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1.
Diabetologia ; 63(3): 597-610, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915895

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The pathophysiology of type 1 diabetes has been linked to altered gut microbiota and more specifically to a shortage of intestinal production of the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) butyrate, which may play key roles in maintaining intestinal epithelial integrity and in human and gut microbial metabolism. Butyrate supplementation can protect against autoimmune diabetes in mouse models. We thus set out to study the effect of oral butyrate vs placebo on glucose regulation and immune variables in human participants with longstanding type 1 diabetes. METHODS: We administered a daily oral dose of 4 g sodium butyrate or placebo for 1 month to 30 individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes, without comorbidity or medication use, in a randomised (1:1), controlled, double-blind crossover trial, with a washout period of 1 month in between. Participants were randomly allocated to the 'oral sodium butyrate capsules first' or 'oral placebo capsules first' study arm in blocks of five. The clinical investigator received blinded medication from the clinical trial pharmacy. All participants, people doing measurements or examinations, or people assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was a change in the innate immune phenotype (monocyte subsets and in vitro cytokine production). Secondary outcomes were changes in blood markers of islet autoimmunity (cell counts, lymphocyte stimulation indices and CD8 quantum dot assays), glucose and lipid metabolism, beta cell function (by mixed-meal test), gut microbiota and faecal SCFA. The data was collected at the Amsterdam University Medical Centers. RESULTS: All 30 participants were analysed. Faecal butyrate and propionate levels were significantly affected by oral butyrate supplementation and butyrate treatment was safe. However, this modulation of intestinal SCFAs did not result in any significant changes in adaptive or innate immunity, or in any of the other outcome variables. In our discussion, we elaborate on this important discrepancy with previous animal work. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Oral butyrate supplementation does not significantly affect innate or adaptive immunity in humans with longstanding type 1 diabetes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Netherlands Trial Register: NL4832 (www.trialregister.nl). DATA AVAILABILITY: Raw sequencing data are available in the European Nucleotide Archive repository (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/browse) under study PRJEB30292. FUNDING: The study was funded by a Le Ducq consortium grant, a CVON grant, a personal ZONMW-VIDI grant and a Dutch Heart Foundation grant.

2.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(2): 462-472, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801376

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Netrin-1 has been shown to play a role in the initiation of atherosclerosis in mice models. However, little is known about the role of Netrin-1 in humans. We set out to study whether Netrin-1 is associated with different stages of atherosclerosis. Approach and Results: Plasma Netrin-1 levels were measured in different patient cohorts: (1) 22 patients with high cardiovascular risk who underwent arterial wall inflammation assessment using positron-emission tomography / computed tomography, (2) 168 patients with a positive family history of premature atherosclerosis in whom coronary artery calcium scores were obtained, and (3) 104 patients with chest pain who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography imaging to evaluate plaque vulnerability and burden. Netrin-1 plasma levels were negatively correlated with arterial wall inflammation (ß, -0.01 [95% CI, 0.02 to -0.01] R2, 0.61; P<0.0001), and concentrations of Netrin-1 were significantly lower when atherosclerosis was present compared with individuals without atherosclerosis (28.01 versus 10.51 ng/mL, P<0.001). There was no difference in Netrin-1 plasma concentrations between patients with stable versus unstable plaques (11.17 versus 11.74 ng/mL, P=0.511). However, Netrin-1 plasma levels were negatively correlated to total plaque volume (ß, -0.09 [95% CI, -0.11 to -0.08] R2, 0.57, P<0.0001), calcified plaque volumes (ß, -0.10 [95% CI, -0.12 to -0.08] R2, 0.53; P<0.0001), and noncalcified plaque volumes (ß, -0.08 [95% CI, -0.10 to -0.06] R2, 0.41; P<0.0001). Treatment of inflammatory stimulated endothelial cells with plasma with high Netrin-1 level resulted in reduced endothelial inflammation and consequently, less monocyte adhesion. CONCLUSIONS: Netrin-1 plasma levels are lower in patients with subclinical atherosclerosis and in patients with arterial wall inflammation. Netrin-1 is not associated with plaque vulnerability; however, it is negatively correlated to plaque burden, suggesting that Netrin-1 is involved in some, but not all, stages of atherosclerosis.

