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1.
Cancer ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To inform patients who are in the process of selecting prostate cancer treatment, the authors compared disease-specific function after external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) alone versus EBRT plus a low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy boost (EBRT-LDR). METHODS: For this prospective study, men who had localized prostate cancer in 2011 and 2012 were enrolled. Assessments at baseline, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 years included the patient-reported Expanded Prostate Index Composite, the 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey, and treatment-related regret. Regression models were adjusted for baseline function and for patient and treatment characteristics. The minimum clinically important difference in scores on the Expanded Prostate Index Composite 26-item instrument was from 5 to 7 for urinary irritation and from 4 to 6 for bowel function. RESULTS: Six-hundred ninety-five men met inclusion criteria and received either EBRT (n = 583) or EBRT-LDR (n = 112). Patients in the EBRT-LDR group were younger (median age, 66 years [interquartile range [IQR], 60-71 years] vs 69 years [IQR, 64-74 years]; P < .001), were less likely to receive pelvic radiotherapy (10% vs 18%; P = .040), and had higher baseline 36-item Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey physical function scores (median score, 95 [IQR, 86-100] vs 90 [IQR, 70-100]; P < .001). Over a 3-year period, compared with EBRT, EBRT-LDR was associated with worse urinary irritative scores (adjusted mean difference at 3 years, -5.4; 95% CI, -9.3, -1.6) and bowel function scores (-4.1; 95% CI, -7.6, -0.5). The differences were no longer clinically meaningful at 5 years (difference in urinary irritative scores: -4.5; 95% CI, -8.4, -0.5; difference in bowel function scores: -2.1; 95% CI, -5.7, -1.4). However, men who received EBRT-LDR were more likely to report moderate or big problems with urinary function bother (adjusted odds ratio, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.5-8.2) and frequent urination (adjusted odds ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.6) through 5 years. There were no differences in survival or treatment-related regret between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with EBRT alone, EBRT-LDR was associated with clinically meaningful worse urinary irritative and bowel function over 3 years after treatment and more urinary bother at 5 years. LAY SUMMARY: In men with prostate cancer who received external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) with or without a brachytherapy boost (EBRT-LDR), EBRT-LDR was associated with clinically worse urinary irritation and bowel function through 3 years but resolved after 5 years. Men who received EBRT-LDR continued to report moderate-to-big problems with urinary function bother and frequent urination through 5 years. There was no difference in treatment-related regret or survival between patients who received EBRT and those who received EBRT-LDR. These intermediate-term estimates of function may facilitate counseling for men who are selecting treatment.

2.
J Psychosoc Oncol ; : 1-18, 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198603

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To examine predictors of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) breast cancer (BC) survivors. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study using survey data. PARTICIPANTS: Women diagnosed with BC at ages 21-79 years, between 2012-2014, recruited from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. METHODS: HRQoL was assessed using the Functional Assessment Cancer Therapy (FACT-G) instrument. Descriptive statistics compared Hispanics and NHWs, and multivariate regression analyses identified predictors of HRQoL. RESULTS: HRQoL was significantly higher scores among NHW (85.7 ± 18.5) than Hispanics (79.4 ± 20.1) (p < 0.05). In multivariate analyses, comorbidities (ß: -13.3, 95%CI: -20.6, -5.92), late-stage diagnosis (ß: -5.67, 95%CI: -10.7, -0.62), lower income (ß: -13.9, 95%CI: -19.8, -7.97) and younger age at diagnosis were associated with lower HRQoL. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic and clinic characteristics were significant predictors of HRQoL among diverse BC survivors. IMPLICATIONS FOR PSYCHOSOCIAL ONCOLOGY: Supportive psychosocial care interventions tailored to the needs of young, low-income BC survivors with comorbidities are needed.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disproportionate burden of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes among African American/Black women may stem from multilevel determinants. However, data are limited regarding the impacts of neighborhood social environmental characteristics among Black women. METHODS: We evaluated the association between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (nSES) and breast cancer subtypes in the Women's Circle of Health and Women's Circle of Health Follow-up Study, which included 1,220 Black women diagnosed from 2005 to 2017 with invasive breast cancer. nSES at diagnosis was measured using NCI's census tract-level SES index. We used multilevel multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the association of nSES with breast cancer subtypes [triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), HER2-positive vs. luminal A], adjusting for individual-level SES, body mass index, and reproductive factors. We tested for interactions by neighborhood racial composition. RESULTS: Compared to census tracts characterized as high nSES, the relative risk ratios (RRR) for TNBC were 1.81 (95% CI: 1.20-2.71) and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.27-2.99) for women residing in areas with intermediate and low nSES, respectively (p-trend: .002). Neighborhood racial composition modified the association between nSES and TNBC; the highest relative risk of TNBC was among women residing in low nSES areas with low proportions of Black residents. CONCLUSIONS: Black women residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods may have an increased risk of TNBC, particularly among areas with lower proportions of Black residents. IMPACT: Places people live may influence breast tumor biology. A deeper understanding of multilevel pathways contributing to tumor biology is needed.

