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1.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 193: 104790, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991263

RESUMO

Positive associations between children's general language skills and emotion understanding are well documented. Concurrently, research from other domains highlights the importance of domain-specific language skills for conceptual development. The current study examined the relative contributions of emotion-specific and general vocabulary to individual differences in multiple early-acquired components of emotion understanding (e.g., facial emotion recognition) and later-acquired components (e.g., knowledge of emotion regulation strategies) in 4- to 9-year-old children (N = 86). Emotion-specific vocabulary was measured by size (i.e., number of emotion words children use) and depth (i.e., adult-like use of emotion words). Findings emphasize the role of children's emotion-specific vocabulary rather than general vocabulary for early-acquired and later-acquired components of emotion understanding, especially when measured by expressive tasks. At preschool age, the size of emotion-specific vocabulary explains children's knowledge of emotion regulation strategies. In primary school, however, the depth of emotion-specific vocabulary becomes relevant for individual differences in emotion understanding.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil/fisiologia , Compreensão/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Vocabulário , Criança , Linguagem Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Desenvolvimento da Linguagem , Masculino
2.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1877, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29163266

RESUMO

Despite its assumed importance for emotional well-being, studies investigating the positivity effect (PE) in older adults' information processing rarely tested its relationship with immediate or general affective outcome measures like emotional reactivity or emotional well-being. Moreover, the arousal level of the to-be-processed emotional stimuli has rarely been taken into account as a moderator for the occurrence of the PE and its relationship with affective outcomes. Age group differences (young vs. old) in attention (i.e., fixation durations using eye tracking) and subjective emotional reactions (i.e., pleasantness ratings) were investigated in response to picture stimuli systematically varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (low vs. high). We examined whether there is a link between age group differences in fixation durations and affective outcomes (i.e., subjective emotional reactions as well as emotional well-being). Older compared to young adults fixated less on the most emotional part in negative but not in positive low-arousing pictures. This age difference did not occur under high arousal. While age group differences in fixation duration did not translate into age group differences in subjective emotional reactions, we found a positive relationship between fixation duration on negative low-arousing pictures and emotional well-being, i.e., negative affect. The present study replicated the well-known PE in attention and emotional reactivity. In line with the idea that the PE reflects top-down-driven processing of affective information, age group differences in fixation durations decreased under high arousal. The present findings are consistent with the idea that age-related changes in the processing of emotional information support older adults' general emotional well-being.

3.
Psychol Aging ; 26(4): 966-78, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21517185

RESUMO

Recent findings suggest positivity effects in older adults' attention and memory, but few studies have examined such effects on the level of emotional reactivity. In this study, 52 young and 52 older adults rated 172 pictures of the International Affective Picture System, differing in arousal and age-relevance, in terms of valence and discrete emotions. Age differences in the ratio of pleasantness reactions to pleasant pictures vs. unpleasantness reactions to unpleasant pictures as well as age differences in absolute levels of unpleasantness and pleasantness reactions suggest that positivity effects in older adults' subjective emotional reactions are reduced under high arousal. There is also evidence that positivity effects may be restricted to stimuli with low relevance in old age.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Nível de Alerta , Emoções , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ira , Atenção , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Padrões de Referência , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
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