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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 493-508, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31447100

RESUMO

Histones mediate dynamic packaging of nuclear DNA in chromatin, a process that is precisely controlled to guarantee efficient compaction of the genome and proper chromosomal segregation during cell division and to accomplish DNA replication, transcription, and repair. Due to the important structural and regulatory roles played by histones, it is not surprising that histone functional dysregulation or aberrant levels of histones can have severe consequences for multiple cellular processes and ultimately might affect development or contribute to cell transformation. Recently, germline frameshift mutations involving the C-terminal tail of HIST1H1E, which is a widely expressed member of the linker histone family and facilitates higher-order chromatin folding, have been causally linked to an as-yet poorly defined syndrome that includes intellectual disability. We report that these mutations result in stable proteins that reside in the nucleus, bind to chromatin, disrupt proper compaction of DNA, and are associated with a specific methylation pattern. Cells expressing these mutant proteins have a dramatically reduced proliferation rate and competence, hardly enter into the S phase, and undergo accelerated senescence. Remarkably, clinical assessment of a relatively large cohort of subjects sharing these mutations revealed a premature aging phenotype as a previously unrecognized feature of the disorder. Our findings identify a direct link between aberrant chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, and accelerated aging.

2.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(10): 2138-2143, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290619

RESUMO

Autosomal recessive COX4I1 deficiency has been previously reported in a single individual with a homozygous pathogenic variant in COX4I1, who presented with short stature, poor weight gain, dysmorphic features, and features of Fanconi anemia. COX4I1 encodes subunit 4, isoform 1 of cytochrome c oxidase. Cytochrome c oxidase is a respiratory chain enzyme that plays an important role in mitochondrial electron transport and reduces molecular oxygen to water leading to the formation of ATP. Defective production of cytochrome c oxidase leads to a variable phenotypic spectrum ranging from isolated myopathy to Leigh syndrome. Here, we describe two siblings, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with encephalopathy, developmental regression, hypotonia, pathognomonic brain imaging findings resembling Leigh-syndrome, and a novel homozygous variant on COX4I1, expanding the known clinical phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in COX4I1.

4.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 56(6): 823-826, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30585077

RESUMO

Patients with craniosynostosis with subnormal vision due to papilledema and/or exposure-related corneal decompensation are well documented in the literature; however, there is only a single prior documented case of vision compromise secondary to anterior segment dysgenesis and glaucoma in this patient population. This report highlights a case of syndromic craniosynostosis with advanced corneal decompensation and anterior segment dysgenesis that was masked and ultimately delayed the diagnosis of congenital glaucoma.

5.
Eur J Med Genet ; 2018 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395933

RESUMO

Amish nemaline myopathy (ANM) is a severe congenital form of NM, known to be fatal in early childhood due to pulmonary insufficiency. Homozygous mutation in TNNT1 was originally ascertained in an Older Amish community in 2000. To date, only five reports with six pathogenic variants in TNNT1 have been described in both Amish and non-Amish families. Here, we describe a 16-month old female from a small Mennonite community from Mexico, presenting with congenital hypotonia and dilated cardiomyopathy, with a novel homozygous deletion of 19q13.42 of about 11 kb in size, encompassing TNNT1 and TNNI3. Cardiomyopathy has not been observed in association with ANM in previous reports. Conversely, homozygous mutation in TNNI3 have been described with dilated cardiomyopathy. Our report underscores the consideration of contiguous gene deletion in children with ANM who present with congenital hypotonia and cardiomyopathy. The report also expands the known spectrum of non-Amish related ANM mutations to include homozygous multi-exonic TNNT1 deletion.