3.
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 51(1): 98-107, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical assessments of peripheral artery disease (PAD) severity are insensitive to pathophysiological changes in muscle tissue oxygenation and energy metabolism distal to the affected artery. PURPOSE: To quantify the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response and phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery kinetics on a clinical MR system during a single exercise-recovery session in PAD patients. STUDY TYPE: Case-control study. SUBJECTS: Fifteen Fontaine stage II patients, and 18 healthy control subjects FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: Interleaved dynamic multiecho gradient-echo 1 H T2 * mapping and adiabatic pulse-acquire 31 P-MR spectroscopy at 3T. ASSESSMENT: Blood pressure in the arms and ankles were measured to determine the ankle-brachial index (ABI). Subjects performed a plantar flexion exercise-recovery protocol. The gastrocnemius and soleus muscle BOLD responses were characterized using the T2 * maps. High-energy phosphate metabolite concentrations were quantified by fitting the series of 31 P-MR spectra. The PCr recovery time constant (τPCr ) was derived as a measure of in vivo mitochondrial oxidative capacity. STATISTICAL TESTS: Comparisons between groups were performed using two-sided Mann-Whitney U-tests. Relations between variables were assessed by Pearson's r correlation coefficients. RESULTS: The amplitude of the functional hyperemic BOLD response in the gastrocnemius muscle was higher in PAD patients compared with healthy subjects (-3.8 ± 1.4% vs. -1.4 ± 0.3%; P < 0.001), and correlated with the ABI (r = 0.79; P < 0.001). PCr recovery was slower in PAD patients (τPCr = 52.0 ± 13.5 vs. 30.3 ± 9.7 sec; P < 0.0001), and correlated with the ABI (r = -0.64; P < 0.001). Moreover, τPCr correlated with the hyperemic BOLD response in the gastrocnemius muscle (r = -0.66; P < 0.01). DATA CONCLUSION: MR readouts of calf muscle tissue oxygenation and high-energy phosphate metabolism were acquired essentially simultaneously during a single exercise-recovery session. A pronounced hypoxia-triggered vasodilation in PAD is associated with a reduced mitochondrial oxidative capacity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020;51:98-107.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800099

RESUMO

The importance of protein glycosylation in regulating lipid metabolism is becoming increasingly apparent. We set out to further investigate this by studying the effects of defective glycosylation on plasma lipids in patients with B4GALT1-CDG, caused by a mutation in B4GALT1 with defective N-linked glycosylation. We studied plasma lipids, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) glyco-isoforms with isoelectric focusing followed by a western blot and CETP activity in three known B4GALT1-CDG patients and compared them with 11 age- and gender-matched, healthy controls. B4GALT1-CDG patients have significantly lowered non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and total cholesterol to HDL-c ratio compared with controls and larger HDL particles. Plasma CETP was hypoglycosylated and less active in B4GALT1-CDG patients compared to matched controls. Our study provides insight into the role of protein glycosylation in human lipoprotein homeostasis. The hypogalactosylated, hypo-active CETP found in patients with B4GALT1-CDG indicates a role of protein galactosylation in regulating plasma HDL and LDL. Patients with B4GALT1-CDG have large HDL particles probably due to hypogalactosylated, hypo-active CETP.

6.
Mar Drugs ; 17(12)2019 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31842319

RESUMO

The adhesion molecule P-selectin is present on the cell surface of both activated endothelium and activated platelets. The present study describes the pharmaceutical development, safety evaluation, and preclinical efficacy of a micro-dosed radiotracer. The macromolecular nanoscale assembly consisted of a natural compound made of a sulfated fucose-rich polysaccharides (fucoidan) and a radionuclide (technetium-99m) for the detection of P-selectin expression in cardiovascular diseases. After extraction and fractionation from brown seaweeds, the good manufacturing practice (GMP) production of a low molecular weight (LMW) fucoidan of 7 kDa was achieved and full physicochemical characterization was performed. The regulatory toxicology study in rats of the GMP batch of LMW fucoidan revealed no adverse effects up to 400 µg/kg (×500 higher than the expected human dose) and pseudoallergy was not seen as well. In a myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model in rats, the GMP-grade LMW fucoidan labeled with technetium-99m detected P-selectin upregulation in vivo. The present study supports the potential of using 99mTc-fucoidan as an imaging agent to detect activated endothelium in humans.

