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1.
Chest ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), a common co-morbidity in ILD, could contribute to a worsened course if untreated. It is unclear if adherence to CPAP therapy improves outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a ten-year retrospective observational multicenter cohort study, assessing adult patients with ILD who had undergone polysomnography. Subjects were categorized based on OSA severity into 'no/mild OSA' (AHI <15) or 'moderate/severe OSA' (AHI ≥15). All subjects prescribed and adherent to CPAP were deemed to have 'treated OSA'. Cox regression models were used to examine the association of OSA severity and CPAP adherence with all-cause mortality risk and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Of 160 subjects that met inclusion criteria, 131 had OSA and were prescribed CPAP. 66 patients (41%) had no/mild untreated OSA, 51 (32%) had moderate/severe untreated OSA, and 43 (27%) had treated OSA. Subjects with no/mild untreated OSA did not differ from those with moderate/severe untreated OSA in mean survival time (127±56 months vs 138±93 months; P=0.61) and crude mortality rate (2.9/100 person-years vs 2.9/100 person-years; P=0.60). Adherence to CPAP was not associated with improvement in all-cause mortality risk (HR, 1.1; 95% CI=0.4-2.9; P=0.79), or PFS (HR, 0.9; 95% CI=0.5-1.5; P=0.66) compared to those that were non-adherent or untreated. Among subjects requiring supplemental oxygen, those adherent to CPAP had improved PFS (HR, 0.3; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9; P=0.03) compared to non-adherent or untreated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Neither OSA severity nor adherence to CPAP was associated with improved outcomes in ILD patients except those requiring supplemental oxygen.

2.
Chest ; 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of circulating plasma biomarkers have been shown to predict survival in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but most were identified prior to the use of anti-fibrotic therapy (AF) in this population. Because pirfenidone and nintedanib have been shown to slow IPF progression and may prolong survival, the role of such biomarkers in AF treated patients is unclear. RESEARCH QUESTION: To determine whether plasma concentration of CA-125, CXCL13, MMP7, SP-D, YKL-40, VCAM-1 and OPN is associated with differential transplant-free survival (TFS) in AF exposed and non-exposed patients with IPF. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A pooled, multi-center, propensity-matched analysis of IPF patients with and without AF exposure was performed. Optimal thresholds for biomarker dichotomization were identified in each group using iterative Cox regression. Longitudinal biomarker change was assessed in a subset of patients using linear mixed regression modeling. A clinical-molecular signature of IPF TFS was then derived and validated in an independent IPF cohort. RESULTS: Three hundred and twenty-five patients were assessed, of which 68 AF exposed and 172 non-exposed patients were included after propensity matching. CA-125, CXCL13, MMP7, YKL-40 and OPN predicted differential TFS in AF exposed patients but at higher thresholds than in AF non-exposed individuals. Plasma biomarker level generally increased over time in non-exposed patients but remained unchanged in AF exposed patients. A clinical-molecular signature predicted decreased TFS in AF exposed patients (HR 5.91; 95% CI 2.25-15.5; p<0.001) and maintained this association in an independent AF exposed cohort (HR 3.97; 95% CI 1.62-9.72; p=0.003). INTERPRETATION: A majority of plasma biomarkers assessed predicted differential TFS in AF exposed patients with IPF, but at higher thresholds than in non-exposed patients. A clinical-molecular signature of IPF TFS may provide a reliable predictor of outcome risk in AF treated patients but requires additional research for optimization and validation.

3.
Thorax ; 75(5): 365-366, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32265340
4.
Chest ; 2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059958

RESUMO

Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are autoimmune processes that are characterized by skeletal muscle inflammation. The lung is the most commonly involved extramuscular organ, and, when present, pulmonary disease drives morbidity and mortality. A subset of patients can present with rapidly progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure due to myositis-related interstitial lung disease. Confirmatory autoantibody testing requires sending samples to a reference laboratory; thus, diagnosis of rapidly progressive myositis-associated interstitial lung disease relies on a high index of suspicion and careful history and physical examination. Although the cornerstone of therapy for these patients remains multimodality immunosuppression, emerging data support a role for advanced therapies (including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and lung transplantation) in appropriately selected patients. It is hoped that greater awareness of the clinical features of this syndrome will allow for appropriate diagnosis and treatment of these potentially treatable patients, as well as raise awareness of the need for multicenter collaboration to prospectively study how to manage this complex disease.

