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1.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(7): 1319-1326, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353862

RESUMO

A recurrent de novo missense variant in KCNC1, encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed in inhibitory neurons, causes progressive myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia, and a nonsense variant is associated with intellectual disability. We identified three new de novo missense variants in KCNC1 in five unrelated individuals causing different phenotypes featuring either isolated nonprogressive myoclonus (p.Cys208Tyr), intellectual disability (p.Thr399Met), or epilepsy with myoclonic, absence and generalized tonic-clonic seizures, ataxia, and developmental delay (p.Ala421Val, three patients). Functional analyses demonstrated no measurable currents for all identified variants and dominant-negative effects for p.Thr399Met and p.Ala421Val predicting neuronal disinhibition as the underlying disease mechanism.

2.
Neuro Oncol ; 21(10): 1273-1283, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical treatment in Cushing's disease (CD) is limited due to poor understanding of its pathogenesis. Pathogenic variants of ubiquitin specific peptidase 8 (USP8) have been confirmed as causative in around half of corticotroph tumors. We aimed to further characterize the molecular landscape of those CD tumors lacking USP8 mutations in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: Exome sequencing was performed on 18 paired tumor-blood samples with wild-type USP8 status. Candidate gene variants were screened by Sanger sequencing in 175 additional samples. The most frequent variant was characterized by further functional in vitro assays. RESULTS: Recurrent somatic hotspot mutations in another deubiquitinase, USP48, were found in 10.3% of analyzed samples. Several possibly damaging variants were found in TP53 in 6 of 18 samples. USP48 variants were associated with smaller tumors and trended toward higher frequency in female patients. They also changed the structural conformation of USP48 and increased its catalytic activity toward its physiological substrates histone 2A and zinc finger protein Gli1, as well as enhanced the stimulatory effect of corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) on pro-opiomelanocortin production and adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion. CONCLUSIONS: USP48 pathogenic variants are relatively frequent in USP8 wild-type tumors and enhance CRH-induced hormone production in a manner coherent with sonic hedgehog activation. In addition, TP53 pathogenic variants may be more frequent in larger CD tumors than previously reported.

3.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 42(5): 909-917, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059585

RESUMO

Diagnostics for suspected mitochondrial disease (MD) can be challenging and necessitate invasive procedures like muscle biopsy. This is due to the extremely broad genetic and phenotypic spectrum, disease genes on both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and the tissue specificity of mtDNA variants. Exome sequencing (ES) has revolutionized the diagnostics for MD. However, the nuclear and mtDNA are investigated with separate tests, increasing costs and duration of diagnostics. The full potential of ES is often not exploited as the additional analysis of "off-target reads" deriving from the mtDNA can be used to analyze both genomes. We performed mtDNA analysis by ES of 2111 cases in a clinical setting. We further assessed the recall rate and precision as well as the estimation of heteroplasmy by ES data by comparison with targeted mtDNA next generation sequencing in 49 cases. ES identified known pathogenic mtDNA point mutations in 38 individuals, increasing the diagnostic yield by nearly 2%. Analysis of mtDNA variants by ES had a high recall rate (96.2 ± 5.6%) and an excellent precision (99.5 ± 2.2%) when compared to the gold standard of targeted mtDNA next generation sequencing. ES estimated heteroplasmy levels with an average difference of 6.6 ± 3.8%, sufficient for clinical decision making. Taken together, the mtDNA analysis from ES is of sufficient quality for clinical diagnostics. We therefore propose ES, investigating both nuclear and mtDNA, as first line test in individuals with suspected MD. One should be aware, that a negative result does not exclude MD and necessitates further test (in additional tissues).

