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1.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

3.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

4.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 67-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076262

RESUMO

Schizotypy is a multidimensional risk phenotype distributed in the general population, constituting of subclinical, psychotic-like symptoms. It is associated with psychosis proneness, and several risk genes for psychosis are associated with schizotypy in non-clinical populations. Schizotypy might also modulate cognitive abilities as it is associated with attentional deficits in healthy subjects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that established genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737 are associated with psychometric schizotypy and that schizotypy mediates their effect on attention or vice versa. In 615 healthy subjects from the FOR2107 cohort study, we analysed the genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737, psychometric schizotypy (schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief SPQB), and a neuropsychological measure of sustained and selective attention (d2 test). ZNF804A rs1344706 C (non-risk) alleles were significantly associated with higher SPQ-B Cognitive-Perceptual subscores in women and with attention deficits in both sexes. This schizotypy dimension also mediated the effect of ZNF804A on attention in women, but not in men. CACNA1C rs1006737-A showed a significant sex-modulated negative association with Interpersonal schizotypy only in men, and no effect on attention. Our multivariate model demonstrates differential genetic contributions of two psychosis risk genes to dimensions of schizotypy and, partly, to attention. This supports a model of shared genetic influence between schizotypy and cognitive functions impaired in schizophrenia.

5.
Psychol Med ; 49(7): 1218-1226, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC. METHODS: Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals). RESULTS: Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD-AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10-10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD-AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10-14) and MD (rgMD-AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10-7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD-AC frequency = -0.17, P = 1.5 × 10-10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10-6). There was no evidence for reverse causation. CONCLUSION: This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912305

RESUMO

Recent breakthroughs in psychiatric genetics have identified genetic risk factors of yet unknown clinical value. A main ethical principal in the context of psychiatric research as well as future clinical genetic testing is the respect for a person's autonomy to decide whether to undergo genetic testing, and whom to grant access to genetic data. However, experience within the psychiatric genetic research setting has indicated controversies surrounding attitudes toward this ethical principal. This study aimed to explore attitudes concerning the right of individuals to self-determine testing and disclosure of results, and to determine whether these attitudes are context-dependent, that is, not directly related to the test result but rather to specific circumstances. N = 160 individuals with major depression or bipolar disorder and n = 29 relatives of individuals with either illness completed an online-questionnaire assessing attitudes toward genetic testing, genetic research, disclosure of results, incidental findings, and access to psychiatric genetic test results. Generally, the right of the person's autonomy was considered very important, but attitudes varied. For example, half of those who considered that children should have the right to refuse psychiatric genetic testing even against their parents' will, also state that they should be tested upon their parents' wishes. Also, the majority of respondents considered the physician entitled to disregard their stated wishes concerning the disclosure of incidental findings in case of good treatment options. Thus, researchers and clinicians must be aware that attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing are often mutable and should discuss these prior to testing.

7.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 102: 63-67, 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30522007

RESUMO

Secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a circadian rhythm and is stimulated following stress exposure. Cortisol regulates the transcription of several genes, primarily through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Previously, we showed an upregulation of PERIOD genes PER1 and PER3 after pharmacological/glucocorticoid challenge in vivo and in vitro. The current study aims to investigate the temporal association between unstimulated, diurnal cortisol secretion and the expression of selected GR-target genes (PER1, PER2, PER3, FKBP5, GILZ and SDPR) in vivo to determine the timing of the most pronounced coupling between cortisol and mRNA expression. Unstimulated plasma and saliva cortisol concentrations and gene expression levels in whole blood were measured every 15 min from early morning until 16:00 h in 18 healthy men. Time-lagged correlations of cortisol concentrations with mRNA expression levels were assessed allowing lags between -240 and + 240 min. Strong positive correlations at non-zero lags between cortisol levels and the expression of FKBP5 (plasma: r = 0.74 (CI = 0.65-0.81), p < 0.001, lag + 90 min; saliva: r = 0.71 (CI = 0.61-0.78), p < 0.001, lag + 75 min), and GILZ (plasma: r = 0.59 (CI = 0.46-0.69), p < 0.001, lag + 30 min; saliva r = 0.53 (CI = 0.41-0.63), p < 0.001, lag +15 min) were observed. Expressions of PERIOD genes and SDPR correlated only weakly with cortisol (all |r| < 0.25). Our findings demonstrate strong correlations between cortisol secretion and gene expression in humans under unstimulated conditions. The observed time-lags can guide future research aiming to characterize glucocorticoid-dependent gene expression in clinical samples with stress-related disorders.