6.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 201(5): 564-574, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710517

RESUMO

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterized by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defense, telomere maintenance, signaling, and cell-cell adhesion.Objectives: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations.Methods: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analyzed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression, and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF.Measurements and Main Results: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1, and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility.Conclusions: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signaling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility.

7.
Chest ; 2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678077

RESUMO

This review focuses on recent clinical and translational discoveries in severe and uncontrolled asthma that now enable phenotyping and personalized therapies in these patients. Although asthma is common in both children and adults and typically responds to standard therapies, a subset of individuals with asthma experience severe and/or persistent symptoms despite appropriate therapies. Airflow obstruction leading to frequent symptoms requiring higher levels of controller therapy is the cardinal feature of severe asthma, but the underlying molecular mechanisms, or endotypes, are diverse and variable between individuals. Two major risk factors that contribute to severe asthma are genetics and environmental exposures that modulate immune responses, and although these often interact in complex manners that are not fully understood, certain endotypes converge in severe asthma. A number of studies have evaluated various features of patients with severe asthma and classified patients into phenotypes with clinical relevance. This phenotyping is now incorporated into clinical practice and can be used to guide advanced biological therapies that target specific molecules and inflammatory pathways that contribute to asthma pathogenesis.

8.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 205, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492155

RESUMO

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive disease with a dismal prognosis. The average life expectancy of untreated patients with IPF is only 3 to 4 years. Decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in patients with IPF appears to be almost linear, with patients with well-preserved FVC at baseline experiencing the same rate of decline in FVC as patients with more advanced disease. Two antifibrotic therapies have been approved for the treatment of IPF: nintedanib and pirfenidone. These drugs slow decline in lung function and reduce the risk of acute respiratory deteriorations, which are associated with very high morbidity and mortality. Individual clinical trials have not been powered to show reductions in mortality, but analyses of pooled data from clinical trials, as well as observational studies, suggest that antifibrotic therapies improve life expectancy. Despite this, many individuals with IPF remain untreated. In many cases, this is because the physician perceives that the disease is stable and so does not warrant therapy, or has concerns over the potential side-effects of antifibrotic drugs. There remains a need to educate pulmonologists that IPF is a progressive, irreversible and fatal disease and that prompt treatment is critical to preserving patients' lung function and improving outcomes. Most individuals can tolerate antifibrotic therapy, and dose adjustment has been shown to be effective at reducing side effects without compromising efficacy. In addition to anti-fibrotic therapies, individuals with IPF benefit from a holistic approach to their care that includes symptom management and supportive care tailored to the needs of the individual. An animation illustrating the themes covered in this article will be available at: http://www.usscicomms.com/respiratory/maher/treatment-of-IPF .

10.
Chest ; 156(4): 715-723, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31181198

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) have been reported to occur in 7% to 10% of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ANCAs in a North American population with IPF and evaluate their clinical significance. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of two independent cohorts of patients diagnosed with IPF at the University of California San Francisco (discovery cohort) and the University of Chicago (replication cohort). Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) ANCAs were measured in all patients. Prevalence and associations of ANCAs with clinical characteristics and transplant-free survival were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 14 of 353 (4.0%; 95% CI, 2.2-6.5) and 20 of 392 (5.1%; 95% CI, 3.1-7.8) patients with IPF were positive for ANCAs at the time of diagnosis in the discovery and replication cohorts, respectively. Among those positive for MPO antibodies, two of six (33%) in the discovery cohort and three of 12 (25%) in the replication cohort developed vasculitis. None of the patients who were PR3-positive developed vasculitis. Patients who were ANCA-positive were more likely to be women than patients who were ANCA-negative, and were more likely to have some ground-glass opacities on CT scan. In the combined cohort of 745 patients, median transplant-free survival was not significantly different in patients who were ANCA-positive vs ANCA-negative (P = .57). CONCLUSIONS: ANCA positivity is uncommon in North American patients with IPF and not associated with baseline disease severity or transplant-free survival; however, a significant proportion of patients who are MPO-positive with IPF develop clinical vasculitis.

