Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20
Filtrar
1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 701887, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34765578

RESUMO

A rising concern is the COVID-19 pandemic effect on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) due to increased parental stress and social/physical isolation. These pandemic effects are likely to be higher in already marginalized communities. The objective of this ecological study was to examine the relationship between COVID-19 cases and deaths, race/ethnicity, and the estimated number of adults with ACEs using data from South Carolina (SC). COVID-19 reported cases and death data were obtained from the SC Department of Health and Environmental Control. ACE data was used from the 2014-2016 SC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Census data were used to obtain county population data. To measure the relationship between these variables, the Spearman rank-order correlation test was used because the data distribution was non-normal. There was a moderate relationship between the estimated number of adults with one or more ACEs and deaths (ρ = 0.89) and race/ethnicity-specific COVID-19 case counts by county (Black: ρ = 0.76; =White: ρ = 0.96; Hispanic: ρ = 0.89). Further, the Spearman correlation test showed the strongest relationship between COVID-19 deaths and race-ethnicity-specific county populations was with the Black adult population (ρ = 0.90). Given the known link between existing health inequities and exposure to COVID-19, these results demonstrate that the current pandemic could have unintended consequences on the well-being of children and caregivers. Response efforts should consider promoting protective factors for children and families and advocating for equitable policies and systems that serve children.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , COVID-19 , Adulto , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1703, 2021 09 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34537021

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The inclusion of self-reported differential treatment by race/ethnicity in population-based public health surveillance and monitoring systems may provide an opportunity to address long-standing health inequalities. While there is a growing trend towards decreasing response rates and selective non-response in health surveys, research examining the magnitude of non-response related to self-reported discrimination warrants greater attention. This study examined the distribution of sociodemographic variables among respondents and non-respondents to the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (SC-BRFSS) Reactions to Race module (6-question optional module capturing reports of race-based treatment). METHODS: Using data from SC-BRFSS (2016, 2017), we examined patterns of non-response to the Reactions to Race module and individual items in the module. Logistic regression models were employed to examine sociodemographic factors associated with non-response and weighted to account for complex sampling design. RESULTS: Among 21,847 respondents, 15.3% were non-responders. Significant differences in RTRM non-response were observed by key sociodemographic variables (e.g., age, race/ethnicity, labor market participation, and health insurance status). Individuals who were younger, Hispanic, homemakers/students, unreported income, and uninsured were over-represented among non-respondents. In adjusted analyses, Hispanics and individuals with unreported income were more likely to be non-responders in RTRM and across item, while retirees were less likely to be non-responders. Heterogeneity in levels of non-responses were observed across RTRM questions, with the highest level of non-response for questions assessing differential treatment in work (54.8%) and healthcare settings (26.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-responders differed from responders according to some key sociodemographic variables, which could contribute to the underestimation of self-reported discrimination and race-related differential treatment and health outcomes. While we advocate for the use of population-based measures of self-reported racial discrimination to monitor and track state-level progress towards health equity, future efforts to estimate, assess, and address non-response variations by sociodemographic factors are warranted to improve understanding of lived experiences impacted by race-based differential treatment.


Assuntos
Racismo , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Grupos Étnicos , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos
3.
Health Educ Behav ; 48(5): 615-626, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34053309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing availability of research about addressing adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has recently been embraced by the mainstream media and public. Social media, especially Twitter, provides a unique forum and platform for the public to access and share information about this topic. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to better understand how the public is framing, sharing, and using research about ACEs on Twitter and to examine the information being commonly discussed about ACEs. METHOD: We obtained tweets on the topics of ACEs, childhood resilience, and childhood trauma between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2019. This timeframe was determined based on key related events in the mainstream media. Crimson Hexagon, a social media analytics system using Boolean logic, was used to identify salient topics, influencers, and conduct a content analysis. RESULTS: A total of 195,816 relevant tweets were obtained from our search. The weekly volume was approximately 1,864 tweets. Key topics included general use of the term ACEs (23%), trauma and ACEs (19%), long-term impact of ACEs (12%), preventing ACEs (11%), short-term effects of ACEs (8%), the 1997 ACE Study (5%), and students with ACEs (5%). The top two sentiments were fear and joy. Top conversation influencers included pediatricians, child health advocacy organizations, California's state government, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and National Public Radio. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides insight to the ways the public is conversing about ACEs and related topics. Results indicated that conversations focus on increasing awareness of ACEs by content experts and public health organizations. This presents an opportunity to leverage social media tools to increase public engagement and awareness.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Mídias Sociais , Criança , Comunicação , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Pública
4.
J Community Psychol ; 48(4): 1132-1146, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442336