8.
Med Arch ; 72(5): 352-356, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524168

RESUMO

Introduction: Schizophrenia(SCZ) and Bipolar disorder (BD) are frequently occurring and impairing disorders that affect around 1% of the population. Important endophenotypes in the genetic research of SCZ and BD are cognitive functions. Core symptoms for SCZ and BD are impairments in working memory, declarative memory and attention, all of which fulfill the criteria for an endophenotype. The FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene codes for a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor and has been reported to be associated with cognition. Aim: The aims of our research were to determine the degree of cognitive impairment in patients suffering from SCZ and BD and to explore the association of the FKBP5 variant rs3800373 genotype with the cognitive endophenotypes. Material and Methods: Patients and healthy controls were recruited over a period of two years from the Psychiatric Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. Genotyping and neuropsychological assessments were performed for 263 subjects (129 SCZ, 53 BD, and 81 healthy controls [HC]). Neuropsychological assessments were performed for all patients with the Trail Making Test-A&B (TMT-A&B) and Digit-span forward&backwards tasks. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3800373 in the FKBP5 gene was genotyped using Infinium PsychArray Bead Chips. Results and Conclusion: SCZ and BD patients performed lower than HC in the TMT-A&B and in the Digit-span backwards task, while no differences were observed between SCZ and BD patients. While SCZ patients performed lower than HC in the Digit-span forwards task, there were no differences between BD and HC or between BD and SCZ. Rs 3800373 was not associated with performance in the TMT-A&B or Digit-span forwards&backwards tasks. SCZ and BD share largely overlapping neurocognitive characteristics. Rs3800373 was not associated with performance in the neuropsychological tests. However, given the limited sample size, the results do not exclude an association with the rs3800373 variant in a larger sample. Furthermore, as the analysis was limited to one SNP, the results cannot be generalized to other genetic variants in FKBP5.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507021

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for severe and treatment-resistant depression; disorder severity and unfavorable treatment outcomes are shown to be influenced by an increased genetic burden for major depression (MD). Here, we tested whether ECT assignment and response/nonresponse are associated with an increased genetic burden for major depression (MD) using polygenic risk score (PRS), which summarize the contribution of disease-related common risk variants. Fifty-one psychiatric inpatients suffering from a major depressive episode underwent ECT. MD-PRS were calculated for these inpatients and a separate population-based sample (n = 3,547 healthy; n = 426 self-reported depression) based on summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD-working group (Cases: n = 59,851; Controls: n = 113,154). MD-PRS explained a significant proportion of disease status between ECT patients and healthy controls (p = .022, R2 = 1.173%); patients showed higher MD-PRS. MD-PRS in population-based depression self-reporters were intermediate between ECT patients and controls (n.s.). Significant associations between MD-PRS and ECT response (50% reduction in Hamilton depression rating scale scores) were not observed. Our findings indicate that ECT cohorts show an increased genetic burden for MD and are consistent with the hypothesis that treatment-resistant MD patients represent a subgroup with an increased genetic risk for MD. Larger samples are needed to better substantiate these findings.

10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

11.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 11(4): 199-207, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176753