12.
Eur Respir J ; 53(4)2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635297

RESUMO

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL), MUC5B rs35705950 and TOLLIP rs5743890 have been associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).In this observational cohort study, we assessed the associations between these genomic markers and outcomes of survival and rate of disease progression in patients with interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF, n=250) and connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease (CTD-ILD, n=248). IPF (n=499) was used as a comparator.The LTL of IPAF and CTD-ILD patients (mean age-adjusted log-transformed T/S of -0.05±0.29 and -0.04±0.25, respectively) is longer than that of IPF patients (-0.17±0.32). For IPAF patients, LTL <10th percentile is associated with faster lung function decline compared to LTL ≥10th percentile (-6.43% per year versus -0.86% per year; p<0.0001) and worse transplant-free survival (hazard ratio 2.97, 95% CI 1.70-5.20; p=0.00014). The MUC5B rs35705950 minor allele frequency (MAF) is greater for IPAF patients (23.2, 95% CI 18.8-28.2; p<0.0001) than controls and is associated with worse transplant-free IPAF survival (hazard ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1.18-3.13; p=0.0091). Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD (RA-ILD) has a shorter LTL than non-RA CTD-ILD (-0.14±0.27 versus -0.01±0.23; p=0.00055) and higher MUC5B MAF (34.6, 95% CI 24.4-46.3 versus 14.1, 95% CI 9.8-20.0; p=0.00025). Neither LTL nor MUC5B are associated with transplant-free CTD-ILD survival.LTL and MUC5B MAF have different associations with lung function progression and survival for IPAF and CTD-ILD.

13.
Respir Med ; 146: 23-27, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665514

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) are diffuse lung diseases whose cause is unknown and often present with features of autoimmunity despite not meeting criteria for a connective tissue disease (CTD). Recent studies suggest that anti-RNA binding protein (anti-RBP) antibodies, which include anti-SSA, anti-SSB, anti-Sm, and anti-RNP, play a role in the loss of immune tolerance and severity of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in CTDs. We hypothesized that anti-RBP positive (RBP+) subjects would have worse measures of lung function, radiographic findings, PH, and survival than anti-RBP negative (RBP-) subjects. METHODS: Subjects with both IIP and serologies for review were identified retrospectively and stratified based on anti-RBP antibody seropositivity. Baseline cohort characteristics, pulmonary function tests (PFT), ambulatory oxygen requirement, radiographic characteristics, markers of PH, and transplant-free survival were compared between anti-RBP positive and negative groups. RESULTS: Five hundred twenty patients with IIP were identified, of which ten percent (n = 53) were anti-RBP positive. RBP+ as compared to RBP- subjects had significantly worse PFTs as indicated by FEV1 (59.6 vs. 64.9, p = 0.046) and FVC (71.6 vs. 78.8, p = 0.018). There was a higher prevalence of radiographic honeycombing (49.1% vs. 38.3%, p = 0.006) and emphysema (22.6% vs. 5.1%, p < 0.001) in the RBP+ group despite no difference in smoking history. The Pulmonary Artery-Aorta ratio was also larger in the RBP+ group (0.93 vs. 0.88, p = 0.040). There was no difference in transplant-free survival between groups (log rank = 0.912). CONCLUSION: Anti-RBP+ IIP patients may have worse lung function, increased chest radiographic abnormalities, and PH compared with those without these antibodies.

15.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 16(5): 580-588, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30653927

RESUMO

Rationale: Honeycombing on chest computed tomography (CT) has been described in diverse forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD); however, its prevalence and association with mortality across the spectrum of ILD remains unclear. Objective: To determine the prevalence and prognostic value of CT honeycombing and characterize associated mortality patterns across diverse ILD subtypes in a multicenter cohort. Methods: This was an observational cohort study of adult participants with multidisciplinary or adjudicated ILD diagnosis and documentation of chest CT imaging at index diagnosis across five U.S. hospitals (one tertiary and four nontertiary medical centers). Participants were stratified based on presence or absence of CT honeycombing. Vital status was determined from review of medical records and social security death index. Transplant-free survival was analyzed using univariate and multivariable Cox regression. Results: The sample comprised 1,330 participants (mean age, 66.8 yr; 50% men) with 4,831 person-years of follow-up. The prevalences of CT honeycombing were 42.0%, 41.9%, 37.6%, and 28.6% in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and unclassifiable/other ILDs, respectively. Among those with CT honeycombing, cumulative mortality hazards were similar across ILD subtypes, except for CTD-ILD, which had a lower mortality hazard. Overall, the mean survival time was shorter among those with CT honeycombing (107 mo; 95% confidence interval [CI], 92-122 mo) than those without CT honeycombing (161 mo; 95% CI, 147-174 mo). CT honeycombing was associated with an increased mortality rate (hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.38-2.14) even after adjustment for center, sex, age, forced vital capacity, diffusing capacity, ILD subtype, and use of immunosuppressive therapy (hazard ratio, 1.62; 95% CI, 1.29-2.02). CT honeycombing was associated with an increased mortality rate within non-IPF ILD subgroups (chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, CTD-ILD, and unclassifiable/other ILD). In IPF, however, mortality rates were similar between those with and without CT honeycombing. Conclusions: CT honeycombing is prevalent in diverse forms of ILD and uniquely identifies a progressive fibrotic ILD phenotype with a high mortality rate similar to IPF. CT honeycombing did not confer additional risk in IPF, which is already known to be a progressive fibrotic ILD phenotype regardless of the presence of CT honeycombing.

