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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36168889

RESUMO

The present study investigated the cognitive processing architecture of dual(-memory) retrieval from a single cue across two distinct age groups: younger and older adults. Previous research has shown that younger adults can exhibit learned parallel retrieval, but only if they synchronize response execution. This phenomenon has not been demonstrated with older adults. Experiment 1 functioned as an extension of previous studies to assess whether the finding of learned retrieval parallelism in younger adults could be observed in older adults as well. The experiment used a dual retrieval task that involved the retrieval of two responses, one vocal and one keypress, from a single cue. Experiment 2 further assessed whether the cognitive processing architecture underlying the occurrence of learned retrieval parallelism in dual memory retrieval could be influenced by the number of cues in single-retrieval practice. The results of both experiments showed that learned retrieval parallelism occurs in older as well as younger adults and that the processing mechanisms involved in dual memory retrieval are relatively stable across age groups.

2.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 168, 2022 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35804410

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, cognitive training has gained popularity as a cost-effective and accessible intervention aiming at compensating for or even counteracting age-related cognitive declines during adulthood. Whereas the evidence for the effectiveness of cognitive training in general is inconsistent, processing speed training has been a notable successful exception, showing promising generalized benefits in untrained tasks and everyday cognitive functioning. The goal of this study is to investigate why and when processing speed training can lead to transfer across the adult lifespan. Specifically, we will test (1) whether training-induced changes in the rate of evidence accumulation underpin transfer to cognitive performance in untrained contexts, and (2) whether these transfer effects increase with stronger attentional control demands of the training tasks. METHODS: We will employ a multi-site, longitudinal, double-blinded and actively controlled study design with a target sample size of N = 400 adult participants between 18 and 85 years old. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three processing speed training interventions with varying attentional control demands (choice reaction time, switching, or dual tasks) which will be compared to an active control group training simple reaction time tasks with minimal attentional control demands. All groups will complete 10 home-based training sessions comprising three tasks. Training gains, near transfer to the untrained tasks of the other groups, and far transfer to working memory, inhibitory control, reasoning, and everyday cognitive functioning will be assessed in the laboratory directly before, immediately after, and three months after training (i.e., pretest, posttest, and follow-up, respectively). We will estimate the rate of evidence accumulation (drift rate) with diffusion modeling and conduct latent-change score modeling for hypothesis testing. DISCUSSION: This study will contribute to identifying the cognitive processes that change when training speeded tasks with varying attentional control demands across the adult lifespan. A better understanding of how processing speed training affects specific cognitive mechanisms will enable researchers to maximize the effectiveness of cognitive training in producing broad transfer to psychologically meaningful everyday life outcomes. Trial registration Open Science Framework Registries, registration https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/J5G7E ; date of registration: 9 May 2022.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos , Longevidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
3.
BMC Psychol ; 10(1): 77, 2022 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual-tasking procedures often involve the successive presentation of two different stimuli, requiring participants to execute two tasks in a particular order. Performance in both tasks suffers if the order of the tasks is reversed (i.e., switched) compared to the directly preceding trial. This task-order switch cost is reduced, however, if the preceding trial itself involved a task-order switch compared to a task-order repetition (Strobach in Acta Psychol 217:103328, 2021). Theoretical accounts range from assumptions of top-down implementation of a task-order control set, or passive persistence thereof, to priming based on episodic binding of tasks and temporal positions. Here, we tested these accounts by investigating whether the sequential modulation decays as a function of the inter-trial interval. METHODS AND RESULTS: Task-order switch costs were reliably reduced after a task-order switch (compared to after a task-order repetition) and this reduction did not decrease over inter-trial intervals ranging from 350 ms to 1,400 ms. Also replicating previous findings, for reaction times the reduction was driven by selective slowing in task-order repeat trials, suggesting increased response caution. CONCLUSIONS: Our results are consistent with preparatory processes of task-order control or with episodic integration of task-order information but argue against accounts assuming short-lived, decaying task-order sets.