4.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(10): 931-941, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32803402

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Practice-based guidelines recommend HIV testing during initial invasive cervical cancer (ICC) workup. Determinants of HIV testing during diagnosis of AIDS-defining cancers in vulnerable populations, where risk for HIV infection is higher, are under-explored. METHODS: We examine factors associated with patterns of HIV testing among Medicaid enrollees diagnosed with ICC. Using linked data from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry and New Jersey Medicaid claims and enrollment files, we evaluated HIV testing among 242 ICC cases diagnosed from 2012 to 2014 in ages 21-64 at (a) any point during Medicaid enrollment (2011-2014) and (b) during cancer workup 6 months pre ICC diagnosis to 6 months post ICC diagnosis. Logistic regression models identified factors associated with HIV testing. RESULTS: Overall, 13% of women had a claim for HIV testing during ICC workup. Two-thirds (68%) of women did not have a claim for HIV testing (non-receipt of HIV testing) while enrolled in Medicaid. Hispanic/NH-API/Other women had lower odds of non-receipt of HIV testing compared with NH-Whites (OR: 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.94). Higher odds of non-receipt of HIV testing were observed among cases with no STI testing (OR: 4.92; 95% CI 2.27-10.67) and < 1 year of Medicaid enrollment (OR: 3.07; 95% CI 1.14- 8.26) after adjusting for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: Few women had HIV testing claims during ICC workup. Opportunities for optimal ICC care are informed by knowledge of HIV status. Further research should explore if lack of HIV testing claims during ICC workup is an accurate indicator of ICC care, and if so, to assess testing barriers during workup.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etnologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(11): 2119-2125, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying geospatial cancer survival disparities is critical to focus interventions and prioritize efforts with limited resources. Incorporating residential mobility into spatial models may result in different geographic patterns of survival compared with the standard approach using a single location based on the patient's residence at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: Data on 3,949 regional-stage colon cancer cases diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 and followed until December 31, 2016, were obtained from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Geographic disparity based on the spatial variance and effect sizes from a Bayesian spatial model using residence at diagnosis was compared with a time-varying spatial model using residential histories [adjusted for sex, gender, substage, race/ethnicity, and census tract (CT) poverty]. Geographic estimates of risk of colon cancer death were mapped. RESULTS: Most patients (65%) remained at the same residence, 22% changed CT, and 12% moved out of state. The time-varying model produced a wider range of adjusted risk of colon cancer death (0.85-1.20 vs. 0.94-1.11) and resulted in greater geographic disparity statewide after adjustment (25.5% vs. 14.2%) compared with the model with only the residence at diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Including residential mobility may allow for more precise estimates of spatial risk of death. Results based on the traditional approach using only residence at diagnosis were not substantially different for regional stage colon cancer in New Jersey. IMPACT: Including residential histories opens up new avenues of inquiry to better understand the complex relationships between people and places, and the effect of residential mobility on cancer outcomes.See related commentary by Williams, p. 2107.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1699-1709, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the primary role of central cancer registries in the United States is to provide vital information needed for cancer surveillance and control, these registries can also be leveraged for population-based epidemiologic studies of cancer survivors. This study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of using the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program registries to rapidly identify, recruit, and enroll individuals for survivor research studies and to assess their willingness to engage in a variety of research activities. METHODS: In 2016 and 2017, six SEER registries recruited both recently diagnosed and longer-term survivors with early age-onset multiple myeloma or colorectal, breast, prostate, or ovarian cancer. Potential participants were asked to complete a survey, providing data on demographics, health, and their willingness to participate in various aspects of research studies. RESULTS: Response rates across the registries ranged from 24.9% to 46.9%, with sample sizes of 115 to 239 enrolled by each registry over a 12- to 18-month period. Among the 992 total respondents, 90% answered that they would be willing to fill out a survey for a future research study, 91% reported that they would donate a biospecimen of some type, and approximately 82% reported that they would consent to have their medical records accessed for research. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the feasibility of leveraging SEER registries to recruit a geographically and racially diverse group of cancer survivors. IMPACT: Central cancer registries are a source of high-quality data that can be utilized to conduct population-based cancer survivor studies.