4.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(12): 197-204, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In developed countries, global developmental disorders are encounter- ed in approximately 1% of all children. The causes are manifold, and no exogenous cause can be identified in about half of the affected children. The parallel investi- gation of the coding sequences of all genes of the affected individual (whole exome sequencing, WES) has developed into a successful diagnostic method for identify- ing the cause of the problem. It is not yet clear, however, when WES should best be used in routine clinical practice in order to exploit the potential of this method to the fullest. METHODS: In an interdisciplinary study, we carried out standardized clinical pheno- typing and a systematic genetic analysis (WES of the index patient and his or her parents, so-called trio WES) in 50 children with developmental disturbances of unclear etiology and with nonspecific neurological manifestations. RESULTS: In 21 children (42% of the collective), we were able to identify the cause of the disorder by demonstrating a mutation in a gene known to be associated with disease. Three of these children subsequently underwent specific treatment. In 22 other children (44%), we detected possibly etiological changes in candidate genes not currently known to be associated with human disease. CONCLUSION: Our detection rate of at least 42% is high in comparison with the results obtained in other studies from Germany and other countries to date and implies that WES can be used to good effect as a differential diagnostic tool in pediatric neurol- ogy. WES should be carried out in both the index patient and his or her parents (trio- WES) and accompanied by close interdisciplinary collaboration of human geneti- cists and pediatricians, by comprehensive and targeted phenotyping (also after the diagnosis is established), and by the meticulous evaluation of all gene variants.

5.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2532-2542, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036918

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to expand the genetic architecture of neurodevelopmental disorders, and to characterize the clinical features of a novel cohort of affected individuals with variants in ZNF142, a C2H2 domain-containing transcription factor. METHODS: Four independent research centers used exome sequencing to elucidate the genetic basis of neurodevelopmental phenotypes in four unrelated families. Following bioinformatic filtering, query of control data sets, and secondary variant confirmation, we aggregated findings using an online data sharing platform. We performed in-depth clinical phenotyping in all affected individuals. RESULTS: We identified seven affected females in four pedigrees with likely pathogenic variants in ZNF142 that segregate with recessive disease. Affected cases in three families harbor either nonsense or frameshifting likely pathogenic variants predicted to undergo nonsense mediated decay. One additional trio bears ultrarare missense variants in conserved regions of ZNF142 that are predicted to be damaging to protein function. We performed clinical comparisons across our cohort and noted consistent presence of intellectual disability and speech impairment, with variable manifestation of seizures, tremor, and dystonia. CONCLUSION: Our aggregate data support a role for ZNF142 in nervous system development and add to the emergent list of zinc finger proteins that contribute to neurocognitive disorders.

6.
Genet Med ; 21(11): 2521-2531, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092906

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Skeletal muscle growth and regeneration rely on muscle stem cells, called satellite cells. Specific transcription factors, particularly PAX7, are key regulators of the function of these cells. Knockout of this factor in mice leads to poor postnatal survival; however, the consequences of a lack of PAX7 in humans have not been established. METHODS: Here, we study five individuals with myopathy of variable severity from four unrelated consanguineous couples. Exome sequencing identified pathogenic variants in the PAX7 gene. Clinical examination, laboratory tests, and muscle biopsies were performed to characterize the disease. RESULTS: The disease was characterized by hypotonia, ptosis, muscular atrophy, scoliosis, and mildly dysmorphic facial features. The disease spectrum ranged from mild to severe and appears to be progressive. Muscle biopsies showed the presence of atrophic fibers and fibroadipose tissue replacement, with the absence of myofiber necrosis. A lack of PAX7 expression was associated with satellite cell pool exhaustion; however, the presence of residual myoblasts together with regenerating myofibers suggest that a population of PAX7-independent myogenic cells partially contributes to muscle regeneration. CONCLUSION: These findings show that biallelic variants in the master transcription factor PAX7 cause a new type of myopathy that specifically affects satellite cell survival.

8.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(6): 903-908, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778172

RESUMO

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS; OMIM #130650) is an imprinting disorder caused by genetic or epigenetic alterations of one or both imprinting control regions on chromosome 11p15.5. Hypomethylation of the centromeric imprinting control region (KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR, ICR2) is the most common molecular cause of BWS and is present in about half of the cases. Based on a BWS family with a maternal deletion of the 5' part of KCNQ1 we have recently hypothesised that transcription of KCNQ1 is a prerequisite for the establishment of methylation at the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR in the oocyte. Further evidence for this hypothesis came from a mouse model where methylation failed to be established when a poly(A) truncation cassette was inserted into this locus to prevent transcription through the DMR. Here we report on a family where a balanced translocation disrupts the KCNQ1 gene in intron 9. Maternal inheritance of this translocation is associated with hypomethylation of the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR and BWS. This finding strongly supports our previous hypothesis that transcription of KCNQ1 is required for establishing the maternal methylation imprint at the KCNQ1OT1:TSS-DMR.

