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1.
Am J Psychiatry ; 176(8): 651-660, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164008

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: More than 90% of people who attempt suicide have a psychiatric diagnosis; however, twin and family studies suggest that the genetic etiology of suicide attempt is partially distinct from that of the psychiatric disorders themselves. The authors present the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) on suicide attempt, using cohorts of individuals with major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. METHODS: The samples comprised 1,622 suicide attempters and 8,786 nonattempters with major depressive disorder; 3,264 attempters and 5,500 nonattempters with bipolar disorder; and 1,683 attempters and 2,946 nonattempters with schizophrenia. A GWAS on suicide attempt was performed by comparing attempters to nonattempters with each disorder, followed by a meta-analysis across disorders. Polygenic risk scoring was used to investigate the genetic relationship between suicide attempt and the psychiatric disorders. RESULTS: Three genome-wide significant loci for suicide attempt were found: one associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder, one associated with suicide attempt in bipolar disorder, and one in the meta-analysis of suicide attempt in mood disorders. These associations were not replicated in independent mood disorder cohorts from the UK Biobank and iPSYCH. No significant associations were found in the meta-analysis of all three disorders. Polygenic risk scores for major depression were significantly associated with suicide attempt in major depressive disorder (R2=0.25%), bipolar disorder (R2=0.24%), and schizophrenia (R2=0.40%). CONCLUSIONS: This study provides new information on genetic associations and demonstrates that genetic liability for major depression increases risk for suicide attempt across psychiatric disorders. Further collaborative efforts to increase sample size may help to robustly identify genetic associations and provide biological insights into the etiology of suicide attempt.

2.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912305

RESUMO

Recent breakthroughs in psychiatric genetics have identified genetic risk factors of yet unknown clinical value. A main ethical principal in the context of psychiatric research as well as future clinical genetic testing is the respect for a person's autonomy to decide whether to undergo genetic testing, and whom to grant access to genetic data. However, experience within the psychiatric genetic research setting has indicated controversies surrounding attitudes toward this ethical principal. This study aimed to explore attitudes concerning the right of individuals to self-determine testing and disclosure of results, and to determine whether these attitudes are context-dependent, that is, not directly related to the test result but rather to specific circumstances. N = 160 individuals with major depression or bipolar disorder and n = 29 relatives of individuals with either illness completed an online-questionnaire assessing attitudes toward genetic testing, genetic research, disclosure of results, incidental findings, and access to psychiatric genetic test results. Generally, the right of the person's autonomy was considered very important, but attitudes varied. For example, half of those who considered that children should have the right to refuse psychiatric genetic testing even against their parents' will, also state that they should be tested upon their parents' wishes. Also, the majority of respondents considered the physician entitled to disregard their stated wishes concerning the disclosure of incidental findings in case of good treatment options. Thus, researchers and clinicians must be aware that attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing are often mutable and should discuss these prior to testing.

4.
Med Arch ; 72(5): 352-356, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524168

RESUMO

Introduction: Schizophrenia(SCZ) and Bipolar disorder (BD) are frequently occurring and impairing disorders that affect around 1% of the population. Important endophenotypes in the genetic research of SCZ and BD are cognitive functions. Core symptoms for SCZ and BD are impairments in working memory, declarative memory and attention, all of which fulfill the criteria for an endophenotype. The FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene codes for a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor and has been reported to be associated with cognition. Aim: The aims of our research were to determine the degree of cognitive impairment in patients suffering from SCZ and BD and to explore the association of the FKBP5 variant rs3800373 genotype with the cognitive endophenotypes. Material and Methods: Patients and healthy controls were recruited over a period of two years from the Psychiatric Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. Genotyping and neuropsychological assessments were performed for 263 subjects (129 SCZ, 53 BD, and 81 healthy controls [HC]). Neuropsychological assessments were performed for all patients with the Trail Making Test-A&B (TMT-A&B) and Digit-span forward&backwards tasks. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3800373 in the FKBP5 gene was genotyped using Infinium PsychArray Bead Chips. Results and Conclusion: SCZ and BD patients performed lower than HC in the TMT-A&B and in the Digit-span backwards task, while no differences were observed between SCZ and BD patients. While SCZ patients performed lower than HC in the Digit-span forwards task, there were no differences between BD and HC or between BD and SCZ. Rs 3800373 was not associated with performance in the TMT-A&B or Digit-span forwards&backwards tasks. SCZ and BD share largely overlapping neurocognitive characteristics. Rs3800373 was not associated with performance in the neuropsychological tests. However, given the limited sample size, the results do not exclude an association with the rs3800373 variant in a larger sample. Furthermore, as the analysis was limited to one SNP, the results cannot be generalized to other genetic variants in FKBP5.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