Assuntos
Atenção , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia
4.
J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform ; 48(1): 94-113, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35073146

RESUMO

Dual-tasks (DT) require the employment of task-order representations that schedule the processing of 2 tasks. Evidence for this assumption stems from the observation that in DTs with variable order, performance is improved in trials with repeated processing order relative to the preceding trial in comparison to trials with reversed processing order. So far, it is an open question whether these order representations only contain order information or whether they also integrate component task information. To tackle this question, we applied a DT with variable task-order consisting of an auditory and a visual task. In Experiment 1, in addition to task-order, the visual task varied randomly from trial to trial while the auditory task kept constant. In Experiment 2, the auditory task varied. In Experiment 3, both component tasks varied. In all experiments, performance benefits occurred in trials with a repeated relative to trials with a reversed processing order, irrespective of a repeated or a changed component task. This indicates that order representations in DTs only contain order information. The findings are in line with the view that multitasking situations are represented as an agglomeration of distinct components that can be individually adjusted to changing task demands. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
5.
Psychol Res ; 86(2): 452-473, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33884485

RESUMO

Dual-task (DT) situations require task-order coordination processes that schedule the processing of two temporally overlapping tasks. Theories on task-order coordination suggest that these processes rely on order representations that are actively maintained and processed in working memory (WM). Preliminary evidence for this assumption stems from DT situations with variable task order, where repeating task order relative to the preceding trials results in improved performance compared to changing task order, indicating the processing of task-order information in WM between two succeeding trials. We directly tested this assumption by varying WM load during a DT with variable task order. In Experiment 1, WM load was manipulated by varying the number of stimulus-response mappings of the component tasks. In Experiment 2A, WM load was increased by embedding an additional WM updating task in the applied DT. In both experiments, the performance benefit for trials with repeated relative to trials with changed task order was reduced under high compared to low WM load. These results confirm our assumption that the processing of the task-order information relies on WM resources. In Experiment 2B, we tested whether the results of Experiment 2A can be attributed to introducing an additional task per se rather than to increased WM load by introducing an additional task with a low WM load. Importantly, in this experiment, the processing of order information was not affected. In sum, the results of the three experiments indicate that task-order coordination relies on order information which is maintained in an accessible state in WM during DT processing.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia
6.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(5): 1021-1034, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176103

RESUMO

Dual-process theories assume that physical activity (PA) behavior is regulated by two different processes: impulsive (i.e., automatic, fast) and reflective (i.e., effortful, slow) processes. In this study we examined main effects as well as the interaction of reflective (intention and trait self-control)and impulsive (automaticity)processes on PA behavior. A prospective study with two points of measurement (N = 118 university students) was conducted. At t1, age, sex, past PA behavior (control variables), PA intention, automaticity and trait self-control (predictors) were assessed with standardized questionnaires. At t2 (4 weeks later), PA behavior (dependent variable) was measured with a standardized questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis revealed that automaticity was associated with PA behavior. The expected interaction effects Intention x Trait Self-control and Automaticity x Intention x Trait self-control on PA were significant. Moderation analyses revealed that PA intention has a significant positive association with PA behavior when trait self-control was higher compared to lower. Furthermore, automaticity has the strongest association with behavior when both intention and trait self-control where lower compared to higher. Our results underline the additive and interactive effects of impulsive and reflective processes in regulating PA behavior.


Assuntos
Intenção , Autocontrole , Exercício Físico , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Atividade Motora , Estudos Prospectivos
7.
Iperception ; 12(6): 20416695211056362, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900213

RESUMO

Recognizing familiar faces requires a comparison of the incoming perceptual information with mental face representations stored in memory. Mounting evidence indicates that these representations adapt quickly to recently perceived facial changes. This becomes apparent in face adaptation studies where exposure to a strongly manipulated face alters the perception of subsequent face stimuli: original, non-manipulated face images then appear to be manipulated, while images similar to the adaptor are perceived as "normal." The face adaptation paradigm serves as a good tool for investigating the information stored in facial memory. So far, most of the face adaptation studies focused on configural (second-order relationship) face information, mainly neglecting non-configural face information (i.e., that does not affect spatial face relations), such as color, although several (non-adaptation) studies were able to demonstrate the importance of color information in face perception and identification. The present study therefore focuses on adaptation effects on saturation color information and compares the results with previous findings on brightness. The study reveals differences in the effect pattern and robustness, indicating that adaptation effects vary considerably even within the same class of non-configural face information.