9.
J Neurol ; 266(5): 1107-1112, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767057

RESUMO

Collagen XIII is a non-fibrillar transmembrane collagen which has been long recognized for its critical role in synaptic maturation of the neuromuscular junction. More recently, biallelic COL13A1 loss-of-function mutations were identified in three patients with congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS), a rare inherited condition with defective neuromuscular transmission, causing abnormal fatigability and fluctuating muscle weakness and often successfully treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. Here we report six additional CMS patients from three unrelated families with previously unreported homozygous COL13A1 loss-of-function mutations (p.Tyr216*, p.Glu543fs and p.Thr629fs). The phenotype of our cases was similar to the previously reported patients including respiratory distress and severe dysphagia at birth that often resolved or improved in the first days or weeks of life. All individuals had prominent eyelid ptosis with only minor ophthalmoparesis as well as generalized muscle weakness, predominantly affecting facial, bulbar, respiratory and axial muscles. Response to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor treatment was generally negative while salbutamol proved beneficial. Our data further support the causality of COL13A1 variants for CMS and suggest that this type of CMS might be clinically homogenous and requires alternative pharmacological therapy.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo XIII/genética , Mutação/genética , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/genética , Criança , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/patologia , Síndromes Miastênicas Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Receptor trkA/genética , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 295-299, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30556293

RESUMO

Grange syndrome is an autosomal recessive condition characterized by arterial occlusions and hypertension. Syndactyly, brachydactyly, bone fragility, heart defects, and learning disabilities have also been reported. Loss-of-function variants in YY1AP1 have only recently been associated with Grange syndrome. YY1AP1 encodes for the transcription coactivator yin yang 1-associated protein 1 which regulates smooth muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. We here report on three siblings with steno-occlusive arterial disorder and syndactyly in two of them. Whole exome sequencing including near-splice regions led to the identification of two intronic YY1AP1 variants which were predicted to interfere with normal splicing. Sanger sequencing demonstrated compound-heterozygosity in all affected siblings. RT-PCR analyses confirmed skipping of exon 6 on one allele and exonization of 22 bp in intron 6 on the other. This is the first report of biallelic YY1AP1 variants in noncoding regions and just the second family with multiple affected siblings. Therefore, our report further delineates the phenotypic spectrum of Grange syndrome.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 817-825, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401461

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL2, reverse the reaction. We used exome sequencing to identify five different bi-allelic pathogenic ADPRHL2 variants in 12 individuals from 8 families affected by a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in childhood or adolescence with key clinical features including developmental delay or regression, seizures, ataxia, and axonal (sensori-)motor neuropathy. ADPRHL2 was virtually absent in available affected individuals' fibroblasts, and cell viability was reduced upon hydrogen peroxide exposure, although it was rescued by expression of wild-type ADPRHL2 mRNA as well as treatment with a PARP1 inhibitor. Our findings suggest impaired protein ribosylation as another pathway that, if disturbed, causes neurodegenerative diseases.

13.
Hum Genet ; 137(11-12): 911-919, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30460542

RESUMO

Mutations in the SACS gene have been initially reported in a rare autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia syndrome featuring prominent cerebellar atrophy, spasticity and peripheral neuropathy as well as retinal abnormalities in some cases (autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay, ARSACS). In the past few years, the phenotypic spectrum has broadened, mainly owing to the availability and application of high-throughput genetic testing methods. We identified nine patients (three sib pairs, three singleton cases) with isolated, non-syndromic hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) who carried pathogenic SACS mutations, either in the homozygous or compound heterozygous state. None of the patients displayed spasticity or pyramidal signs. Ataxia, which was noted in only three patients, was consistent with a sensory ataxia. Nerve conduction and nerve biopsy studies showed mixed demyelinating and axonal neuropathy. Brain MRI scans were either normal or revealed isolated upper vermis atrophy of the cerebellum. Our findings confirm the broad clinical spectrum associated with SACS mutations, including pure polyneuropathy without characteristic clinical and brain imaging manifestations of ARSACS.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