16.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(2): 182-195, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604506
17.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 199(6): 747-759, 2019 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216085

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mediastinal lymph node (MLN) enlargement on chest computed tomography (CT) is prevalent in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) and may reflect immunologic activation and subsequent cytokine-mediated immune cell trafficking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether MLN enlargement on chest CT predicts clinical outcomes and circulating cytokine levels in ILD. METHODS: MLN measurements were obtained from chest CT scans of patients with ILD at baseline evaluation over a 10-year period. Patients with sarcoidosis and drug toxicity-related ILD were excluded. MLN diameter and location were assessed. Plasma cytokine levels were analyzed in a subset of patients. The primary outcome was transplant-free survival (TFS). Secondary outcomes included all-cause and respiratory hospitalizations, lung function, and plasma cytokine concentrations. Cox regression was used to assess mortality risk. Outcomes were assessed in three independent ILD cohorts. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Chest CT scans were assessed in 1,094 patients (mean age, 64 yr; 52% male). MLN enlargement (≥10 mm) was present in 66% (n = 726) and strongly predicted TFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-2.10; P = 0.008) and risk of all-cause and respiratory hospitalizations (internal rate of return [IRR], 1.52; 95% CI, 1.17-1.98; P = 0.002; and IRR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.53; P = 0.008, respectively) when compared with subjects with MLN <10 mm. Patients with MLN enlargement had lower lung function and decreased plasma concentrations of soluble CD40L (376 pg/ml vs. 505 pg/ml, P = 0.001) compared with those without MLN enlargement. Plasma IL-10 concentration >45 pg/ml predicted mortality (HR, 4.21; 95% CI, 1.21-14.68; P = 0.024). Independent analysis of external datasets confirmed these findings. CONCLUSIONS: MLN enlargement predicts TFS and hospitalization risk in ILD and is associated with decreased levels of a key circulating cytokine, soluble CD40L. Incorporating MLN and cytokine findings into current prediction models might improve ILD prognostication.


Assuntos
Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Linfonodos/diagnóstico por imagem , Mediastino/diagnóstico por imagem , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Eur Respir J ; 51(6)2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724923

RESUMO

We studied whether African-American race is associated with younger age and decreased survival time at diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD).We performed a multicentre, propensity score-matched analysis of patients with an ILD diagnosis followed at five US hospitals between 2006 and 2016. African-Americans were matched with patients of other races based on a time-dependent propensity score calculated from multiple patient, physiological, diagnostic and hospital characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression models were used. All-cause mortality and hospitalisations were compared between race-stratified patient cohorts with ILD, and sensitivity analyses were performed.The study included 1640 patients with ILD, 13% of whom were African-American, followed over 5041 person-years. When compared with patients of other races, African-Americans with ILD were younger at diagnosis (56 years versus 67 years), but in the propensity-matched analyses had greater survival (hazard ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.77; p=0.003) despite similar risk of respiratory hospitalisations (relative risk 1.04, 95% CI 0.83-1.31; p=0.709), and similar GAP-ILD (gender-age-physiology-ILD) scores at study entry. Sensitivity analyses in a separate cohort of 9503 patients with code-based ILD diagnosis demonstrated a similar association of baseline demographic characteristics with all-cause mortality.We conclude that African-Americans demonstrate a unique phenotype associated with younger age at ILD diagnosis and perhaps longer survival time.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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