8.
Front Psychol ; 12: 714608, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34744874

RESUMO

In this study, we examined the interaction of automatic (i.e., automatic affective evaluations) and reflective [i.e., reflective intention and executive functions (EFs)] processes on physical activity (PA) behavior based on dual-process theories. We expected main effects as well as significant interaction effects between automatic associations, intention, and EFs on behavior. In particular, a well-controlled implicit-association-test (IAT) was applied to assess automatic affective evaluation. A prospective study with two points of measurement (N=212 students) was conducted. At t1, age, sex, PA behavior (control variables), automatic associations, EFs (shifting, updating, inhibition), and PA intention (predictors and moderators) were assessed with standardized questionnaires and tests. At t2 (4weeks later), PA behavior (dependent variable) was measured with a standardized questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis including two- and three-way interactions between IAT results, intention, and EFs on PA behavior was conducted. Results showed that the interactions Intention x Shifting and IAT x Intention x Inhibition were significant. Moderation analyses revealed that participants with higher intentions and lower inhibition values (improved inhibition abilities) showed a negative association between IAT and PA, while those with lower intentions and lower inhibition values showed a positive association between IAT and PA, which was documented in a significant slope difference test between these two groups. Thus, both automatic and reflective processes contribute and interact in predicting PA. As well as fostering more positive affective evaluations towards PA, interventions to strengthen PA intentions and to improve EFs could help to increase PA behavior.

9.
Front Physiol ; 12: 682891, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366881

RESUMO

The different responses of humans to an apparently equivalent stimulus are called interindividual response variability. This phenomenon has gained more and more attention in research in recent years. The research field of exercise-cognition has also taken up this topic, as shown by a growing number of studies published in the past decade. In this perspective article, we aim to prompt the progress of this research field by (i) discussing the causes and consequences of interindividual variability, (ii) critically examining published studies that have investigated interindividual variability of neurocognitive outcome parameters in response to acute physical exercises, and (iii) providing recommendations for future studies, based on our critical examination. The provided recommendations, which advocate for a more rigorous study design, are intended to help researchers in the field to design studies allowing them to draw robust conclusions. This, in turn, is very likely to foster the development of this research field and the practical application of the findings.

10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 217: 103328, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33991794

RESUMO

Performing two tasks simultaneously involves the coordination of their processing. Task coordination is particularly required in dual-task situations with varying order of the component tasks. When task order switches between subsequent trials, task-order coordination leads to order switch costs in comparison to task order repetitions (i.e., worse performance in trials associated with an order switch compared to an order repetition). However, the adaptive characteristics of task-coordination processes and order switch costs are underspecified so far. For example, studies on conflict control have shown that these coordination processes can be modulated in response to changes in task demands. The present study investigated therefore whether task-order coordination processes are modulated by the previous experience of a task-order switch. To investigate order switch costs in a dual-task situation with two sensorimotor tasks with variable task-order, we analyzed performance in current trials with task-order switches and with task-order repetitions following task-order switches and task order repetitions in the preceding trial. The data of four different experimental conditions showed that order switch costs were reduced in trials following task-order switches compared to task-order repetitions; resembling the Gratton effect commonly observed in conflict adaptation paradigms. We discussed the present results in the context of task-order set representations, cognitive control theories, and dual-task models.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
11.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 74(12): 2097-2111, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024211

RESUMO

In situations requiring the execution of two tasks at around the same time, we need to decide which of the tasks should be executed first. Previous research has revealed several factors that affect the outcome of such response order control processes, including bottom-up factors (e.g., the temporal order of the stimuli associated with the two tasks) and top-down factors (e.g., instructions). In addition, it has been shown that tasks associated with certain response modalities are preferably executed first (e.g., temporal prioritisation of tasks involving oculomotor responses). In this study, we focused on a situation in which task order has to be unpredictably switched from trial to trial and asked whether task-order representations are coded separately or integrated with the component task sets (i.e., in a task-specific manner). Across three experiments, we combined two tasks known to differ in prioritisation, namely an oculomotor and a manual (or pedal) task. The results indicated robust task-order switch costs (i.e., longer RTs when task order was switched vs. repeated). Importantly, the data demonstrate that it is possible to show an asymmetry of task-order switch costs: While these costs were of similar size for both task orders in one particular experimental setting with specific spatial task characteristics, two experiments consistently indicated that it was easier for participants to switch to their prioritised task order (i.e., to execute the dominant oculomotor task first). This suggests that in a situation requiring frequent task-order switches (indicated by unpredictable changes in stimulus order), task order is represented in an integrated, task-specific manner, bound to characteristics (here, associated effector systems) of the component tasks.