6.
Hum Genet ; 2018 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740699

RESUMO

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(7): 1667-1669, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29740950

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in CHD2 (chromodomain helicase DNA-binding protein 2) have been reported in neurodevelopmental disorders with a broad spectrum of phenotypic variability, ranging from mild intellectual disability to atonic-myoclonic epilepsy. However, given the paucity of reported cases the extent of this phenotypic spectrum is currently unknown. Furthermore, all confirmed pathogenic CHD2 variants reported to date have been de novo, preventing the study of intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity and creating ambiguity regarding recurrence risk, penetrance, and expressivity. Here, we report the first known case of an inherited pathogenic CHD2 variant in affected mother and daughter. This case demonstrates intrafamilial phenotypic heterogeneity and confirms potential heritability of CHD2-related neurodevelopmental disorders.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(4): 503-515, 2017 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28942966

RESUMO

Bromodomain PHD finger transcription factor (BPTF) is the largest subunit of nucleosome remodeling factor (NURF), a member of the ISWI chromatin-remodeling complex. However, the clinical consequences of disruption of this complex remain largely uncharacterized. BPTF is required for anterior-posterior axis formation of the mouse embryo and was shown to promote posterior neuroectodermal fate by enhancing Smad2-activated wnt8 expression in zebrafish. Here, we report eight loss-of-function and two missense variants (eight de novo and two of unknown origin) in BPTF on 17q24.2. The BPTF variants were found in unrelated individuals aged between 2.1 and 13 years, who manifest variable degrees of developmental delay/intellectual disability (10/10), speech delay (10/10), postnatal microcephaly (7/9), and dysmorphic features (9/10). Using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing of bptf in zebrafish to induce a loss of gene function, we observed a significant reduction in head size of F0 mutants compared to control larvae. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and phospho-histone H3 (PH3) staining to assess apoptosis and cell proliferation, respectively, showed a significant increase in cell death in F0 mutants compared to controls. Additionally, we observed a substantial increase of the ceratohyal angle of the craniofacial skeleton in bptf F0 mutants, indicating abnormal craniofacial patterning. Taken together, our data demonstrate the pathogenic role of BPTF haploinsufficiency in syndromic neurodevelopmental anomalies and extend the clinical spectrum of human disorders caused by ablation of chromatin remodeling complexes.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antígenos Nucleares/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Haploinsuficiência/genética , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/genética , Microcefalia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/patologia , Adolescente , Animais , Antígenos Nucleares/metabolismo , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , Estudos de Coortes , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/patologia , Feminino , Edição de Genes , Haploinsuficiência/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/patologia , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Masculino , Microcefalia/patologia , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neurônios/patologia , Fenótipo , Fatores de Transcrição/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento
9.
Genome Med ; 9(1): 73, 2017 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28807008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: De novo missense variants in CDK13 have been described as the cause of syndromic congenital heart defects in seven individuals ascertained from a large congenital cardiovascular malformations cohort. We aimed to further define the phenotypic and molecular spectrum of this newly described disorder. METHODS: To minimise ascertainment bias, we recruited nine additional individuals with CDK13 pathogenic variants from clinical and research exome laboratory sequencing cohorts. Each individual underwent dysmorphology exam and comprehensive medical history review. RESULTS: We demonstrate greater than expected phenotypic heterogeneity, including 33% (3/9) of individuals without structural heart disease on echocardiogram. There was a high penetrance for a unique constellation of facial dysmorphism and global developmental delay, as well as less frequently seen renal and sacral anomalies. Two individuals had novel CDK13 variants (p.Asn842Asp, p.Lys734Glu), while the remaining seven unrelated individuals had a recurrent, previously published p.Asn842Ser variant. Summary of all variants published to date demonstrates apparent restriction of pathogenic variants to the protein kinase domain with clustering in the ATP and magnesium binding sites. CONCLUSIONS: Here we provide detailed phenotypic and molecular characterisation of individuals with pathogenic variants in CDK13 and propose management guidelines based upon the estimated prevalence of anomalies identified.