RESUMO

Given the pervasive nature of child abuse and neglect, multilevel public health approaches are necessary. Implementation science can help in understanding the most effective ways to build infrastructure and support delivery of such approaches. In this theoretical paper, we describe the implementation of the Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), an evidence-based population-level parenting program in South Carolina. While implementation science has informed how to move population-level efforts to scale, we discuss challenges that persist in practice, such as when there is a need for multiple stakeholders to understand, support, and apply implementation best practices in a systematic and consistent way. To address this challenge, we introduce the role of a Community Capacity Coach, who lives in the local community and works towards the implementation of Triple P. The Coach is responsible for bridging gaps between the local community and statewide support systems. We detail the ways in which the Coach's role aligns with key intermediary functions, and how the Coach is embedded within the larger Triple P statewide support system. We then discuss the assessment of the Coach's impact; and conclude with future directions and next steps for this role within Triple P South Carolina.


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/prevenção & controle , Ciência da Implementação , Tutoria/métodos , Poder Familiar , Fortalecimento Institucional/organização & administração , Criança , Humanos , South Carolina
5.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 7(6): 1225-1233, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32291577

RESUMO

There is a growing body of research documenting racial/ethnic differences in the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and negative health outcomes in adulthood. However, few studies have examined racial/ethnic differences in the association between ACEs and health care access. Cross-sectional data collected from South Carolina's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2014-2016; n = 15,436) was used to examine associations among ACEs, race/ethnicity, and health care access among South Carolina adults. Specifically, logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for three health care access outcomes: having a personal doctor, routine checkup in the last 2 years, and delay in seeking medical care due to cost. Without adjusting for any covariates, in the overall population, the odds of having no personal doctor, no checkup in the last 2 years, and delay in medical care due to cost was significantly higher among those with at least one ACE, compared with those with no ACEs; and health care access varied by race, with significant relationships detected among Whites and Blacks. Among White adults, the odds of having no checkup in the last 2 years and delay in medical care due to cost was significantly higher among those with at least one ACE, compared with those with no ACEs. Among Black adults, a delay in medical care due to cost was significantly higher among those who reported ACEs compared with their counterparts. The results from this study suggest that ACEs may be an underrecognized barrier to health care for adults. Investing in strategies to mitigate ACEs may help improve health care access among adults.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupos Étnicos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , South Carolina , Adulto Jovem
6.
Child Abuse Negl ; 102: 104391, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32018214

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We examined the perspectives of child and family-serving professionals (CFSP) and state policymakers on protective factors to develop policy and program recommendations including current and needed approaches for addressing ACEs. METHODS: In 2018, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 23 CFSP and 24 state policymakers in South Carolina. Data were analyzed applying the Multiple Streams Theory using thematic analyses. RESULTS: CFSPs and policymakers had varying opinions on state government involvement and primary prevention for ACEs. Three protective factors emerged from their perspectives: 1) loving, trusting, and nurturing relationships; 2) safe home environments; and 3) opportunities to thrive. For each of these protective factors, participants suggested policy options that support existing community efforts, attempt to alleviate poverty, and improve child and family serving systems. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that CFSPs and policymakers recognize the importance of protective factors in a child's life to buffer the effect of ACEs. More awareness is needed about the feasibility and significance of primary prevention of ACEs. The study's findings can be used to strengthen advocacy priorities for a wide range of public health outcomes associated with ACEs and help further bridge the gap between research and policy.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/normas , Experiências Adversas da Infância/psicologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Health Promot Pract ; 21(1_suppl): 139S-147S, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908193