15.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30298599

RESUMO

MPV17 encodes a putative channel-forming protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane and is involved in mitochondrial deoxynucleotide homeostasis. MPV17 mutations were first reported in patients with Navajo neurohepatopathy, an autosomal recessive mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, characterized by early-onset liver failure, failure to thrive as well as central and peripheral neurological involvement. Recently, two patients with juvenile-onset peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy associated with an MVP17 c.122G>A (p.Arg41Gln) variant have been reported. Here, we describe five additional patients from two unrelated families with sensorimotor axonal neuropathy without hepatocerebral affection caused by homozygous MPV17 variants. Patients of the first family carried the known c.122G>A variant and affected individuals of the second family had a novel c.376-9T>G near-splice variant, which was shown to result in an in-frame deletion of 11 amino acids. This report provides further evidence that MPV17 mutations should be considered in patients with pure, non-syndromic axonal neuropathy.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30262571

RESUMO

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CaMKs) are key mediators of calcium signaling and underpin neuronal health. Although widely studied, the contribution of CaMKs to Mendelian disease is rather enigmatic. Here, we describe an unusual neurodevelopmental phenotype, characterized by milestone delay, intellectual disability, autism, ataxia, and mixed hyperkinetic movement disorder including severe generalized dystonia, in a proband who remained etiologically undiagnosed despite exhaustive testing. We performed trio-whole-exome sequencing to identify a de novo essential splice-site variant (c.981+1G>A) in CAMK4, encoding CaMKIV. Through in silico evaluation and cDNA analyses, we demonstrated that c.981+1G>A alters CAMK4 pre-mRNA processing and results in a stable mRNA transcript containing a 77-nt out-of-frame deletion and a premature termination codon within the last exon. The expected protein, p.Lys303Serfs*28, exhibits selective loss of the C-terminal regulatory domain of CaMKIV and bears striking structural resemblance to previously reported synthetic mutants that confer constitutive CaMKIV activity. Biochemical studies in proband-derived cells confirmed an activating effect of c.981+1G>A and indicated that variant-induced excessive CaMKIV signaling is sensitive to pharmacological manipulation. Additionally, we found that variants predicted to cause selective depletion of CaMKIV`s regulatory domain are unobserved in diverse catalogs of human variation, thus revealing that c.981+1G>A is a unique molecular event. We propose that our proband`s phenotype is explainable by a dominant CAMK4 splice-disrupting mutation that acts through a gain-of-function mechanism. Our findings highlight the importance of CAMK4 in human neurodevelopment, provide a foundation for future clinical research of CAMK4, and suggest the CaMKIV signaling pathway as a potential drug target in neurological disease.

17.
Hum Genet ; 137(9): 753-768, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30167850

RESUMO

NALCN is a conserved cation channel, which conducts a permanent sodium leak current and regulates resting membrane potential and neuronal excitability. It is part of a large ion channel complex, the "NALCN channelosome", consisting of multiple proteins including UNC80 and UNC79. The predominant neuronal expression pattern and its function suggest an important role in neuronal function and disease. So far, biallelic NALCN and UNC80 variants have been described in a small number of individuals leading to infantile hypotonia, psychomotor retardation, and characteristic facies 1 (IHPRF1, OMIM 615419) and 2 (IHPRF2, OMIM 616801), respectively. Heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variants in the S5/S6 pore-forming segments lead to congenital contractures of the limbs and face, hypotonia, and developmental delay (CLIFAHDD, OMIM 616266) with some clinical overlap. In this study, we present detailed clinical information of 16 novel individuals with biallelic NALCN variants, 1 individual with a heterozygous de novo NALCN missense variant and an interesting clinical phenotype without contractures, and 12 individuals with biallelic UNC80 variants. We report for the first time a missense NALCN variant located in the predicted S6 pore-forming unit inherited in an autosomal-recessive manner leading to mild IHPRF1. We show evidence of clinical variability, especially among IHPRF1-affected individuals, and discuss differences between the IHPRF1- and IHPRF2 phenotypes. In summary, we provide a comprehensive overview of IHPRF1 and IHPRF2 phenotypes based on the largest cohort of individuals reported so far and provide additional insights into the clinical phenotypes of these neurodevelopmental diseases to help improve counseling of affected families.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Canalopatias/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Canais de Sódio/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Canalopatias/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 120, 2018 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial acyl-CoA dehydrogenase family member 9 (ACAD9) is essential for the assembly of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I. Disease causing biallelic variants in ACAD9 have been reported in individuals presenting with lactic acidosis and cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: We describe the genetic, clinical and biochemical findings in a cohort of 70 patients, of whom 29 previously unpublished. We found 34 known and 18 previously unreported variants in ACAD9. No patients harbored biallelic loss of function mutations, indicating that this combination is unlikely to be compatible with life. Causal pathogenic variants were distributed throughout the entire gene, and there was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation. Most of the patients presented in the first year of life. For this subgroup the survival was poor (50% not surviving the first 2 years) comparing to patients with a later presentation (more than 90% surviving 10 years). The most common clinical findings were cardiomyopathy (85%), muscular weakness (75%) and exercise intolerance (72%). Interestingly, severe intellectual deficits were only reported in one patient and severe developmental delays in four patients. More than 70% of the patients were able to perform the same activities of daily living when compared to peers. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that riboflavin treatment improves complex I activity in the majority of patient-derived fibroblasts tested. This effect was also reported for most of the treated patients and is mirrored in the survival data. In the patient group with disease-onset below 1 year of age, we observed a statistically-significant better survival for patients treated with riboflavin.