6.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 11(4): 199-207, oct.-dic. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-176753

RESUMO

Introducción: Se presenta la primera descripción del estudio denominado Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF). Se trata de una investigación longitudinal con familias procedentes de Andalucía (España), que comenzó en 1997, con el objetivo de dilucidar las causas geneticomoleculares del trastorno afectivo bipolar. Desde entonces, esta cohorte ha contribuido a una serie de hallazgos clave, que han sido publicados en revistas internacionales. Sin embargo, el conocimiento sobre las bases genéticas del trastorno en estas familias sigue siendo limitado. Método: El estudio consta de dos fases: en la fase inicial se reclutaron 100 familias con múltiples afectados de trastorno bipolar y otros trastornos del ánimo. La segunda fase del proyecto, actualmente en curso, comenzó en 2013 con el objetivo de realizar un seguimiento de la cohorte de familias reclutadas originalmente. Los objetivos del estudio de seguimiento son: i) recoger nuevos datos clínicos longitudinales; ii) realizar una evaluación neuropsicológica detallada, y iii) obtener una extensa colección de biomateriales para futuros estudios moleculares. Resultados: El estudio ABiF, por tanto, generará unos recursos valiosos para futuras investigaciones sobre la etiología del trastorno afectivo bipolar; particularmente con respecto a las causas de la alta carga genética del trastorno en las familias con múltiples afectados. Discusión: Se discute el valor de este enfoque en relación con las nuevas tecnologías para la identificación de factores genéticos de alta penetrancia. Estas nuevas tecnologías incluyen la secuenciación del exoma y del genoma completo, y el uso de células madre pluripotentes inducidas u organismos modelo para la determinación de consecuencias funcionales


Introduction: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. Method: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. Results: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. Discussion: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences


Assuntos
Humanos , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Geografia Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Família
7.
Int J Bipolar Disord ; 6(1): 24, 2018 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disentangling the etiology of common, complex diseases is a major challenge in genetic research. For bipolar disorder (BD), several genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been performed. Similar to other complex disorders, major breakthroughs in explaining the high heritability of BD through GWAS have remained elusive. To overcome this dilemma, genetic research into BD, has embraced a variety of strategies such as the formation of large consortia to increase sample size and sequencing approaches. Here we advocate a complementary approach making use of already existing GWAS data: a novel data mining procedure to identify yet undetected genotype-phenotype relationships. We adapted association rule mining, a data mining technique traditionally used in retail market research, to identify frequent and characteristic genotype patterns showing strong associations to phenotype clusters. We applied this strategy to three independent GWAS datasets from 2835 phenotypically characterized patients with BD. In a discovery step, 20,882 candidate association rules were extracted. RESULTS: Two of these rules-one associated with eating disorder and the other with anxiety-remained significant in an independent dataset after robust correction for multiple testing. Both showed considerable effect sizes (odds ratio ~ 3.4 and 3.0, respectively) and support previously reported molecular biological findings. CONCLUSION: Our approach detected novel specific genotype-phenotype relationships in BD that were missed by standard analyses like GWAS. While we developed and applied our method within the context of BD gene discovery, it may facilitate identifying highly specific genotype-phenotype relationships in subsets of genome-wide data sets of other complex phenotype with similar epidemiological properties and challenges to gene discovery efforts.