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can increase the risk of engagement in unhealthy behaviors including tobacco use. Protective factors, such as safe, stable, and nurturing relationships (SSNRs) can potentially moderate the long-term impact of ACEs by helping children build resilience. However, there is limited research on whether the impact of these factors is stronger among Black children and families, who face disproportionately poorer health outcomes compared to their White counterparts. This study examined the relationships among protective factors in childhood, ACEs (one or more vs. none), and tobacco use (smoking tobacco, e-cigarette use) in adulthood, including whether these relationships differed by race. Data were obtained from the 2016 South Carolina administration of the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 7,014). Using stratified, multivariate logistic regression, the presence of an SSNR in childhood (whether participants' basic needs were met and whether they felt safe and protected during childhood) was assessed as a potential moderator of the association between ACEs (one or more vs. none) and smoking tobacco or e-cigarettes stratified by race (Black and White). Control variables included sex, age, educational attainment, and income. Statistically significant moderating effects of an SSNR was present for White adults only: The relationship between ACEs and risk behaviors was weakened when an SSNR was present in childhood. Although SSNRs appear to prevent some risk behavior consequences from ACEs among some groups, additional research is needed to understand their potential utility across population subgroups.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , South Carolina , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Am J Health Promot ; 34(2): 189-197, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597439

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) become increasingly recognized as a root cause of unhealthy behaviors, researchers, practitioners, and legislators seek to understand policy strategies to prevent and mitigate its effects. Given the high prevalence of ACEs, policies that address ACEs can meaningfully prevent disease in adulthood and improve population health. We sought to understand barriers and opportunities for policies to prevent and mitigate ACEs by exploring state legislator perspectives. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-four current state legislators in South Carolina. DESIGN: In 2018, we conducted semistructured interviews with 24 state legislators. Participants were recruited using maximum variation sampling. The researchers individually analyzed each interview transcript using focused coding qualitative techniques. A high inter-rater agreement was demonstrated (κ = .76 to .87), and discrepancies were resolved through discussion. METHOD: The data collection and analysis were guided by Multiple Streams Theory, which identifies 3 key components (attention to the problem, decisions about policy options, and the impact of political landscape) that can lead windows of opportunity for passing policies. RESULTS: Legislators identified several factors that can influence the passage of legislation on ACEs: awareness of ACEs; gaps in understanding about what can be done about ACEs; the use of data and stories that contextualize the problem of ACEs; capitalizing on the bipartisanship of children's issues; and linking to current ACEs-related issues on the policy agenda, such as school safety and violence prevention and the opioid epidemic. CONCLUSION: Public health researchers and practitioners should focus on the factors identified to advocate for policies that prevent ACEs and/or address their health consequences.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/legislação & jurisprudência , Experiências Adversas da Infância/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Promoção da Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Política , Adulto , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Formulação de Políticas , South Carolina , Governo Estadual
9.
Health Promot Pract ; 21(4): 525-534, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760809

RESUMO

The empower action model addresses childhood adversity as a root cause of disease by building resilience across multiple levels of influence to promote health, equity, and well-being. The model builds on the current evidence around adverse childhood experiences and merges important frameworks within key areas of public health-the socio-ecological model, protective factors, race equity and inclusion, and the life course perspective. The socio-ecological model is used as the foundation for this model to highlight the multilevel approach needed for improvement in public health. Five key principles that build on the protective factors literature are developed to be applied at each of the levels of the socio-ecological model: understanding, support, inclusion, connection, and growth. These principles are developed with actions that can be implemented across the life span. Finally, actions suggested with each principle are grounded in the tenets of race equity and inclusion, framing all actionable steps with an equity lens. This article discusses the process by which the model was developed and provides steps for states and communities to implement this tool. It also introduces efforts in a state to use this model within county coalitions through an innovative use of federal and foundation funding.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/prevenção & controle , Equidade em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Pública
10.
J Prev Interv Community ; 47(4): 310-324, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131725

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events that occur in a child's life. These negative experiences have been related to poor adult health and wellbeing outcomes. While previous research has established that ACEs are common, poor adult health outcomes occur at higher rates for persons of color and those with low-incomes compared to their relative counterparts. Examining the intersectionality of ACE, race/ethnicity, and income is important for targeted prevention and intervention efforts, especially as policies at the state and national level are created to address these inequities. The current study examined the prevalence of ACE by race/ethnicity and income. Results of the analyses demonstrate the need for policy makers and others to use tools to examine the unintended consequences of policy change or action. Racial equity impact assessments can be used to examine the impact of a policy change or action to prevent or address ACE on communities of color.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Adulto , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina , Adulto Jovem
11.
Matern Child Health J ; 23(6): 811-820, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006084