Assuntos
Proteína Quinase CDC2/genética , Face/anormalidades , Cardiopatias Congênitas/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Mutação , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Síndrome
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(8): 2206-11, 2016 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27250922

RESUMO

Mutations in CRIPT encoding cysteine-rich PDZ domain-binding protein are rare, and to date have been reported in only two patients with autosomal recessive primordial dwarfism and distinctive facies. Here, we describe a female with biallelic mutations in CRIPT presenting with postnatal growth retardation, global developmental delay, and dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, high forehead, and sparse hair and eyebrows. Additional clinical features included high myopia, admixed hyper- and hypopigmented macules primarily on the face, arms, and legs, and syndactyly of 4-5 toes bilaterally. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) and chromosomal microarray analysis (CMA), we detected a c.8G>A (p.C3Y) missense variant in exon 1 of the CRIPT gene inherited from the mother and a 1,331 bp deletion encompassing exon 1, inherited from the father. The c.8G>A (p.C3Y) missense variant in CRIPT was apparently homozygous in the proband due to the exon 1 deletion. Our findings illustrate the clinical utility of combining WES with copy number variant (CNV) analysis to provide a molecular diagnosis to patients with rare Mendelian disorders. Our findings also illustrate the clinical spectrum of CRIPT related mutations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Éxons , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Fenótipo , Deleção de Sequência , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Nanismo/diagnóstico , Nanismo/genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Microcefalia/diagnóstico , Microcefalia/genética , Linhagem
11.
Oncologist ; 21(7): 869-74, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27306910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes are associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and several other cancers. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the incidence of cancer in first- and second-degree relatives of BRCA mutation carriers compared with the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,086 pedigrees of BRCA mutation carriers was obtained from a prospectively maintained, internal review board-approved study of persons referred for clinical genetic counseling at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. We identified 9,032 first- and second-degree relatives from 784 pedigrees that had demonstrated a clear indication of parental origin of mutation. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to compare the observed incidence of 20 primary cancer sites to the expected incidence of each cancer based on the calculated risk estimates according to each subject's age, sex, and ethnicity. RESULTS: BRCA1 families had increased SIRs for breast and ovarian cancer (p < .001) and decreased SIRs for kidney, lung, prostate, and thyroid cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (p < .001). BRCA2 families had increased SIRs for breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer (p < .001) and decreased SIRs for kidney, lung, thyroid, and uterine cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (p < .0025). Analysis of only first-degree relatives (n = 4,099) identified no decreased SIRs and agreed with the increased SIRs observed in the overall study population. CONCLUSION: We have confirmed previous reports of an association between breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancers with BRCA mutations. Additional research to quantify the relative risks of these cancers for BRCA mutation carriers can help tailor recommendations for risk reduction and enhance genetic counseling. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: BRCA gene mutations have been well described to carry an increased risk of both breast and ovarian cancer. However, the implications and risks of other cancers continues to be investigated. Evaluating the risks for other cancers further is key in identifying and managing risk reduction strategies.


Assuntos
Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
Hum Mutat ; 37(4): 354-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26751395

RESUMO

A rare syndromic form of intellectual disability with impaired speech was recently found associated with mutations in CHAMP1 (chromosome alignment-maintaining phosphoprotein 1), the protein product of which is directly involved in microtubule-kinetochore attachment. Through whole-exome sequencing in six unrelated nonconsanguineous families having a sporadic case of intellectual disability, we identified six novel de novo truncating mutations in CHAMP1: c.1880C>G p.(Ser627*), c.1489C>T; p.(Arg497*), c.1876_1877delAG; p.(Ser626Leufs*4), c.1043G>A; p.(Trp348*), c.1002G>A; p.(Trp334*), and c.958_959delCC; p.(Pro320*). Our clinical observations confirm the phenotypic homogeneity of the syndrome, which represents therefore a distinct clinical entity. Besides, our functional studies show that CHAMP1 protein variants are delocalized from chromatin and are unable to bind to two of its direct partners, POGZ and HP1. These data suggest a pathogenic mechanism of the CHAMP1-associated intellectual disability syndrome mediated by direct interacting partners of CHAMP1, several of which are involved in chromo/kinetochore-related disorders.


Assuntos
Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Alelos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Exoma , Facies , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Masculino , Fenótipo , Síndrome
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