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1.
PeerJ ; 7: e6472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119064

RESUMO

Background: We identified and classified damselfly (Zygoptera) and dragonfly (Anisoptera) metacommunities in Brazilian Amazonia, relating species distribution patterns to known biological gradients and biogeographical history. We expected a random distribution of both Zygoptera and Anisoptera within interfluves. At the Amazonian scale, we expected Anisoptera metacommunities to be randomly distributed due to their higher dispersal ability and large environmental tolerance. In contrast, we expected Zygoptera communities to exhibit a Clementsian pattern, limited by the large Amazonia rivers due to their low dispersal ability. Methods: We used a dataset of 58 first-to-third order well-sampled streamlets in four Amazonian interfluves and applied an extension of the Elements of Metacommunity Structure (EMS) framework, in which we order Zygoptera and Anisoptera metacommunities by known spatial and biogeographic predictors. Results: At the Amazonian scale, both Zygoptera and Anisoptera presented a Clementsian pattern, driven by the same environmental and biogeographical predictors, namely biogeographic region (interfluve), annual mean temperature, habitat integrity and annual precipitation. At the interfluve scale, results were less consistent and only partially support our hypothesis. Zygoptera metacommunities at Guiana and Anisoptera metacommunities at Tapajós were classified as random, suggesting that neutral processes gain importance at smaller spatial scales. Discussion: Our findings were consistent with previous studies showing that environmental gradients and major rivers limit the distribution of Odonata communities, supporting that larger Amazonian rivers act as barriers for the dispersal of this group. In addition, the importance of habitat integrity indicates that intactness of riparian vegetation is an important filter shaping metacommunity structure of Amazonian stream Odonata.

2.
Oecologia ; 185(3): 525-531, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038861

RESUMO

The humid forests of Amazonia are experiencing longer and more intense dry seasons, which are predicted to intensify by the end of the 21st century. Although tree species often have long generation times, they may still have the capacity to rapidly respond to changing climatic conditions through adaptive phenotypic plasticity. We, therefore, predicted that Amazonian trees have shifted their leaf morphology in response to the recent drier climate. We tested this prediction by analysing historical herbarium specimens of six Amazonian tree species collected over a 60-year period and comparing changes in leaf morphology with historical precipitation data. Moreover, we explored spatial and temporal biases in herbarium specimens and accounted for their potentially confounding effect in our analysis. We found pronounced biases in herbarium specimens, with nearly 20% of specimens collected in close geographic proximity and around the 1975s. When accounting for such biases, our results indicate a trend of decreasing leaf size after the 1970s, which may have been spurred by an observed reduction in rainfall. Our findings support the hypothesis that (some) Amazonian trees have the capacity to adaptively change their leaf phenotypes in response to the recent drier climate. Nevertheless, the unavoidable spatial and temporal biases in herbarium specimens call for caution when generalizing our findings to all Amazonian trees.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Árvores/anatomia & histologia , Árvores/fisiologia , Clima , Florestas , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
3.
Acta amaz ; 41(4): 521-544, 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-601762

RESUMO

The high tree diversity and vast extent of Amazonian forests challenge our understanding of how tree species abundance and composition varies across this region. Information about these parameters, usually obtained from tree inventories plots, is essential for revealing patterns of tree diversity. Numerous tree inventories plots have been established in Amazonia, yet, tree species composition and diversity of white-sand and terra-firme forests of the upper Rio Negro still remain poorly understood. Here, we present data from eight new one-hectare tree inventories plots established in the upper Rio Negro; four of which were located in white-sand forests and four in terra-firme forests. Overall, we registered 4703 trees > 10 cm of diameter at breast height. These trees belong to 49 families, 215 genera, and 603 species. We found that tree communities of terra-firme and white-sand forests in the upper Rio Negro significantly differ from each other in their species composition. Tree communities of white-sand forests show a higher floristic similarity and lower diversity than those of terra-firme forests. We argue that mechanisms driving differences between tree communities of white-sand and terra-firme forests are related to habitat size, which ultimately influences large-scale and long-term evolutionary processes.


A vasta extensão e a alta diversidade de árvores das florestas na Amazônia desafiam a nossa compreensão sobre como variam a composição e abundância de espécies arbóreas ao longo desta região. Informações sobre estes parâmetros, geralmente obtidas a partir de inventários florísticos, são fundamentais para análises sobre padrões de diversidade. Embora inúmeros inventários florísticos tenham sido estabelecidos na Amazônia, a composição de espécies e a diversidade de árvores das florestas de campinarana e de terra-firme, na região do alto Rio Negro, permanecem ainda pouco conhecidas. Aqui, apresentamos dados de inventários florísticos de oito parcelas de um hectare estabelecidas em florestas de campinarana e de terra-firme do alto Rio Negro. Ao todo, registramos 4.703 indivíduos com diâmetro à altura do peito > 10 cm pertencentes a 49 famílias, 215 gêneros e 603 espécies. As comunidades de árvores das florestas de campinarana e terra-firme do alto Rio Negro diferem entre si, sendo que as florestas de campinaranas são mais similares e menos diversas que as florestas de terra-firme. Sugerimos que os mecanismos que causam diferenças entre as comunidades arbóreas das florestas de campinarana e terra-firme são principalmente relacionados a diferenças do tamanho do habitat, isto porque o tamanho da área do habitat influencia processos evolutivos que ocorrem em grande escala temporal e espacial.

4.
Science ; 323(5919): 1344-7, 2009 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19265020

RESUMO

Amazon forests are a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. If, as anticipated, they dry this century, they might accelerate climate change through carbon losses and changed surface energy balances. We used records from multiple long-term monitoring plots across Amazonia to assess forest responses to the intense 2005 drought, a possible analog of future events. Affected forest lost biomass, reversing a large long-term carbon sink, with the greatest impacts observed where the dry season was unusually intense. Relative to pre-2005 conditions, forest subjected to a 100-millimeter increase in water deficit lost 5.3 megagrams of aboveground biomass of carbon per hectare. The drought had a total biomass carbon impact of 1.2 to 1.6 petagrams (1.2 x 10(15) to 1.6 x 10(15) grams). Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Secas , Ecossistema , Árvores , Atmosfera , Brasil , Carbono , Dióxido de Carbono , Clima , América do Sul , Árvores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Clima Tropical
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