RESUMO

Objectives Research on adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) has provided a valuable framework for understanding associations between childhood maltreatment and family dysfunction and later poor health outcomes. However, increasing research suggests the number and types of childhood adversities measured warrants further examination. This study examines ACE exposure among adults who experienced homelessness in childhood, another type of childhood adversity. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive study used the 2016 South Carolina (SC) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey and additional ACE modules to examine ACE exposure among SC adults and childhood homelessness. Standard descriptive statistics were calculated for each variable. Bivariate analysis compared types and number of ACEs by childhood homeless status. All analyses used survey sampling weights that accounted for the BRFSS sampling strategy. Results Data from 7490 respondents were weighted for analyses. Among the 215 respondents who reported homelessness in childhood, 68.1% reported experiencing four or more ACEs. In contrast, only 16.3% of respondents who reported no homelessness in childhood reported experiencing four or more ACEs. The percent of respondents was significantly higher for each of 11 ACEs among those who reported childhood homelessness, compared to those who did not. Conclusions for Practice Adults who reported homelessness in childhood also reported significantly greater exposure to higher numbers and types of ACEs than adults reporting no childhood homelessness. Study findings can be important in informing additional indicators important to the assessment of ACEs and to program developers or organizations that provide housing assistance to at-risk families and children.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência Doméstica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Problemas Sociais , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
J Child Adolesc Trauma ; 12(2): 165-173, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32318189

RESUMO

Protective factors can build resilience and potentially moderate the long-term impact of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). To better understand the role of protective factors, this study examines the relationship of two protective factors focused on safe, stable and nurturing relationships, ACEs, and self-reported mental and physical health outcomes among a representative adult sample from the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Protective factors were assessed as potential moderators of ACEs and poor self-reported physical and mental health in multivariate logistic regression analyses. Respondents exposed to four or more ACEs who grew up with an adult who made them feel safe and protected were less likely to report frequent mental distress or poor health. The use of protective factors may be an effective prevention strategy for ACEs and its associated outcomes and may serve as a mechanism to "break the cycle" of childhood trauma.

13.
Community Dent Oral Epidemiol ; 46(5): 442-448, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29873406

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Routine preventive dental care is important to overall child health and well-being. However, the experience of adversity in childhood may prevent children from getting adequate preventive care. This study seeks to explore how the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and the role of a protective adult may be associated with dental care utilization in childhood. METHODS: Data from the 2016 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (SC BRFSS), which interviews adults eighteen year of age and older, were used in this study. Dental care utilization in childhood was measured as the adult retrospectively reported frequency of dental care in childhood: at least once every 2 years (adequate dental care) or less often than every 2 years (inadequate dental care). ACEs were determined by asking about each of respondent's childhood exposure to eleven childhood experiences, including divorce, parental incarceration, domestic violence, drug and alcohol abuse, mental illness and emotional, physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a protective adult in childhood included respondents who had an adult who made them feel safe and protected during childhood. Descriptive and bivariate statistics explored differences in the adequacy of child dental care by ACE exposure, the presence of a protective adult and selected demographic characteristics. Multivariate regression models were used to examine the impact of counts and types of ACEs and the presence of a protective adult with inadequate childhood dental care. RESULTS: The unweighted study sample included 7079 respondents ageing from 18 to 79 years of age Sampling weights were used for all analyses. Among all respondents, 71.7% reported receiving adequate dental care during childhood; 28.3% responded that they received inadequate dental care. Adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, respondents who experienced four or more ACEs had a higher likelihood of inadequate dental care than respondents who reported no ACEs (aOR 2.79; 95% CI 2.77-2.82). The odds of reporting inadequate dental care were lower among those grew up with an adult who made them feel safe and protected (aOR 0.38; 95% CI 0.37-0.39). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of protective factors may mitigate the effects of ACEs on paediatric dental care. This research contributes to the literature through the further identification of the role of dentists in identifying signs of abuse and neglect.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Rural Remote Health ; 18(1): 4434, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29471666