RESUMO

Introducción: Se presenta la primera descripción del estudio denominado Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF). Se trata de una investigación longitudinal con familias procedentes de Andalucía (España), que comenzó en 1997, con el objetivo de dilucidar las causas geneticomoleculares del trastorno afectivo bipolar. Desde entonces, esta cohorte ha contribuido a una serie de hallazgos clave, que han sido publicados en revistas internacionales. Sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre las bases genéticas del trastorno en estas familias sigue siendo limitado. Método: El estudio consta de dos fases: en la fase inicial se reclutaron 100 familias con múltiples afectados de trastorno bipolar y otros trastornos del ánimo. La segunda fase del proyecto, actualmente en curso, comenzó en 2013 con el objetivo de realizar un seguimiento de la cohorte de familias reclutadas originalmente. Los objetivos del estudio de seguimiento son: i) recoger nuevos datos clínicos longitudinales; ii) realizar una evaluación neuropsicológica detallada, y iii) obtener una extensa colección de biomateriales para futuros estudios moleculares. Resultados: El estudio ABiF, por tanto, generará unos recursos valiosos para futuras investigaciones sobre la etiología del trastorno afectivo bipolar; particularmente con respecto a las causas de la alta carga genética del trastorno en las familias con múltiples afectados. Discusión: Se discute el valor de este enfoque en relación con las nuevas tecnologías para la identificación de factores genéticos de alta penetrancia. Estas nuevas tecnologías incluyen la secuenciación del exoma y del genoma completo, y el uso de células madre pluripotentes inducidas u organismos modelo para la determinación de consecuencias funcionales


Introduction: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. Method: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. Results: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. Discussion: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Geografia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Família
12.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205895, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379966

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness affecting around 1% of the global population. BD is characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, and has an estimated heritability of around 70%. Research has identified the first BD susceptibility genes. However, the underlying pathways and regulatory networks remain largely unknown. Research suggests that the cumulative impact of common alleles with small effects explains only around 25-38% of the phenotypic variance for BD. A plausible hypothesis therefore is that rare, high penetrance variants may contribute to BD risk. The present study investigated the role of rare, nonsynonymous, and potentially functional variants via whole exome sequencing in 15 BD cases from two large, multiply affected families from Cuba. The high prevalence of BD in these pedigrees renders them promising in terms of the identification of genetic risk variants with large effect sizes. In addition, SNP array data were used to calculate polygenic risk scores for affected and unaffected family members. After correction for multiple testing, no significant increase in polygenic risk scores for common, BD-associated genetic variants was found in BD cases compared to healthy relatives. Exome sequencing identified a total of 17 rare and potentially damaging variants in 17 genes. The identified variants were shared by all investigated BD cases in the respective pedigree. The most promising variant was located in the gene SERPING1 (p.L349F), which has been reported previously as a genome-wide significant risk gene for schizophrenia. The present data suggest novel candidate genes for BD susceptibility, and may facilitate the discovery of disease-relevant pathways and regulatory networks.

13.
Neuroimage Clin ; 20: 1115-1122, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exaggerated reactivity to acute psychosocial stress is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease. A dysfunction of the cortico-limbic network coordinating the peripheral adaptation to acute stress exposure may constitute a brain mechanism underlying this association. We opted to characterize the changes of this network associated with acute psychosocial stress exposure in individuals with low and high cardiometabolic risk (CMR). METHODS: In 57 subjects without overt cardiac or cerebral disease, the Framingham risk score and presence/absence of type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome defined CMR. Psychosocial stress was induced during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of brain activity by an established social threat paradigm. Measurements of heart rate, blood pressure and saliva cortisol quantified the peripheral stress reaction. Regression analyses for the anterior cingulate cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, insula and regulatory prefrontal regions evaluated the association of stress-associated brain activation and CMR. RESULTS: Psychosocial stress exposure was associated with an increased activity of a brain network including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, insula, parahippocampus and right hippocampus. Psychosocial stress-associated brain activation did neither covary with Framingham risk score nor differ between groups with low or high CMR. CONCLUSION: Exposure to acute psychosocial stress induces the activation of a well-defined cortico-limbic network. However, we did not find an association between CMR and this network's stress reactivity.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202132, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30096194