19.
Brain ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985992

RESUMO

The transcription factor BCL11B is essential for development of the nervous and the immune system, and Bcl11b deficiency results in structural brain defects, reduced learning capacity, and impaired immune cell development in mice. However, the precise role of BCL11B in humans is largely unexplored, except for a single patient with a BCL11B missense mutation, affected by multisystem anomalies and profound immune deficiency. Using massively parallel sequencing we identified 13 patients bearing heterozygous germline alterations in BCL11B. Notably, all of them are affected by global developmental delay with speech impairment and intellectual disability; however, none displayed overt clinical signs of immune deficiency. Six frameshift mutations, two nonsense mutations, one missense mutation, and two chromosomal rearrangements resulting in diminished BCL11B expression, arose de novo. A further frameshift mutation was transmitted from a similarly affected mother. Interestingly, the most severely affected patient harbours a missense mutation within a zinc-finger domain of BCL11B, probably affecting the DNA-binding structural interface, similar to the recently published patient. Furthermore, the most C-terminally located premature termination codon mutation fails to rescue the progenitor cell proliferation defect in hippocampal slice cultures from Bcl11b-deficient mice. Concerning the role of BCL11B in the immune system, extensive immune phenotyping of our patients revealed alterations in the T cell compartment and lack of peripheral type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), consistent with the findings described in Bcl11b-deficient mice. Unsupervised analysis of 102 T lymphocyte subpopulations showed that the patients clearly cluster apart from healthy children, further supporting the common aetiology of the disorder. Taken together, we show here that mutations leading either to BCL11B haploinsufficiency or to a truncated BCL11B protein clinically cause a non-syndromic neurodevelopmental delay. In addition, we suggest that missense mutations affecting specific sites within zinc-finger domains might result in distinct and more severe clinical outcomes.

20.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1195-1203, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861108

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing is a powerful tool for the discovery of genes related to neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Here, we report the identification of a distinct syndrome due to de novo or inherited heterozygous mutations in Tousled-like kinase 2 (TLK2) in 38 unrelated individuals and two affected mothers, using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing technologies, matchmaker databases, and international collaborations. Affected individuals had a consistent phenotype, characterized by mild-borderline neurodevelopmental delay (86%), behavioral disorders (68%), severe gastro-intestinal problems (63%), and facial dysmorphism including blepharophimosis (82%), telecanthus (74%), prominent nasal bridge (68%), broad nasal tip (66%), thin vermilion of the upper lip (62%), and upslanting palpebral fissures (55%). Analysis of cell lines from three affected individuals showed that mutations act through a loss-of-function mechanism in at least two case subjects. Genotype-phenotype analysis and comparison of computationally modeled faces showed that phenotypes of these and other individuals with loss-of-function variants significantly overlapped with phenotypes of individuals with other variant types (missense and C-terminal truncating). This suggests that haploinsufficiency of TLK2 is the most likely underlying disease mechanism, leading to a consistent neurodevelopmental phenotype. This work illustrates the power of international data sharing, by the identification of 40 individuals from 26 different centers in 7 different countries, allowing the identification, clinical delineation, and genotype-phenotype evaluation of a distinct NDD caused by mutations in TLK2.

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