertained circadian rhythmicity parameters. We examined associations between objectively assessed circadian rhythmicity and mental health and wellbeing phenotypes, including lifetime history of mood disorder. METHODS: UK residents aged 37-73 years were recruited into the UK Biobank general population cohort from 2006 to 2010. We used data from a subset of participants whose activity levels were recorded by wearing a wrist-worn accelerometer for 7 days. From these data, we derived a circadian relative amplitude variable, which is a measure of the extent to which circadian rhythmicity of rest-activity cycles is disrupted. In the same sample, we examined cross-sectional associations between low relative amplitude and mood disorder, wellbeing, and cognitive variables using a series of regression models. Our final model adjusted for age and season at the time that accelerometry started, sex, ethnic origin, Townsend deprivation score, smoking status, alcohol intake, educational attainment, overall mean acceleration recorded by accelerometry, body-mass index, and a binary measure of childhood trauma. FINDINGS: We included 91 105 participants with accelerometery data collected between 2013 and 2015 in our analyses. A one-quintile reduction in relative amplitude was associated with increased risk of lifetime major depressive disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1·06, 95% CI 1·04-1·08) and lifetime bipolar disorder (1·11, 1·03-1·20), as well as with greater mood instability (1·02, 1·01-1·04), higher neuroticism scores (incident rate ratio 1·01, 1·01-1·02), more subjective loneliness (OR 1·09, 1·07-1·11), lower happiness (0·91, 0·90-0·93), lower health satisfaction (0·90, 0·89-0·91), and slower reaction times (linear regression coefficient 1·75, 1·05-2·45). These associations were independent of demographic, lifestyle, education, and overall activity confounders. INTERPRETATION: Circadian disruption is reliably associated with various adverse mental health and wellbeing outcomes, including major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. Lower relative amplitude might be linked to increased susceptibility to mood disorders. FUNDING: Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine.

14.
Diabetologia ; 61(5): 1112-1123, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487953

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: By genome-wide association meta-analysis, 17 genetic loci associated with fasting serum insulin (FSI), a marker of systemic insulin resistance, have been identified. To define potential culprit genes in these loci, in a cross-sectional study we analysed white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of 120 genes in these loci in relation to systemic and adipose tissue variables, and functionally evaluated genes demonstrating genotype-specific expression in WAT (eQTLs). METHODS: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from 114 women. Basal lipolytic activity was measured as glycerol release from adipose tissue explants. Adipocytes were isolated and insulin-stimulated incorporation of radiolabelled glucose into lipids was used to quantify adipocyte insulin sensitivity. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockout in human mesenchymal stem cells was used for functional evaluation of genes. RESULTS: Adipose expression of 48 of the studied candidate genes associated significantly with FSI, whereas expression of 24, 17 and 2 genes, respectively, associated with adipocyte insulin sensitivity, lipolysis and/or WAT morphology (i.e. fat cell size relative to total body fat mass). Four genetic loci contained eQTLs. In one chromosome 4 locus (rs3822072), the FSI-increasing allele associated with lower FAM13A expression and FAM13A expression associated with a beneficial metabolic profile including decreased WAT lipolysis (regression coefficient, R = -0.50, p = 5.6 × 10-7). Knockdown of FAM13A increased lipolysis by ~1.5-fold and the expression of LIPE (encoding hormone-sensitive lipase, a rate-limiting enzyme in lipolysis). At the chromosome 7 locus (rs1167800), the FSI-increasing allele associated with lower POM121C expression. Consistent with an insulin-sensitising function, POM121C expression associated with systemic insulin sensitivity (R = -0.22, p = 2.0 × 10-2), adipocyte insulin sensitivity (R = 0.28, p = 3.4 × 10-3) and adipose hyperplasia (R = -0.29, p = 2.6 × 10-2). POM121C knockdown decreased expression of all adipocyte-specific markers by 25-50%, suggesting that POM121C is necessary for adipogenesis. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Gene expression and adipocyte functional studies support the notion that FAM13A and POM121C control adipocyte lipolysis and adipogenesis, respectively, and might thereby be involved in genetic control of systemic insulin sensitivity.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 39, 2018 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391395