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of depression in the general population of Beijing and its association with ocular diseases. METHODS: The population-based Beijing Eye Study was conducted in a rural and an urban region of Greater Beijing. The study participants underwent a detailed ophthalmological examination and an interview including questions on the socioeconomic background. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using a Chinese depression scale adapted from Zung´s self-rated depression scale. The total score of depression symptoms was 80. Depression was defined as having a depression score >44. RESULTS: Out of 3468 study participants, 3267 (94.2%) individuals (1419 men) with an age of 64.5±9.7 years (range: 50-93 years) participated in the interview and answered all questions on depression. The mean depression score was 25.0±5.9 (median: 23.3; range:20-64). Depression (depression score >44) was present in 66 individuals (2.0%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.5), and 5 individuals (0.2%; 95%CI: 0.02,0.3) had a depression score ≥59. In multivariate regression, analysis, a higher depression score was associated (regression coefficient r2: 0.22) with a higher number of days with dry eye feeling (P<0.001; standardized regression coefficient beta: 0.09; non-standardized regression coefficient B: 0.20; 95%CI: 0.12,0.29) and shorter corneal curvature radius (P = 0.03;beta:-0.04; B:1.01; 95%CI: -1.90,-0.12), after adjusting for age, gender, region of habitation, body mass index, cognitive function score, life quality score and blood concentration of triglycerides. Adding age-related macular degeneration (P = 0.10), glaucoma (P = 0.77), diabetic retinopathy (P = 0.77), nuclear cataract (P = 0.35), cortical cataract (P = 0.58) or posterior subcapsular cataract (P = 0.28) as single parameters to the model revealed no significant correlation with the depression score. Lower best corrected visual acuity showed a marginal significant association (P = 0.05; beta: 0.04; B: 1.56; 95%CI: -0.01, 3.13). CONCLUSIONS: Dry eye feeling was the only common ocular disorder associated with an increased depression score, while the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration, any type of glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, any type of cataract and keratoconus were not significantly associated with an increased depression score. Lower visual acuity was marginally associated. The prevalence of depression in the population aged 50+ years in Greater Beijing was 2.0% (96%CI: 1.5, 2.5).

16.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.

17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(9): 901-910, 2018 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29936532

RESUMO

Importance: Urban life has been proposed as an environmental risk factor accounting for the increased prevalence of schizophrenia in urban areas. An alternative hypothesis is that individuals with increased genetic risk tend to live in urban/dense areas. Objective: To assess whether adults with higher genetic risk for schizophrenia have an increased probability to live in more populated areas than those with lower risk. Design, Setting, and Participants: Four large, cross-sectional samples of genotyped individuals of European ancestry older than 18 years with known addresses in Australia, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands were included in the analysis. Data were based on the postcode of residence at the time of last contact with the participants. Community-based samples who took part in studies conducted by the Queensland Institute for Medical Research Berghofer Medical Research Institute (QIMR), UK Biobank (UKB), Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), or QSkin Sun and Health Study (QSKIN) were included. Genome-wide association analysis and mendelian randomization (MR) were included. The study was conducted between 2016 and 2018. Exposures: Polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia derived from genetic data (genetic risk is independently measured from the occurrence of the disease). Socioeconomic status of the area was included as a moderator in some of the models. Main Outcomes and Measures: Population density of the place of residence of the participants determined from census data. Remoteness and socioeconomic status of the area were also tested. Results: The QIMR participants (15 544; 10 197 [65.6%] women; mean [SD] age, 54.4 [13.2] years) living in more densely populated areas (people per square kilometer) had a higher genetic loading for schizophrenia (r2 = 0.12%; P = 5.69 × 10-5), a result that was replicated across all 3 other cohorts (UKB: 345 246; 187 469 [54.3%] women; age, 65.7 [8.0] years; NTR: 11 212; 6727 [60.0%] women; age, 48.6 [17.5] years; and QSKIN: 15 726; 8602 [54.7%] women; age, 57.0 [7.9] years). This genetic association could account for 1.7% (95% CI, 0.8%-3.2%) of the schizophrenia risk. Estimates from MR analyses performed in the UKB sample were significant (b = 0.049; P = 3.7 × 10-7 using GSMR), suggesting that the genetic liability to schizophrenia may have a causal association with the tendency to live in urbanized locations. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this study appear to support the hypothesis that individuals with increased genetic risk tend to live in urban/dense areas and suggest the need to refine the social stress model for schizophrenia by including genetics as well as possible gene-environment interactions.