Assuntos
Personalidade , Desempenho Psicomotor , Humanos , Tempo de Reação
13.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 216: 103298, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774503

RESUMO

The present study asks how behavioral (dual-action) demands in dual tasks are mentally represented and whether changes in representation might govern practice-related dual-task performance improvements. Three different representation accounts were empirically tested based on the idea that dual-action demands required in a dual-task trial might be represented in different ways. According to a compositional (Structuralist) account, component tasks remain structurally intact when combined with another task. In contrast, a holistic (Gestalt) account posits that dual-action requirements in dual tasks are represented holistically and entirely distinct from its component action requirements. Finally, a contextual change account assumes that a change in context (e.g., from single- to dual-action requirement) generally impedes response retrieval, similar to repeating a response while the task context switches. To address this issue, we analyzed trial-by-trial effects in a single/dual switch paradigm (SDS paradigm, involving a randomized mix of single- and dual-task trials within blocks). Specifically, we analyzed performance in an extensive dual-task training setting (involving training sessions across several days) combining an auditory-vocal task and a visual-manual task. The results indicated that, throughout practice, nearly all relevant comparisons of performance between complete switch trials (e.g., between the two single tasks) and partial repetition trials (e.g., from dual to single task) revealed partial repetition benefits, that is, for both the auditory-vocal and the visual-manual task, and for both single- and dual-task performance analyses. Therefore, dual-action requirements in the present dual-task setting are mentally represented in a compositional, Structuralist fashion, probably due to low between-task dimensional overlap.


Assuntos
Desempenho Psicomotor , Voz , Humanos , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
14.
Psychol Sci ; 32(3): 340-353, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529541

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated whether alertness training in healthy older adults increases visual processing speed (VPS) and whether functional connectivity in the cingulo-opercular network predicts training gain. Using the theory of visual attention, we derived quantitative estimates of VPS before and after training. In Study 1, 75 healthy older adults participated in alertness training, active-control training, or no training (n = 25 each). A significant Group × Session interaction indicated an increase in VPS in the alertness-training group but not in the control group, despite VPS not differing significantly between groups before training. In Study 2, 29 healthy older adults underwent resting-state functional MRI and then participated in alertness training. Pretraining functional connectivity in the cingulo-opercular network correlated with the individual training-induced change in VPS. In conclusion, results indicate that alertness training improves visual processing in older adults and that functional connectivity in the cingulo-opercular network provides a neural marker for predicting individual training gain.


Assuntos
Cognição , Percepção Visual , Idoso , Encéfalo , Mapeamento Encefálico , Córtex Cerebral , Humanos , Individualidade , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Vias Neurais
15.
Exp Aging Res ; 47(2): 109-130, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446078

RESUMO

Aim: The present study was designed to investigate how behavioral (dual-action) demands in dual tasks are mentally represented in older adults and how these representations might contribute to the practice-related improvement of dual-task performance. Three different theoretical representation accounts were empirically tested: a structuralist account, a holistic account, and a contextual change account. The first account assumes that component tasks remain structurally intact when combined with another task while the second account assumes that dual-action requirements in dual tasks are represented holistically and entirely distinct from its component (single-action) requirements. The final account assumes that a change in context (e.g., from single to dual requirement) might generally impede response retrieval, similar to repeating a response when the task context switches. Methods: To address this issue of dual-action representations in older adults, we assessed trial-by-trial effects in a single/dual switch paradigm (involving a randomized mix of single- and dual-task trials within blocks). In detail, we re-analyzed a large set of practice data involving seven sessions, in which an auditory-vocal task was combined with a visual-manual task.  Results: At the end of practice, the current results were largely consistent with the structuralist account.  Conclusions: We conclude that dual-action requirements in the present dual-task setting are mentally represented in a predominantly structuralist fashion at the end of practice in older adults. The results are discussed in the context of other theories on practice-related mechanisms of improved dual-task performance in this age group.


Assuntos
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Voz , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Humanos , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação
16.
Psychol Res ; 85(1): 345-363, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667597

RESUMO

Dual-task performance typically leads to performance impairments in comparison to single tasks (i.e., dual-task costs). The literature discusses the contribution to these dual-task costs due to (1) bottleneck limitations in the dual-component tasks and (2) executive control processes regulating access to this bottleneck. Previous studies investigated the characteristics of executive control processes primarily triggered by external stimulus information. In the present study, however, we investigated the existence as well as the characteristics of internally triggered and driven endogenous control processes to regulate bottleneck access. In detail, we presented dual-task blocks with varying task orders and informed participants in advance about repetitions of the same task order as well as switches between different task orders (i.e., task-order repetitions and switches were predictable). Experiment 1 demonstrated that task-order information and an increased preparation time generally increase the efficiency for endogenous task-order control and improves preparation for task-order switches. This finding is basically consistent with the assumption of the existence of endogenous control processes. Experiment 2, however, did not provide evidence that this endogenous control is related with working-memory maintenance mechanisms. Experiment 3 showed that endogenous control does not only fully complete task-order preparation but also requires exogenous, stimulus-driven components.