7.
JAMA ; 322(18): 1780-1788, 2019 11 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714986

RESUMO

Importance: Additional treatment options are needed for patients who do not achieve sufficient reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level with available lipid-lowering therapies. Objective: To assess the efficacy of bempedoic acid vs placebo in patients at high cardiovascular risk receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted at 91 clinical sites in North America and Europe from November 2016 to September 2018, with a final date of follow-up of September 22, 2018. A total of 779 patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia, or both met randomization criteria, which included LDL-C level 70 mg/dL (1.8 mmol/L) or greater while receiving maximally tolerated lipid-lowering therapy. Interventions: Patients were randomized 2:1 to treatment with bempedoic acid (180 mg) (n = 522) or placebo (n = 257) once daily for 52 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was percent change from baseline in LDL-C level at week 12. Secondary measures included changes in levels of lipids, lipoproteins, and biomarkers. Results: Among 779 randomized patients (mean age, 64.3 years; 283 women [36.3%]), 740 (95.0%) completed the trial. At baseline, mean LDL-C level was 120.4 (SD, 37.9) mg/dL. Bempedoic acid lowered LDL-C levels significantly more than placebo at week 12 (-15.1% vs 2.4%, respectively; difference, -17.4% [95% CI, -21.0% to -13.9%]; P < .001). Significant reductions with bempedoic acid vs placebo were observed at week 12 for non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-10.8% vs 2.3%; difference, -13.0% [95% CI, -16.3% to -9.8%]; P < .001), total cholesterol (-9.9% vs 1.3%; difference, -11.2% [95% CI, -13.6% to -8.8%]; P < .001), apolipoprotein B (-9.3% vs 3.7%; difference, -13.0% [95% CI, -16.1% to -9.9%]; P < .001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (median, -18.7% vs -9.4%; difference, -8.7% [asymptotic confidence limits, -17.2% to -0.4%]; P = .04). Common adverse events included nasopharyngitis (5.2% vs 5.1% with bempedoic acid and placebo, respectively), urinary tract infection (5.0% vs 1.9%), and hyperuricemia (4.2% vs 1.9%). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease receiving maximally tolerated statins, the addition of bempedoic acid compared with placebo resulted in a significant lowering of LDL-C level over 12 weeks. Further research is needed to assess the durability and clinical effect as well as long-term safety. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02991118.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Graxos/uso terapêutico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Ácidos Dicarboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Ácidos Graxos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipidemia Familiar Combinada/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(16): e013020, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407609

RESUMO

Background Apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) ratio and lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]) are associated with aortic valve stenosis (AVS) disease progression. Clinical characteristics such as age, sex, and presence of concomitant coronary artery disease may strongly modify these associations; however, these effects have not been well defined in longitudinal studies. We set out to assess these associations between apoB/apoA-I ratio, Lp(a), and AVS incidence in a large population study. Methods and Results We analyzed data from 17 745 participants (mean age, 59.2±9.1 years; men, 44.9%) in the EPIC-Norfolk (European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer in Norfolk Prospective Population Study) population study in whom apoB/apoA-I and Lp(a) levels were measured. Participants were identified as having incident AVS if they were hospitalized or died with AVS as an underlying cause. After a median follow-up of 19.8 years (17.9-21.0 years) there were 403 (2.2%) incident cases of AVS. The hazard ratio for AVS risk was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.19-1.41; P<0.001) per SD increase in apoB/apoA-I. Adjusting for age, sex, and coronary artery disease, there was no significant association between apoB/apoA-I and AVS incidence (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.97-1.17 [P=0.215]). Elevated Lp(a) (>50 mg/dL) remained an independent risk factor for AVS after adjustment for age, sex, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and concomitant coronary artery disease (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.33-2.19 [P<0.001]). Conclusions In this population study, apoB/apoA-I ratio was associated with risk of AVS incidence, especially in younger and female participants and those without concomitant coronary artery disease. Lp(a) was an independent risk factor for AVS incidence. Interventional trials are needed to investigate whether modulating apoB/apoA-I or lowering Lp(a) can prevent or slow down AVS.