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events that occur in a child's life between birth and 18 years. Exposure to one or more ACE has been linked to participation in risky health behaviors and the experience of chronic health conditions in adulthood. The risk for poor outcomes increases as the number of ACEs experienced increases. This research investigates rural-urban differences in exposure to ACEs using a sample from a representative southern US state, South Carolina. METHODS: Using data from the 2014-2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and residential rurality based on UICs, ACE exposure among South Carolina adults was tabulated by urban versus rural residence and selected other demographic characteristics. Using standard descriptive statistics, frequencies and proportions were calculated for each categorical variable. Multivariable regression modeling was used to examine the impact of residential rurality and selected sociodemographic characteristics on overall and specific types of ACE exposure. All analyses used survey sampling weights that accounted for the BRFSS sampling strategy. RESULTS: The analytic sample of 18 176 respondents comprised 15.9% rural residents. Top reported ACEs for both rural and urban residents were the same: parental divorce/separation, emotional abuse, and household substance use. Compared to urban residents, a higher proportion of rural respondents reported experiencing no ACEs (41.4% vs 38.3%, p<0.01). The prevalence of four or more ACEs in rural respondents was 15.0%; in comparison, 17.6% of urban respondents had four or more ACEs (p<0.01). In logistic regression predicting exposure to four or more ACEs and adjusting for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income, rural respondents were less likely than urban respondents to report four or more ACEs (adjusted odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.74-0.75). CONCLUSIONS: Despite reporting less ACE exposure than urban counterparts, almost 60% of rural residents reported at least one ACE and 15% reported experiencing four or more ACEs. In contrast to urban residents, rural residents may experience more social connections within their families and communities, which may influence ACE exposure; however, care coordination, social support services, and access to health care are limited in rural areas. Thus, families in rural areas may be less equipped to mitigate and manage the effects of ACEs. Findings from this study thus suggest that interventions to prevent ACE exposure are just as needed in rural southern communities as they are in urban southern communities. Topics important for future research could include an examination of ACEs in rural communities in terms of individuals' health outcomes and their access to health care, as well as the role of protective factors. Programs and policies that assist in ACE prevention in rural areas are important to reducing these multigenerational threats to health and wellbeing.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/estatística & dados numéricos , Experiências Adversas da Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , South Carolina
15.
Subst Use Misuse ; 53(7): 1212-1220, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29185846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including alcohol misuse. The impact of ACEs on alcohol use may vary by gender, with ACEs impacting women more than men in coping with adulthood stressors. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to examine the gender-specific relationships between ACEs and self-reported binge drinking and heavy drinking in adulthood among South Carolina residents. METHODS: This study analyzed a sample of 8492 respondents who completed the 2014 or 2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the impact of types and the number of ACEs on binge drinking and heaving drinking in adulthood. RESULTS: Thirty-seven percent of men and 22.8% of women survey respondents reported binge drinking and 12.2% of men and 4.1% of women reported heavy drinking. Almost all categories of ACE were associated with increased odds of reporting binge and heavy drinking; household mental illness had the greatest odds for men (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.30-1.33) and emotional abuse had the greatest odds for women (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.40-1.43). Men and women with four or more ACEs had greater odds of reporting binge and heavy drinking compared to their counterparts. Conclusions/Importance: Given the potential for negative outcomes associated with alcohol misuse and transmission of risky alcohol-related behaviors from parent to child, strategies that utilize a multigenerational approach could have a large impact on population health.


Assuntos
Adultos Sobreviventes de Eventos Adversos na Infância/psicologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Consumo Excessivo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , South Carolina/epidemiologia
16.
Child Abuse Negl ; 65: 204-211, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28189958

RESUMO

Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been linked to negative health outcomes in adulthood, but little research has been done on the effect of ACEs on the health and well-being of adults in South Carolina (SC). This study analyzed a sample of 9744 respondents who participated in the 2014 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to examine the relationship among childhood experiences of physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, as well as witnessing household violence, on mental and physical health outcomes in adulthood among SC residents. Twenty-two percent of survey respondents reported poor general health (22.1%), and a smaller proportion reported high frequent mental distress in the past month (13.1%). Each category of childhood experiences was associated with an increase in the risk of poor general health. Individuals reporting three or more types of experiences were more likely to report poor health (aOR 2.89; 95% CI 2.86-2.92) than adults without such experiences. Respondents reporting three or more types of childhood adverse experiences were more likely to report frequent mental distress (aOR 3.29; 95% CI 3.26-3.33) compared to adults who did not report three or more types of adversity. Findings from the SC BRFSS highlight a connection between ACEs and negative health outcomes later in life. Given that results of this study also demonstrated that increased exposure to ACEs was associated with greater odds of negative health in adulthood, preventing adverse events such as experiencing abuse or witnessing domestic violence in childhood will have significant effects on later adult health.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis , Maus-Tratos Infantis , Nível de Saúde , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Saúde Mental , Adulto , Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Criança , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Violência Doméstica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , South Carolina , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 82(1): 121-8, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22239402