8.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0205895, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30379966

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness affecting around 1% of the global population. BD is characterized by recurrent manic and depressive episodes, and has an estimated heritability of around 70%. Research has identified the first BD susceptibility genes. However, the underlying pathways and regulatory networks remain largely unknown. Research suggests that the cumulative impact of common alleles with small effects explains only around 25-38% of the phenotypic variance for BD. A plausible hypothesis therefore is that rare, high penetrance variants may contribute to BD risk. The present study investigated the role of rare, nonsynonymous, and potentially functional variants via whole exome sequencing in 15 BD cases from two large, multiply affected families from Cuba. The high prevalence of BD in these pedigrees renders them promising in terms of the identification of genetic risk variants with large effect sizes. In addition, SNP array data were used to calculate polygenic risk scores for affected and unaffected family members. After correction for multiple testing, no significant increase in polygenic risk scores for common, BD-associated genetic variants was found in BD cases compared to healthy relatives. Exome sequencing identified a total of 17 rare and potentially damaging variants in 17 genes. The identified variants were shared by all investigated BD cases in the respective pedigree. The most promising variant was located in the gene SERPING1 (p.L349F), which has been reported previously as a genome-wide significant risk gene for schizophrenia. The present data suggest novel candidate genes for BD susceptibility, and may facilitate the discovery of disease-relevant pathways and regulatory networks.

9.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198249, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924808

RESUMO

In clinical practice and in research, there is an ongoing debate on how to return incidental and secondary findings of genetic tests to patients and research participants. Previous investigations have found that most of the people most of the time are in favor of full disclosure of results. Yet, the option to reject disclosure, based on the so-called right not to know, can be valuable especially for some vulnerable subgroups of recipients. In the present study we investigated variations in informational preferences in the context of genetic testing in a large and diverse German sample. This survey examined health care professionals, patients, participants of genetic counseling sessions and members of the general population (N = 518). Survey participants were assessed regarding their openness to learning about findings under various hypothetical scenarios, as well as their attitudes about the doctor-patient-relationship in a disclosure situation and about informational transfer to third parties. While the majority of participants wanted to learn about their findings, the extent of support of disclosure varied with features of the hypothetical diagnostic scenarios (e.g., controllability of disease; abstract vs. concrete scenario description) and demographic characteristics of the subjects. For example, subjects with higher levels of education were more selective with regards to the kind of information they want to receive than those with lower levels of education. We discuss implications of these findings for the debate about the right not to know and for the clinical practice of informed consent procedures.

10.
Psychiatr Genet ; 28(4): 66-70, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29901528

RESUMO

The clinical comorbidity of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) is well established, whereas genetic factors influencing co-occurrence remain unclear. A recent study using polygenic risk scores (PRS) calculated based on the first-wave Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD meta-analysis (PGC-MDD1) suggests a modest shared genetic contribution to MDD and AD. Using a (~10 fold) larger discovery sample, we calculated PRS based on the second wave (PGC-MDD2) of results, in a severe AD case­control target sample. We found significant associations between AD disease status and MDD-PRS derived from both PGC-MDD2 (most informative P-threshold=1.0, P=0.00063, R2=0.533%) and PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=0.2, P=0.00014, R2=0.663%) meta-analyses; the larger discovery sample did not yield additional predictive power. In contrast, calculating PRS in a MDD target sample yielded increased power when using PGC-MDD2 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.000038, R2=1.34%) versus PGC-MDD1 (P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0013, R2=0.81%). Furthermore, when calculating PGC-MDD2 PRS in a subsample of patients with AD recruited explicitly excluding comorbid MDD, significant associations were still found (n=331; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.042, R2=0.398%). Meanwhile, in the subset of patients in which MDD was not the explicit exclusion criteria, PRS predicted more variance (n=999; P-threshold=1.0, P=0.0003, R2=0.693%). Our findings replicate the reported genetic overlap between AD and MDD and also suggest the need for improved, rigorous phenotyping to identify true shared cross-disorder genetic factors. Larger target samples are needed to reduce noise and take advantage of increasing discovery sample size.