10.
N Engl J Med ; 381(6): 531-542, 2019 08 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial chylomicronemia syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that is caused by loss of lipoprotein lipase activity and characterized by chylomicronemia and recurrent episodes of pancreatitis. There are no effective therapies. In an open-label study of three patients with this syndrome, antisense-mediated inhibition of hepatic APOC3 mRNA with volanesorsen led to decreased plasma apolipoprotein C-III and triglyceride levels. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized 52-week trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of volanesorsen in 66 patients with familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive volanesorsen or placebo. The primary end point was the percentage change in fasting triglyceride levels from baseline to 3 months. RESULTS: Patients receiving volanesorsen had a decrease in mean plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels from baseline of 25.7 mg per deciliter, corresponding to an 84% decrease at 3 months, whereas patients receiving placebo had an increase in mean plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels from baseline of 1.9 mg per deciliter, corresponding to a 6.1% increase (P<0.001). Patients receiving volanesorsen had a 77% decrease in mean triglyceride levels, corresponding to a mean decrease of 1712 mg per deciliter (19.3 mmol per liter) (95% confidence interval [CI], 1330 to 2094 mg per deciliter [15.0 to 23.6 mmol per liter]), whereas patients receiving placebo had an 18% increase in mean triglyceride levels, corresponding to an increase of 92.0 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) (95% CI, -301.0 to 486 mg per deciliter [-3.4 to 5.5 mmol per liter]) (P<0.001). At 3 months, 77% of the patients in the volanesorsen group, as compared with 10% of patients in the placebo group, had triglyceride levels of less than 750 mg per deciliter (8.5 mmol per liter). A total of 20 of 33 patients who received volanesorsen had injection-site reactions, whereas none of the patients who received placebo had such reactions. No patients in the placebo group had platelet counts below 100,000 per microliter, whereas 15 of 33 patients in the volanesorsen group had such levels, including 2 who had levels below 25,000 per microliter. No patient had platelet counts below 50,000 per microliter after enhanced platelet-monitoring began. CONCLUSIONS: Volanesorsen lowered triglyceride levels to less than 750 mg per deciliter in 77% of patients with familial chylomicronemia syndrome. Thrombocytopenia and injection-site reactions were common adverse events. (Funded by Ionis Pharmaceuticals and Akcea Therapeutics; APPROACH Clinical Trials.gov number, NCT02211209.).


Assuntos
Apolipoproteína C-III/antagonistas & inibidores , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/tratamento farmacológico , Oligonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/antagonistas & inibidores , Trombocitopenia/induzido quimicamente , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Análise de Variância , Apolipoproteína C-III/sangue , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo I/sangue , Injeções Subcutâneas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oligonucleotídeos/administração & dosagem , Oligonucleotídeos/efeitos adversos , Contagem de Plaquetas , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cell Metab ; 30(1): 1-2, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204280

RESUMO

Individuals with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels have an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Despite lipid lowering strategies, however, a significant cardiovascular risk remains. Bekkering et al. show that monocytes from patients with familial hypercholesterolemia have a trained immunity phenotype and that lipid lowering with statins does not revert this pro-inflammatory phenotype.