Assuntos
Estimulação Acústica , Atenção/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Transferência de Experiência/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Estudantes , Adulto Jovem
17.
Exp Brain Res ; 239(12): 3447-3456, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510254

RESUMO

Switching between two or more tasks is a key component in our modern world. Task switching, however, requires time-consuming executive control processes and thus produces performance costs when compared to task repetitions. While executive control during task switching has been associated with activation in the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), only few studies so far have investigated the causal relation between lPFC activation and task-switching performance by modulating lPFC activation. In these studies, the results of lPFC modulation were not conclusive or limited to the left lPFC. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effect of non-invasive transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS; anodal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) vs. cathodal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) vs. sham tDCS (1 mA, 30 s)] over the right inferior frontal junction on task-switching performance in a well-established task-switching paradigm. In response times, we found a significant effect of tDCS Condition (atDCS, ctDCS vs. sham) on task-switching costs, indicating the modulation of task-switching performance by tDCS. In addition, we found a task-unspecific tDCS Condition effect in the first experimental session, in which participants were least familiar with the task, indicating a general enhancement of task performance in both task repetitions and task-switching trials. Taken together, our study provides evidence that the right lPFC is involved in task switching as well as in general task processing. Further studies are needed to investigate whether these findings can be translated into clinically relevant improvement in older subjects or populations with executive function impairment.


Assuntos
Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua , Idoso , Função Executiva , Humanos , Córtex Pré-Frontal , Tempo de Reação , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
18.
J Exp Child Psychol ; 197: 104866, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531496

RESUMO

Previous studies demonstrated that dual-task impairments (i.e., dual-task costs) are higher in children than in young adults. However, these studies did not specify the mechanisms explaining higher dual-task costs and did not assess the specific task processes that particularly impair simultaneous task performance in children. We assessed sources of higher dual-task costs in children (n = 32) as compared with young adults (n = 32) by combining auditory (Task 1) and visual (Task 2) sensorimotor tasks into dual tasks of the psychological refractory period (PRP) type. Both tasks are separated by a varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA). In Visual Task 2, we manipulated task difficulty at the perceptual stage (contrast manipulation) and response selection stage (mapping manipulation) in order to identify age-related changes in capacity limitations during dual-task performance. The results showed that the response selection manipulation and SOA yielded additive effects in children and young adults, providing evidence for interference at response selection processes in both age groups. In contrast, the perceptual stage manipulation and SOA resulted in underadditive effects in young adults and additive effects in children. This age-related difference is consistent with the assumption that limitations in central processing are present in both age groups, whereas perceptual interference between tasks seems to be larger in children than in young adults.


Assuntos
Atenção , Desempenho Psicomotor , Tempo de Reação , Período Refratário Psicológico , Filtro Sensorial , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores Etários , Percepção Auditiva , Criança , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orientação , Período Refratário Psicológico/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
19.
Front Psychol ; 11: 166, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116960

RESUMO

During the recognition of faces, the incoming perceptual information is matched against mental representations of familiar faces stored in memory. Face space models describe an abstract concept of face representations and their mental organization, in which facial representations are located on various characteristic dimensions, depending on their specific facial characteristics. However, these models are defined just as incompletely as the general understanding of face recognition. We took two phenomena from face processing to better understand face recognition, and so the nature of face space: face adaptation and face priming. The face literature has mainly focused on face adaptation, largely neglecting face priming when trying to integrate outcomes regarding face recognition into the face space framework. Consequently, the present paper aims to review both phenomena and their contributions to face recognition, representation, and face space.

20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 204: 103036, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086004

RESUMO

Performance in task switching experiments is worse when the current stimulus is associated with different responses in the two tasks (i.e., incongruent condition) than when it is associated with the same response (i.e., congruent condition). This congruency effect reflects some sort of application of the irrelevant task's stimulus-response translation rules. Manipulating the recency and the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials results in a modulation of the congruency effect (i.e., Congruency Sequence Effect, CSE, and Proportion Congruency Effect, PCE, respectively), suggesting attentional adjustment of processing weights. Here, we investigated the impact of task switching practice on the congruency effect and the modulation thereof by (a) re-analyzing the data of a task switching experiment involving six consecutive sessions and (b) conducting a novel four-session experiment in which the proportions of congruent and incongruent trials were manipulated. Although practice appeared to reduce the reaction times overall and the task switch costs (i.e., slower reaction times after task switches than after task repetitions) to an asymptotic level, the congruency effect as well as its modulations remained remarkably constant. These findings thus do not provide evidence that conflict effects between tasks and attentional adjustment are affected by task switching practice.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
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