RESUMO

MeckCARES, a system of care (SOC) in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, is designed to serve youth with severe emotional disturbances and their families. This study employed latent growth curve (LGC) modeling to examine (a) the degree to which youth improved on indicators of adjustment over the course of the first year of enrollment in MeckCARES, and (b) the services or demographic variables associated with individual differences in the rate of change over time. Participant caregivers (N = 121) reported on 3 major indicators of youth adjustment at baseline, 6-month follow-up, and 12-month follow-up. Primary analyses indicated that there was a modest yet significant improvement in all 3 outcome measures over the first year of enrollment in MeckCARES. Additional analyses revealed that caregiver reports of receiving case management at any point in the first year were associated with improvement in behavioral and emotional strengths as well as a reduction in psychological and behavioral symptoms. No significant differences in rate of change were observed based on caregiver-reported receipt of individual or family therapy nor any demographic variables. These findings suggest that MeckCARES may be particularly effective when youth are receiving case management services. Additional implications for practice are discussed.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Psicológicos , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , North Carolina , Psicoterapia/métodos
19.
Am J Orthopsychiatry ; 82(1): 129-36, 2012 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22239403

RESUMO

In North Carolina, only 69% of high school students graduate in 4 years; however, recent data suggest that only 42% of students with mental and emotional disabilities graduate. MeckCARES, a system of care (SOC) in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, is designed to serve youth with severe emotional disturbances and their families. The SOC philosophy is a prominent family-focused approach intended to provide comprehensive, coordinated networks of services, tailored to the needs of the child and family, while emphasizing the strengthening of natural community supports. In addition to other mental health objectives, a particular goal of MeckCARES is to address specific school-based needs of system-identified youth to improve educational outcomes and reduce the risk of dropping out. This study sought to assess empirically the impact that enrollment in MeckCARES has on graduation precursors; namely, grades, suspensions, and absences. This study found that, on average, enrollment in MeckCARES is not associated with positive changes in educational variables. Implications of these findings are discussed, as are future directions. For example, additional research is needed with more sensitive measurement and data collection procedures (i.e., access to graduation rates and Medicaid information) to adequately assess the impact of enrollment in MeckCARES on educational outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Escolaridade , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Absenteísmo , Adolescente , Sintomas Afetivos/terapia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , North Carolina , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Psicoterapia/métodos , Psicoterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Caracteres Sexuais , Evasão Escolar/psicologia
20.
Aviat Space Environ Med ; 80(8): 709-15, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19653573

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Motion sickness adversely affects military air and sea operations. Medications help prevent motion sickness but are frequently associated with side effects. Better medications or combinations of medications are needed. Dextroamphetamine has documented anti-motion sickness effects but also has a potential for abuse. Modafinil is a relatively new central nervous system stimulant that has none of the drawbacks of dextroamphetamine, but has not been evaluated for the treatment of motion sickness. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the anti-motion sickness efficacy of modafinil, alone or in combination with oral scopolamine. Moderate nausea was induced via a Coriolis cross-coupling stimulus. There were 60 participants who were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 conditions: 1) 2 placebo pills (DP); 2) modafinil plus placebo (MP); or 3) modafinil plus oral scopolamine (MS). The primary measure of drug efficacy was the number of head tilts tolerated upon reaching moderate nausea for 1 min without abatement. RESULTS: The combination of modafinil and scopolamine (MS) allowed subjects to tolerate significantly more head tilts than placebo, but modafinil alone (MP) failed to differ significantly from placebo (DP). No significant cognitive performance decrements were observed among the three experimental conditions. CONCLUSION: Modafinil was not found to be more effective than placebo. Further testing is recommended to determine whether the potentially promising combination of modafinil and scopolamine provides better efficacy or fewer side effects than scopolamine administered alone.


Assuntos
Compostos Benzidrílicos/uso terapêutico , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/uso terapêutico , Enjoo devido ao Movimento/prevenção & controle , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/uso terapêutico , Escopolamina/uso terapêutico , Compostos Benzidrílicos/efeitos adversos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Força Coriolis , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Modafinila , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/efeitos adversos , Escopolamina/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...