7.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 728-735, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32459665

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Residential histories linked to cancer registry data provide new opportunities to examine cancer outcomes by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). We examined differences in regional stage colon cancer survival estimates comparing models using a single neighborhood SES at diagnosis to models using neighborhood SES from residential histories. METHODS: We linked regional stage colon cancers from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry diagnosed from 2006 to 2011 to LexisNexis administrative data to obtain residential histories. We defined neighborhood SES as census tract poverty based on location at diagnosis and across the follow-up period through 31 December 2016 based on residential histories (average, time-weighted average, time-varying). Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we estimated associations between colon cancer and census tract poverty measurements (continuous and categorical), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, regional substage, and mover status. RESULTS: Sixty-five percent of the sample was nonmovers (one census tract); 35% (movers) changed tract at least once. Cases from tracts with >20% poverty changed residential tracts more often (42%) than cases from tracts with <5% poverty (32%). Hazard ratios (HRs) were generally similar in strength and direction across census tract poverty measurements. In time-varying models, cases in the highest poverty category (>20%) had a 30% higher risk of regional stage colon cancer death than cases in the lowest category (<5%) (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.04, 1.63). CONCLUSION: Residential changes after regional stage colon cancer diagnosis may be associated with a higher risk of colon cancer death among cases in high-poverty areas. This has important implications for postdiagnostic access to care for treatment and follow-up surveillance. See video abstract: http://links.lww.com/EDE/B705.

8.
Int J Health Geogr ; 19(1): 21, 2020 05 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32471502

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Virtual neighborhood audits have been used to visually assess characteristics of the built environment for health research. Few studies have investigated spatial predictive properties of audit item responses patterns, which are important for sampling efficiency and audit item selection. We investigated the spatial properties, with a focus on predictive accuracy, of 31 individual audit items related to built environment in a major Metropolitan region of the Northeast United States. METHODS: Approximately 8000 Google Street View (GSV) scenes were assessed using the CANVAS virtual audit tool. Eleven trained raters audited the 360° view of each GSV scene for 10 sidewalk-, 10 intersection-, and 11 neighborhood physical disorder-related characteristics. Nested semivariograms and regression Kriging were used to investigate the presence and influence of both large- and small-spatial scale relationships as well as the role of rater variability on audit item spatial properties (measurement error, spatial autocorrelation, prediction accuracy). Receiver Operator Curve (ROC) Area Under the Curve (AUC) based on cross-validated spatial models summarized overall predictive accuracy. Correlations between predicted audit item responses and select demographic, economic, and housing characteristics were investigated. RESULTS: Prediction accuracy was better within spatial models of all items accounting for both small-scale and large- spatial scale variation (vs large-scale only), and further improved with additional adjustment for rater in a majority of modeled items. Spatial predictive accuracy was considered 'Excellent' (0.8 ≤ ROC AUC < 0.9) for full models of all but four items. Predictive accuracy was highest and improved the most with rater adjustment for neighborhood physical disorder-related items. The largest gains in predictive accuracy comparing large- + small-scale to large-scale only models were among intersection- and sidewalk-items. Predicted responses to neighborhood physical disorder-related items correlated strongly with one another and were also strongly correlated with racial-ethnic composition, socioeconomic indicators, and residential mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Audits of sidewalk and intersection characteristics exhibit pronounced variability, requiring more spatially dense samples than neighborhood physical disorder audits do for equivalent accuracy. Incorporating rater effects into spatial models improves predictive accuracy especially among neighborhood physical disorder-related items.

9.
Blood Adv ; 4(1): 181-190, 2020 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935283

RESUMO

Persons of African ancestry (AA) have a twofold higher risk for multiple myeloma (MM) compared with persons of European ancestry (EA). Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) support a genetic contribution to MM etiology in individuals of EA. Little is known about genetic risk factors for MM in individuals of AA. We performed a meta-analysis of 2 GWASs of MM in 1813 cases and 8871 controls and conducted an admixture mapping scan to identify risk alleles. We fine-mapped the 23 known susceptibility loci to find markers that could better capture MM risk in individuals of AA and constructed a polygenic risk score (PRS) to assess the aggregated effect of known MM risk alleles. In GWAS meta-analysis, we identified 2 suggestive novel loci located at 9p24.3 and 9p13.1 at P < 1 × 10-6; however, no genome-wide significant association was noted. In admixture mapping, we observed a genome-wide significant inverse association between local AA at 2p24.1-23.1 and MM risk in AA individuals. Of the 23 known EA risk variants, 20 showed directional consistency, and 9 replicated at P < .05 in AA individuals. In 8 regions, we identified markers that better capture MM risk in persons with AA. AA individuals with a PRS in the top 10% had a 1.82-fold (95% confidence interval, 1.56-2.11) increased MM risk compared with those with average risk (25%-75%). The strongest functional association was between the risk allele for variant rs56219066 at 5q15 and lower ELL2 expression (P = 5.1 × 10-12). Our study shows that common genetic variation contributes to MM risk in individuals with AA.