11.
Bipolar Disord ; 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29956436

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) with early disease onset is associated with an unfavorable clinical outcome and constitutes a clinically and biologically homogenous subgroup within the heterogeneous BD spectrum. Previous studies have found an accumulation of early age at onset (AAO) in BD families and have therefore hypothesized that there is a larger genetic contribution to the early-onset cases than to late onset BD. To investigate the genetic background of this subphenotype, we evaluated whether an increased polygenic burden of BD- and schizophrenia (SCZ)-associated risk variants is associated with an earlier AAO in BD patients. METHODS: A total of 1995 BD type 1 patients from the Consortium of Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen), PsyCourse and Bonn-Mannheim samples were genotyped and their BD and SCZ polygenic risk scores (PRSs) were calculated using the summary statistics of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a training data set. AAO was either separated into onset groups of clinical interest (childhood and adolescence [≤18 years] vs adulthood [>18 years]) or considered as a continuous measure. The associations between BD- and SCZ-PRSs and AAO were evaluated with regression models. RESULTS: BD- and SCZ-PRSs were not significantly associated with age at disease onset. Results remained the same when analyses were stratified by site of recruitment. CONCLUSIONS: The current study is the largest conducted so far to investigate the association between the cumulative BD and SCZ polygenic risk and AAO in BD patients. The reported negative results suggest that such a polygenic influence, if there is any, is not large, and highlight the importance of conducting further, larger scale studies to obtain more information on the genetic architecture of this clinically relevant phenotype.

12.
BMC Genomics ; 19(1): 290, 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29695247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking has severe adverse health consequences in adults and in the offspring of mothers who smoke during pregnancy. One of the most widely reported effects of smoking during pregnancy is reduced birth weight which is in turn associated with chronic disease in adulthood. Epigenome-wide association studies have revealed that smokers show a characteristic "smoking methylation pattern", and recent authors have proposed that DNA methylation mediates the impact of maternal smoking on birth weight. The aims of the present study were to replicate previous reports that methylation mediates the effect of maternal smoking on birth weight, and for the first time to investigate whether the observed mediation effects are sex-specific in order to account for known sex-specific differences in methylation levels. METHODS: Methylation levels in the cord blood of 313 newborns were determined using the Illumina HumanMethylation450K Beadchip. A total of 5,527 CpG sites selected on the basis of evidence from the literature were tested. To determine whether the observed association between maternal smoking and birth weight was attributable to methylation, mediation analyses were performed for significant CpG sites. Separate analyses were then performed in males and females. RESULTS: Following quality control, 282 newborns eventually remained in the analysis. A total of 25 mothers had smoked consistently throughout the pregnancy. The birthweigt of newborns whose mothers had smoked throughout pregnancy was reduced by >200g. After correction for multiple testing, 30 CpGs showed differential methylation in the maternal smoking subgroup including top "smoking methylation pattern" genes AHRR, MYO1G, GFI1, CYP1A1, and CNTNAP2. The effect of maternal smoking on birth weight was partly mediated by the methylation of cg25325512 (PIM1); cg25949550 (CNTNAP2); and cg08699196 (ITGB7). Sex-specific analyses revealed a mediating effect for cg25949550 (CNTNAP2) in male newborns. CONCLUSION: The present data replicate previous findings that methylation can mediate the effect of maternal smoking on birth weight. The analysis of sex-dependent mediation effects suggests that the sex of the newborn may have an influence. Larger studies are warranted to investigate the role of both the identified differentially methylated loci and the sex of the newborn in mediating the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and birth weight.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Metilação de DNA , Fumar , Adulto , Ilhas de CpG , Feminino , Sangue Fetal/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Cadeias beta de Integrinas/genética , Masculino , Exposição Materna , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Gravidez , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-pim-1/genética
13.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 11(4): 199-207, 2018 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28619597

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Here, we present the first description of the Andalusian Bipolar Family (ABiF) Study. This longitudinal investigation of families from Andalusia, Spain commenced in 1997 with the aim of elucidating the molecular genetic causes of bipolar affective disorder. The cohort has since contributed to a number of key genetic findings, as reported in international journals. However, insight into the genetic underpinnings of the disorder in these families remains limited. METHOD: In the initial 1997-2003 study phase, 100 multiplex bipolar disorder and other mood disorder families were recruited. The ongoing second phase of the project commenced in 2013, and involves follow-up of a subgroup of the originally recruited families. The aim of the follow-up investigation is to generate: i) longitudinal clinical data; ii) results from detailed neuropsychological assessments; and iii) a more extensive collection of biomaterials for future molecular biological studies. RESULTS: The ABiF Study will thus generate a valuable resource for future investigations into the aetiology of bipolar affective disorder; in particular the causes of high disease loading within multiply affected families. DISCUSSION: We discuss the value of this approach in terms of new technologies for the identification of high-penetrance genetic factors. These new technologies include exome and whole genome sequencing, and the use of induced pluripotent stem cells or model organisms to determine functional consequences.