RESUMO

Risk-taking behaviour is a key component of several psychiatric disorders and could influence lifestyle choices such as smoking, alcohol use, and diet. As a phenotype, risk-taking behaviour therefore fits within a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach, whereby identifying genetic determinants of this trait has the potential to improve our understanding across different psychiatric disorders. Here we report a genome-wide association study in 116,255 UK Biobank participants who responded yes/no to the question "Would you consider yourself a risk taker?" Risk takers (compared with controls) were more likely to be men, smokers, and have a history of psychiatric disorder. Genetic loci associated with risk-taking behaviour were identified on chromosomes 3 (rs13084531) and 6 (rs9379971). The effects of both lead SNPs were comparable between men and women. The chromosome 3 locus highlights CADM2, previously implicated in cognitive and executive functions, but the chromosome 6 locus is challenging to interpret due to the complexity of the HLA region. Risk-taking behaviour shared significant genetic risk with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as with smoking and total obesity. Despite being based on only a single question, this study furthers our understanding of the biology of risk-taking behaviour, a trait that has a major impact on a range of common physical and mental health disorders.

16.
J Affect Disord ; 229: 296-305, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29329063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined whether seasonal variations in depressive symptoms occurred independently of demographic and lifestyle factors, and were related to change in day length and/or outdoor temperature. METHODS: In a cross-sectional analysis of >150,000 participants of the UK Biobank cohort, we used the cosinor method to assess evidence of seasonality of a total depressive symptoms score and of low mood, anhedonia, tenseness and tiredness scores in women and men. Associations of depressive symptoms with day length and mean outdoor temperature were then examined. RESULTS: Seasonality of total depressive symptom scores, anhedonia and tiredness scores was observed in women but not men, with peaks in winter. In women, increased day length was associated with reduced reporting of low mood and anhedonia, but with increased reporting of tiredness, independent of demographic and lifestyle factors. Associations with day length were not independent of the average outdoor temperature preceding assessment. LIMITATIONS: This was a cross-sectional investigation - longitudinal studies of within-subject seasonal variation in mood are necessary. Outcome measures relied on self-report and measured only a subset of depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: This large, population-based study provides evidence of seasonal variation in depressive symptoms in women. Shorter days were associated with increased feelings of low mood and anhedonia in women. Clinicians should be aware of these population-level sex differences in seasonal mood variations in order to aid recognition and treatment of depression and subclinical depressive symptoms.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Estações do Ano , Adulto , Afeto , Idoso , Anedonia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Letargia/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(11): 1264, 2017 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29187730

RESUMO

Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of mood instability in 53,525 cases and 60,443 controls from UK Biobank, identifying four independently associated loci (on chromosomes 8, 9, 14 and 18), and a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability estimate of ~8%. We found a strong genetic correlation between mood instability and MDD (r g = 0.60, SE = 0.07, p = 8.95 × 10-17) and a small but significant genetic correlation with both schizophrenia (r g = 0.11, SE = 0.04, p = 0.01) and anxiety disorders (r g = 0.28, SE = 0.14, p = 0.04), although no genetic correlation with BD, ADHD or PTSD was observed. Several genes at the associated loci may have a role in mood instability, including the DCC netrin 1 receptor (DCC) gene, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B subunit beta (eIF2B2), placental growth factor (PGF) and protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type D (PTPRD). Strengths of this study include the very large sample size, but our measure of mood instability may be limited by the use of a single question. Overall, this work suggests a polygenic basis for mood instability. This simple measure can be obtained in very large samples; our findings suggest that doing so may offer the opportunity to illuminate the fundamental biology of mood regulation.


Assuntos
Afeto , Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Idoso , Transtornos de Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Reino Unido
18.
Atherosclerosis ; 266: 196-204, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Increased proinsulin relative to insulin levels have been associated with subclinical atherosclerosis (measured by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)) and are predictive of future cardiovascular disease (CVD), independently of established risk factors. The mechanisms linking proinsulin to atherosclerosis and CVD are unclear. A genome-wide meta-analysis has identified nine loci associated with circulating proinsulin levels. Using proinsulin-associated SNPs, we set out to use a Mendelian randomisation approach to test the hypothesis that proinsulin plays a causal role in subclinical vascular remodelling. METHODS: We studied the high CVD-risk IMPROVE cohort (n = 3345), which has detailed biochemical phenotyping and repeated, state-of-the-art, high-resolution carotid ultrasound examinations. Genotyping was performed using Illumina Cardio-Metabo and Immuno arrays, which include reported proinsulin-associated loci. Participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 904) were omitted from the analysis. Linear regression was used to identify proinsulin-associated genetic variants. RESULTS: We identified a proinsulin locus on chromosome 15 (rs8029765) and replicated it in data from 20,003 additional individuals. An 11-SNP score, including the previously identified and the chromosome 15 proinsulin-associated loci, was significantly and negatively associated with baseline IMTmean and IMTmax (the primary cIMT phenotypes) but not with progression measures. However, MR-Eggers refuted any significant effect of the proinsulin-associated 11-SNP score, and a non-pleiotropic SNP score of three variants (including rs8029765) demonstrated no effect on baseline or progression cIMT measures. CONCLUSIONS: We identified a novel proinsulin-associated locus and demonstrated that whilst proinsulin levels are associated with cIMT measures, proinsulin per se is unlikely to have a causative effect on cIMT.