13.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(17): 2150-2162, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31047003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a major carrier of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL), is associated with an increased incidence of aortic stenosis (AS). However, it remains unclear whether elevated Lp(a) and OxPL drive disease progression and are therefore targets for therapeutic intervention. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether Lp(a) and OxPL on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) levels are associated with disease activity, disease progression, and clinical events in AS patients, along with the mechanisms underlying any associations. METHODS: This study combined 2 prospective cohorts and measured Lp(a) and OxPL-apoB levels in patients with AS (Vmax >2.0 m/s), who underwent baseline 18F-sodium fluoride (18F-NaF) positron emission tomography (PET), repeat computed tomography calcium scoring, and repeat echocardiography. In vitro studies investigated the effects of Lp(a) and OxPL on valvular interstitial cells. RESULTS: Overall, 145 patients were studied (68% men; age 70.3 ± 9.9 years). On baseline positron emission tomography, patients in the top Lp(a) tertile had increased valve calcification activity compared with those in lower tertiles (n = 79; 18F-NaF tissue-to-background ratio of the most diseased segment: 2.16 vs. 1.97; p = 0.043). During follow-up, patients in the top Lp(a) tertile had increased progression of valvular computed tomography calcium score (n = 51; 309 AU/year [interquartile range: 142 to 483 AU/year] vs. 93 AU/year [interquartile range: 56 to 296 AU/year; p = 0.015), faster hemodynamic progression on echocardiography (n = 129; 0.23 ± 0.20 m/s/year vs. 0.14 ± 0.20 m/s/year] p = 0.019), and increased risk for aortic valve replacement and death (n = 145; hazard ratio: 1.87; 95% CI: 1.13 to 3.08; p = 0.014), compared with lower tertiles. Similar results were noted with OxPL-apoB. In vitro, Lp(a) induced osteogenic differentiation of valvular interstitial cells, mediated by OxPL and inhibited with the E06 monoclonal antibody against OxPL. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with AS, Lp(a) and OxPL drive valve calcification and disease progression. These findings suggest lowering Lp(a) or inactivating OxPL may slow AS progression and provide a rationale for clinical trials to test this hypothesis.

14.
Bioconjug Chem ; 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095372

RESUMO

Nanotherapy has recently emerged as an experimental treatment option for atherosclerosis. To fulfill its promise, robust noninvasive imaging approaches for subject selection and treatment evaluation are warranted. To that end, we present here a positron emission tomography (PET)-based method for quantification of liposomal nanoparticle uptake in the atherosclerotic vessel wall. We evaluated a modular procedure to label liposomal nanoparticles with the radioisotope zirconium-89 (89Zr). Their biodistribution and vessel wall targeting in a rabbit atherosclerosis model was evaluated up to 15 days after intravenous injection by PET/computed tomography (CT) and PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI). Vascular permeability was assessed in vivo using three-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (3D DCE-MRI) and ex vivo using near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging. The 89Zr-radiolabeled liposomes displayed a biodistribution pattern typical of long-circulating nanoparticles. Importantly, they markedly accumulated in atherosclerotic lesions in the abdominal aorta, as evident on PET/MRI and confirmed by autoradiography, and this uptake moderately correlated with vascular permeability. The method presented herein facilitates the development of nanotherapy for atherosclerotic disease as it provides a tool to screen for nanoparticle targeting in individual subjects' plaques.

15.
Circulation ; 140(4): 280-292, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117816

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of protein glycosylation in regulating lipid metabolism is becoming increasingly apparent. We set out to further investigate this by studying patients with type I congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDGs) with defective N-glycosylation. METHODS: We studied 29 patients with the 2 most prevalent types of type I CDG, ALG6 (asparagine-linked glycosylation protein 6)-deficiency CDG and PMM2 (phosphomannomutase 2)-deficiency CDG, and 23 first- and second-degree relatives with a heterozygous mutation and measured plasma cholesterol levels. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism was studied in 3 cell models-gene silencing in HepG2 cells, patient fibroblasts, and patient hepatocyte-like cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells-by measuring apolipoprotein B production and secretion, LDL receptor expression and membrane abundance, and LDL particle uptake. Furthermore, SREBP2 (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2) protein expression and activation and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were studied. RESULTS: We report hypobetalipoproteinemia (LDL cholesterol [LDL-C] and apolipoprotein B below the fifth percentile) in a large cohort of patients with type I CDG (mean age, 9 years), together with reduced LDL-C and apolipoprotein B in clinically unaffected heterozygous relatives (mean age, 46 years), compared with 2 separate sets of age- and sex-matched control subjects. ALG6 and PMM2 deficiency led to markedly increased LDL uptake as a result of increased cell surface LDL receptor abundance. Mechanistically, this outcome was driven by increased SREBP2 protein expression accompanied by amplified target gene expression, resulting in higher LDL receptor protein levels. Endoplasmic reticulum stress was not found to be a major mediator. CONCLUSIONS: Our study establishes N-glycosylation as an important regulator of LDL metabolism. Given that LDL-C was also reduced in a group of clinically unaffected heterozygotes, we propose that increasing LDL receptor-mediated cholesterol clearance by targeting N-glycosylation in the LDL pathway may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce LDL-C and cardiovascular disease.