18.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 43(13): 2572-2577, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872112

RESUMO

Research has shown that therapeutic sleep deprivation (SD) has rapid antidepressant effects in the majority of depressed patients. Investigation of factors preceding and accompanying these effects may facilitate the identification of the underlying biological mechanisms. This exploratory study aimed to examine clinical and genetic factors predicting response to SD and determine the impact of SD on illness course. Mood during SD was also assessed via visual analogue scale. Depressed inpatients (n = 78) and healthy controls (n = 15) underwent ~36 h of SD. Response to SD was defined as a score of ≤ 2 on the Clinical Global Impression Scale for Global Improvement. Depressive symptom trajectories were evaluated for up to a month using self/expert ratings. Impact of genetic burden was calculated using polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder. In total, 72% of patients responded to SD. Responders and non-responders did not differ in baseline self/expert depression symptom ratings, but mood differed. Response was associated with lower age (p = 0.007) and later age at life-time disease onset (p = 0.003). Higher genetic burden of depression was observed in non-responders than healthy controls. Up to a month post SD, depressive symptoms decreased in both patients groups, but more in responders, in whom effects were sustained. The present findings suggest that re-examining SD with a greater focus on biological mechanisms will lead to better understanding of mechanisms of depression.

19.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 290, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has severe adverse health consequences in adults and in the offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. One of the most widely reported effects of smoking during pregnancy is reduced birth weight which is in turn associated with chronic disease in adulthood. Epigenome-wide association studies have revealed that smokers show a characteristic "smoking methylation pattern", and recent authors have proposed that DNA methylation mediates the impact of maternal smoking on birth weight. The aims of the present study were to replicate previous reports that methylation mediates the effect of maternal smoking on birth weight, and for the first time to investigate whether the observed mediation effects are sex-specific in order to account for known sex-specific differences in methylation levels. METHODS: Methylation levels in the cord blood of 313 newborns were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. A total of 5,527 CpG sites selected on the basis of evidence from the literature were tested. To determine whether the observed association between maternal smoking and birth weight was attributable to methylation, mediation analyses were performed for significant CpG sites. Separate analyses were then performed in males and females. RESULTS: Following quality control, 282 newborns eventually remained in the analysis. A total of 25 mothers had smoked consistently throughout the pregnancy. The birthweigt of newborns whose mothers had smoked throughout pregnancy was reduced by >200g. After correction for multiple testing, 30 CpGs showed differential methylation in the maternal smoking subgroup including top "smoking methylation pattern" genes AHRR, MYO1G, GFI1, CYP1A1, and CNTNAP2. The effect of maternal smoking on birth weight was partly mediated by the methylation of cg25325512 (PIM1); cg25949550 (CNTNAP2); and cg08699196 (ITGB7). Sex-specific analyses revealed a mediating effect for cg25949550 (CNTNAP2) in male newborns. CONCLUSION: The present data replicate previous findings that methylation can mediate the effect of maternal smoking on birth weight. The analysis of sex-dependent mediation effects suggests that the sex of the newborn may have an influence. Larger studies are warranted to investigate the role of both the identified differentially methylated loci and the sex of the newborn in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Metilação de DNA , Fumar , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/genética , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/genética
20.
Sleep ; 41(3)2018 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29325115

RESUMO

Study Objectives: Sleep spindles are a hallmark of NREM stage 2 sleep. Fast sleep spindles correlate with cognitive functioning and are reduced in schizophrenia. Although spindles are highly genetically determined, distinct genetic mechanisms influencing sleep spindle activity have not been identified so far. Spindles are generated within a thalamocortical network. Dopaminergic neurotransmission modulates activity within this network and importantly depends on activity of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). We aimed at testing whether the common functional rs4680 (Val108/158Met) polymorphism of COMT modulates fast spindle activity in healthy participants. Methods: In 150 healthy participants (93 women, 57 men; mean age 30.9 ± 11.6 years) sleep spindle density was analyzed during the second of two nights of polysomnography. We investigated the effect of the COMT Val108/158Met genotype on fast spindle density in whole-night NREM sleep stages N2 and N3. Results: As predicted, higher Val allele dose correlates with reduced fast spindle density. Additional exploratory analysis of the effect of COMT genotype revealed that slow spindle density in heterozygote participants was lower than that of both homozygote groups. Morphological characteristics of fast and slow spindles did not show significant differences between genotypes. COMT genotype had also no significant effect on measures of general sleep quality. Conclusions: This is the first report of a distinct gene effect on sleep spindle density in humans. As variation in the COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with differential expression of fast spindles in healthy participants, genetically determined dopaminergic neurotransmission may modulate spindle oscillations during NREM sleep. Clinical Trial registration: DRKS00008902.

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