Assuntos
Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proinsulina/genética , Remodelação Vascular/genética , Doenças Assintomáticas , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/fisiopatologia , Espessura Intima-Media Carotídea , Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Fenótipo , Proinsulina/sangue , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Fatores de Risco
19.
PLoS Med ; 14(9): e1002383, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28898252

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to diagnose type 2 diabetes (T2D) and assess glycemic control in patients with diabetes. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 18 HbA1c-associated genetic variants. These variants proved to be classifiable by their likely biological action as erythrocytic (also associated with erythrocyte traits) or glycemic (associated with other glucose-related traits). In this study, we tested the hypotheses that, in a very large scale GWAS, we would identify more genetic variants associated with HbA1c and that HbA1c variants implicated in erythrocytic biology would affect the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. We therefore expanded the number of HbA1c-associated loci and tested the effect of genetic risk-scores comprised of erythrocytic or glycemic variants on incident diabetes prediction and on prevalent diabetes screening performance. Throughout this multiancestry study, we kept a focus on interancestry differences in HbA1c genetics performance that might influence race-ancestry differences in health outcomes. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using genome-wide association meta-analyses in up to 159,940 individuals from 82 cohorts of European, African, East Asian, and South Asian ancestry, we identified 60 common genetic variants associated with HbA1c. We classified variants as implicated in glycemic, erythrocytic, or unclassified biology and tested whether additive genetic scores of erythrocytic variants (GS-E) or glycemic variants (GS-G) were associated with higher T2D incidence in multiethnic longitudinal cohorts (N = 33,241). Nineteen glycemic and 22 erythrocytic variants were associated with HbA1c at genome-wide significance. GS-G was associated with higher T2D risk (incidence OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06, per HbA1c-raising allele, p = 3 × 10-29); whereas GS-E was not (OR = 1.00, 95% CI 0.99-1.01, p = 0.60). In Europeans and Asians, erythrocytic variants in aggregate had only modest effects on the diagnostic accuracy of HbA1c. Yet, in African Americans, the X-linked G6PD G202A variant (T-allele frequency 11%) was associated with an absolute decrease in HbA1c of 0.81%-units (95% CI 0.66-0.96) per allele in hemizygous men, and 0.68%-units (95% CI 0.38-0.97) in homozygous women. The G6PD variant may cause approximately 2% (N = 0.65 million, 95% CI 0.55-0.74) of African American adults with T2D to remain undiagnosed when screened with HbA1c. Limitations include the smaller sample sizes for non-European ancestries and the inability to classify approximately one-third of the variants. Further studies in large multiethnic cohorts with HbA1c, glycemic, and erythrocytic traits are required to better determine the biological action of the unclassified variants. CONCLUSIONS: As G6PD deficiency can be clinically silent until illness strikes, we recommend investigation of the possible benefits of screening for the G6PD genotype along with using HbA1c to diagnose T2D in populations of African ancestry or groups where G6PD deficiency is common. Screening with direct glucose measurements, or genetically-informed HbA1c diagnostic thresholds in people with G6PD deficiency, may be required to avoid missed or delayed diagnoses.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hemoglobina A Glicada/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Fenótipo , Risco
20.
Hypertension ; 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739976

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a substantial genetic contribution. Genetic variation influencing blood pressure has the potential to identify new pharmacological targets for the treatment of hypertension. To discover additional novel blood pressure loci, we used 1000 Genomes Project-based imputation in 150 134 European ancestry individuals and sought significant evidence for independent replication in a further 228 245 individuals. We report 6 new signals of association in or near HSPB7, TNXB, LRP12, LOC283335, SEPT9, and AKT2, and provide new replication evidence for a further 2 signals in EBF2 and NFKBIA Combining large whole-blood gene expression resources totaling 12 607 individuals, we investigated all novel and previously reported signals and identified 48 genes with evidence for involvement in blood pressure regulation that are significant in multiple resources. Three novel kidney-specific signals were also detected. These robustly implicated genes may provide new leads for therapeutic innovation.

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