14.
Transl Psychiatry ; 7(12): 1273, 2017 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29225345

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are primary major mood disorders. Recent studies suggest that they share certain psychopathological features and common risk genes, but unraveling the full genetic architecture underlying the risk of major mood disorders remains an important scientific task. The public genome-wide association study (GWAS) data sets offer the opportunity to examine this topic by utilizing large amounts of combined genetic data, which should ultimately allow a better understanding of the onset and development of these illnesses. Genome-wide meta-analysis was performed by combining two GWAS data sets on BPD and MDD (19,637 cases and 18,083 controls), followed by replication analyses for the loci of interest in independent 12,364 cases and 76,633 controls from additional samples that were not included in the two GWAS data sets. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs10791889 at 11q13.2 was significant in both discovery and replication samples. When combining all samples, this SNP and multiple other SNPs at 2q11.2 (rs717454), 8q21.3 (rs10103191), and 11q13.2 (rs2167457) exhibited genome-wide significant association with major mood disorders. The SNPs in 2q11.2 and 8q21.3 were novel risk SNPs that were not previously reported, and SNPs at 11q13.2 were in high LD with potential BPD risk SNPs implicated in a previous GWAS. The genome-wide significant loci at 2q11.2 and 11q13.2 exhibited strong effects on the mRNA expression of certain nearby genes in cerebellum. In conclusion, we have identified several novel loci associated with major mood disorders, adding further support for shared genetic risk between BPD and MDD. Our study highlights the necessity and importance of mining public data sets to explore risk genes for complex diseases such as mood disorders.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtornos do Humor/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Sex Med ; 14(12): 1558-1565, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29198511

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have suggested that dopamine plays a role in the neurobiological mechanism that triggers ejaculation, leading scientists to hypothesize that dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms could contribute to symptoms of premature ejaculation (PE). AIM: To investigate associations between dopamine receptor and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT; an enzyme involved in the catabolism of dopamine) gene-linked polymorphisms and PE. METHODS: PE status in patient groups was determined by clinical diagnosis performed by a physician specializing in sexual medicine. Self-reported PE symptoms from a validated questionnaire also were reported. Saliva samples were collected from 149 patients with PE and 1,022 controls from a population-based sample. In total, we tested associations between PE and 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the dopamine receptor D1, D2, and D3 genes and in the COMT gene. OUTCOMES: We found no associations between dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and PE, but 2 COMT-linked loci (rs4680 and rs4818) had significant associations after correction for multiple testing. RESULTS: 1 COMT gene-linked locus that was associated with PE symptoms in the present study, rs4680, is a well-documented functional polymorphism that causes a valine-to-methionine substitution. The other polymorphism, rs4818, is in high linkage disequilibrium with the rs4680 locus, indicating that they capture the same effect. Surprisingly, the rs4680 variant that was statistically significantly more prevalent in the PE group (ie, the valine-encoding allele) has been associated with higher enzymatic activity and therefore lower synaptic dopamine levels. CLINICAL TRANSLATION: Drugs targeting the dopaminergic system could affect PE symptoms. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: No replication sample was available for the present study; thus, our findings should be interpreted with caution. Moreover, a limitation of our study is the small sample in the context of genetic association studies (although it should be mentioned that genetically informative samples with phenotypic information about PE symptoms are scarce, and most previous genetic association studies of PE have used samples of similar or smaller size). However, our results are plausible: we report an association between one of the most extensively studied and understood genetic polymorphisms in psychiatric research and PE, and our results are in line with the long-standing hypothesis that dopamine influences human ejaculatory function. CONCLUSIONS: We report an association between 2 COMT gene-linked loci and PE symptoms, but our results should be treated with caution until independently replicated. Jern P, Johansson A, Strohmaier J, et al. Preliminary Evidence for an Association Between Variants of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) Gene and Premature Ejaculation. J Sex Med 2017;14:1558-1565.