17.
J Clin Lipidol ; 13(3): 492-501, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910668

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on the causal link between plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has recently emerged. Individuals with the metabolic syndrome have an increased risk for acquiring elevated TG levels later in life. Moreover, common DNA sequence variations in genes affecting TG levels identify individuals at risk for elevated plasma TG levels. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated whether a 3-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) TG gene risk score (GRS) and a metabolic risk score (MetRS) both improved CVD risk prediction. METHODS: A 3-SNP GRS and MetRS were generated in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort (n = 20,074) based on 3 SNPs in LPL and APOA5 or the number of Metabolic Syndrome criteria present (maximum 5), respectively. The associations between the 3-SNP GRS, MetRS, TG levels, and CVD risk were evaluated. RESULTS: The 3-SNP GRS and MetRS were both linearly associated with plasma TG levels, that is, +0.25 mmol/L [95% CI 0.22-0.27] per allele change (P < .001) and +0.72 mmol/L [95% CI 0.70-0.73] per increase of number of metabolic syndrome risk score points (P < .001), respectively. We observed a positive association between the 3-SNP GRS and the risk of CVD with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.35 [95% CI 1.04-1.74] for the highest versus the lowest GRS, which was independent of the MetRS. For the MetRS, the adjusted HR was 2.03 [95% CI 1.73-2.40] for the highest versus the lowest MetRS. CONCLUSION: Both the 3-SNP GRS and the MetRS are associated with increased plasma TG levels and increased risk for CVD.

18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(7): e011662, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922146

RESUMO

Background Inability to tolerate statins because of muscle symptoms contributes to uncontrolled cholesterol levels and insufficient cardiovascular risk reduction. Bempedoic acid, a prodrug that is activated by a hepatic enzyme not present in skeletal muscle, inhibits ATP -citrate lyase, an enzyme upstream of ß-hydroxy ß-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase in the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Methods and Results The phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled CLEAR (Cholesterol Lowering via Bempedoic acid, an ACL-Inhibiting Regimen) Serenity study randomized 345 patients with hypercholesterolemia and a history of intolerance to at least 2 statins (1 at the lowest available dose) 2:1 to bempedoic acid 180 mg or placebo once daily for 24 weeks. The primary end point was mean percent change from baseline to week 12 in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The mean age was 65.2 years, mean baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol was 157.6 mg/dL, and 93% of patients reported a history of statin-associated muscle symptoms. Bempedoic acid treatment significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol from baseline to week 12 (placebo-corrected difference, -21.4% [95% CI, -25.1% to -17.7%]; P<0.001). Significant reductions with bempedoic acid versus placebo were also observed in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-17.9%), total cholesterol (-14.8%), apolipoprotein B (-15.0%), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (-24.3%; P<0.001 for all comparisons). Bempedoic acid was safe and well tolerated. The most common muscle-related adverse event, myalgia, occurred in 4.7% and 7.2% of patients who received bempedoic acid or placebo, respectively. Conclusions Bempedoic acid offers a safe and effective oral therapeutic option for lipid lowering in patients who cannot tolerate statins. Clinical Trial Registration URL : https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 02988115.

19.
Atherosclerosis ; 281: 189-197, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30340764

RESUMO

Notwithstanding the intense efforts into the understanding and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), its complex pathology remains the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The pivotal role of epigenetic changes in the control of gene expression has been profiled in several diseases, such as cancer and inflammatory disorders. In the last decade, increasing evidence has also linked aberrant epigenetic modulation as a contributor to CVD development. Differential profiles of DNA methylation, histone methylation and acetylation have consistently been observed in tissues and cells (comprising the aortic lesions, vascular endothelium and monocytes) from patients with CVD. This highlights the therapeutic potential of epigenetic drugs for cardiovascular treatment.

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