Assuntos
Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Ejaculação Precoce/enzimologia , Adulto , Alelos , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Ejaculação , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ejaculação Precoce/genética , Ejaculação Precoce/fisiopatologia
16.
Biol Psychiatry ; 2017 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29129318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heterogeneity of genetic effects on major depressive disorder (MDD) may be partly attributable to moderation of genetic effects by environment, such as exposure to childhood trauma (CT). Indeed, previous findings in two independent cohorts showed evidence for interaction between polygenic risk scores (PRSs) and CT, albeit in opposing directions. This study aims to meta-analyze MDD-PRS × CT interaction results across these two and other cohorts, while applying more accurate PRSs based on a larger discovery sample. METHODS: Data were combined from 3024 MDD cases and 2741 control subjects from nine cohorts contributing to the MDD Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. MDD-PRS were based on a discovery sample of ∼110,000 independent individuals. CT was assessed as exposure to sexual or physical abuse during childhood. In a subset of 1957 cases and 2002 control subjects, a more detailed five-domain measure additionally included emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. RESULTS: MDD was associated with the MDD-PRS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, p = 3.6 × 10-5, R2 = 1.18%) and with CT (OR = 2.63, p = 3.5 × 10-18 and OR = 2.62, p = 1.4 ×10-5 for the two- and five-domain measures, respectively). No interaction was found between MDD-PRS and the two-domain and five-domain CT measure (OR = 1.00, p = .89 and OR = 1.05, p = .66). CONCLUSIONS: No meta-analytic evidence for interaction between MDD-PRS and CT was found. This suggests that the previously reported interaction effects, although both statistically significant, can best be interpreted as chance findings. Further research is required, but this study suggests that the genetic heterogeneity of MDD is not attributable to genome-wide moderation of genetic effects by CT.

17.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(12): 1214-1225, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29049554

RESUMO

Importance: The association between major depressive disorder (MDD) and obesity may stem from shared immunometabolic mechanisms particularly evident in MDD with atypical features, characterized by increased appetite and/or weight (A/W) during an active episode. Objective: To determine whether subgroups of patients with MDD stratified according to the A/W criterion had a different degree of genetic overlap with obesity-related traits (body mass index [BMI] and levels of C-reactive protein [CRP] and leptin). Design, Setting, and Patients: This multicenter study assembled genome-wide genotypic and phenotypic measures from 14 data sets of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. Data sets were drawn from case-control, cohort, and population-based studies, including 26 628 participants with established psychiatric diagnoses and genome-wide genotype data. Data on BMI were available for 15 237 participants. Data were retrieved and analyzed from September 28, 2015, through May 20, 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime DSM-IV MDD was diagnosed using structured diagnostic instruments. Patients with MDD were stratified into subgroups according to change in the DSM-IV A/W symptoms as decreased or increased. Results: Data included 11 837 participants with MDD and 14 791 control individuals, for a total of 26 628 participants (59.1% female and 40.9% male). Among participants with MDD, 5347 (45.2%) were classified in the decreased A/W and 1871 (15.8%) in the increased A/W subgroups. Common genetic variants explained approximately 10% of the heritability in the 2 subgroups. The increased A/W subgroup showed a strong and positive genetic correlation (SE) with BMI (0.53 [0.15]; P = 6.3 × 10-4), whereas the decreased A/W subgroup showed an inverse correlation (-0.28 [0.14]; P = .06). Furthermore, the decreased A/W subgroup had a higher polygenic risk for increased BMI (odds ratio [OR], 1.18; 95% CI, 1.12-1.25; P = 1.6 × 10-10) and levels of CRP (OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.13; P = 7.3 × 10-3) and leptin (OR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.06-1.12; P = 1.7 × 10-3). Conclusions and Relevance: The phenotypic associations between atypical depressive symptoms and obesity-related traits may arise from shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in patients with MDD. Development of treatments effectively targeting immunometabolic dysregulations may benefit patients with depression and obesity, both syndromes with important disability.


Assuntos
Fissura , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Obesidade , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/imunologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
18.
Genes (Basel) ; 8(7)2017 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28714907

RESUMO

The present study investigated the genetic contribution to alcohol dependence (AD) using genome-wide association data from three German samples. These comprised patients with: (i) AD; (ii) chronic alcoholic pancreatitis (ACP); and (iii) alcohol-related liver cirrhosis (ALC). Single marker, gene-based, and pathway analyses were conducted. A significant association was detected for the ADH1B locus in a gene-based approach (puncorrected = 1.2 × 10-6; pcorrected = 0.020). This was driven by the AD subsample. No association with ADH1B was found in the combined ACP + ALC sample. On first inspection, this seems surprising, since ADH1B is a robustly replicated risk gene for AD and may therefore be expected to be associated also with subgroups of AD patients. The negative finding in the ACP + ALC sample, however, may reflect genetic stratification as well as random fluctuation of allele frequencies in the cases and controls, demonstrating the importance of large samples in which the phenotype is well assessed.

19.
Psychiatr Genet ; 27(5): 187-196, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731911

RESUMO

Major depression disorder (MDD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder and an increasing number of genetic risk variants are being identified. Investigation of their influence in the general population requires accurate and efficient assessment of depressive symptoms. Here, clinical interviews conducted by clinicians are the gold standard. We investigated whether valid and reliable clinical phenotypes can be obtained efficiently using self-administered instruments. Lifetime depressive symptoms and lifetime MDD diagnosis were assessed in 464 population-based individuals using a clinical interview and a structured, self-administered checklist. Analyses were carried out of the following: (i) intraclass correlations (ICC) between checklist and interview; (ii) sensitivity/specificity of the checklist; and (iii) the association of interview and checklist with a positive family history of MDD (FH-MDD+). The correspondence of the self-administered checklist with the clinical interview was good for most depressive symptoms (ICC=0.60-0.80) and moderate for MDD diagnosis (ICC=0.45). With the consecutive inclusion of MDD diagnostic criteria, sensitivity decreased from 0.67 to 0.46, whereas specificity remained high (0.95). For checklist and interview, strong associations were found between FH-MDD+ and most depressive symptoms and MDD diagnosis (all odds ratio≥1.83). The self-administered checklist showed high reliability for both the assessment of lifetime depressive symptoms and screening for individuals with no lifetime diagnosis of MDD. However, attention is warranted when the aim is to identify MDD cases. The positive association between depressive symptomatology and FH-MDD+ indicates the usefulness of both instruments to assess patients in genetic studies. Our data suggest that the more time-efficient and cost-efficient self-administered instruments also allow for the assessment of depressive symptoms accurate enough to investigate the influence of MDD genetic risk variants in the general population.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Entrevistas como Assunto , Autoavaliação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Tamanho da Amostra , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(5)2017 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28524073

RESUMO

Clinical genetic testing (CGT) of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have positive and negative effects. Knowledge about parents' attitudes is needed to ensure good involvement of caregivers, which is crucial for accurate diagnosis and effective clinical management. This study aimed to assess parents' attitudes toward CGT for ASD. Parent members of the Norwegian Autism Society were given a previously untested questionnaire and 1455 answered. Linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate contribution of parent and child characteristics to attitude statements. Provided it could contribute to a casual explanation of their child's ASD, 76% would undergo CGT. If it would improve the possibilities for early interventions, 74% were positive to CGT. Between 49-67% agreed that CGT could have a negative impact on health insurance, increase their concern for the child's future and cause family conflicts. Parents against CGT (9%) were less optimistic regarding positive effects, but not more concerned with negative impacts. The severity of the children's ASD diagnosis had a weak positive association with parent's positive attitudes to CGT (p-values range from <0.001 to 0.975). Parents prefer that CGT is offered to those having a child with ASD (65%), when the child's development deviates from normal (48%), or before pregnancy (36%). A majority of the parents of children with ASD are positive to CGT due to possibilities for an etiological explanation.


Assuntos
Atitude , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Testes Genéticos , Pais/psicologia , Transtorno Autístico/diagnóstico , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Noruega , Inquéritos e Questionários
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