10.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(1): 152-160, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862100

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Various built environment factors might influence certain health behaviors and outcomes. Reliable, resource-efficient methods that are feasible for assessing built environment characteristics across large geographies are needed for larger, more robust studies. This paper reports the item response prevalence, reliability, and rating time of a new virtual neighborhood audit protocol, drop-and-spin auditing, developed for assessment of walkability and physical disorder characteristics across large geographic areas. METHODS: Drop-and-spin auditing, a method where a Google Street View scene was rated by spinning 360° around a point location, was developed using a modified version of the virtual audit tool Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System. Approximately 8,000 locations within Essex County, New Jersey were assessed by 11 trained auditors. Using a standardized protocol, 32 built environment items per a location within Google Street View were audited. Test-retest and inter-rater κ statistics were from a 5% subsample of locations. Data were collected in 2017-2018 and analyzed in 2018. RESULTS: Roughly 70% of Google Street View scenes had sidewalks. Among those, two thirds were in good condition. At least 5 obvious items of garbage or litter were present in 41% of Google Street View scenes. Maximum test-retest reliability indicated substantial agreement (κ ≥0.61) for all items. Inter-rater reliability of each item, generally, was lower than test-retest reliability. The median time to rate each item was 7.3 seconds. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with segment-based protocols, drop-and-spin virtual neighborhood auditing is quicker and similarly reliable for assessing built environment characteristics. Assessment of large geographies may be more feasible using drop-and-spin virtual auditing.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas de Informação Geográfica/instrumentação , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Realidade Virtual , Humanos , New Jersey , Interface Usuário-Computador , Caminhada
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(12): 1958-1967, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mapping breast cancer survival can help cancer control programs prioritize efforts with limited resources. We used Bayesian spatial models to identify whether breast cancer survival among patients in New Jersey (NJ) varies spatially after adjusting for key individual (age, stage at diagnosis, molecular subtype, race/ethnicity, marital status, and insurance) and neighborhood measures of poverty and economic inequality [index of concentration at the extremes (ICE)]. METHODS: Survival time was calculated for all NJ women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer between 2010 and 2014 and followed to December 31, 2015 (N = 27,078). Nonlinear geoadditive Bayesian models were used to estimate spatial variation in hazard rates and identify geographic areas of higher risk of death from breast cancer. RESULTS: Significant geographic differences in breast cancer survival were found in NJ. The geographic variation of hazard rates statewide ranged from 0.71 to 1.42 after adjustment for age and stage, and were attenuated after adjustment for additional individual-level factors (0.87-1.15) and neighborhood measures, including poverty (0.9-1.11) and ICE (0.92-1.09). Neighborhood measures were independently associated with breast cancer survival, but we detected slightly stronger associations between breast cancer survival, and the ICE compared to poverty. CONCLUSIONS: The spatial models indicated breast cancer survival disparities are a result of combined individual-level and neighborhood socioeconomic factors. More research is needed to understand the moderating pathways in which neighborhood socioeconomic status influences breast cancer survival. IMPACT: More effective health interventions aimed at improving breast cancer survival could be developed if geographic variation were examined more routinely in the context of neighborhood socioeconomic inequalities in addition to individual characteristics.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Características de Residência , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey/epidemiologia , Pobreza , Prognóstico , Classe Social , Taxa de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cancer Health Disparities ; 3: e1-e17, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31440744

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess breast cancer incidence and mortality rates by molecular subtype for cases diagnosed in New Jersey. Data on all primary, histologically confirmed, invasive breast cancers diagnosed among women between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2013 were retrieved from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry. Age-adjusted incidence rates were calculated for each subtype, by ageandrace/ethnicity. Logistic regression models, Cox proportional hazards models, and Kaplan Meier curves were used to describe the relative risks for breast cancer incidence, mortality, and survival, respectively. In this population-based sample of 32,770 breast cancer cases, non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) had the highest triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) incidence rate (17.8 per 100,000, 95% CI 16.5-19.2) compared to other races/ethnicities. NHBs had also higher odds of TNBC (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.95-2.36) and higher hazards of death when diagnosed with TNBC (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.56), luminal A (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.41-1.91), or luminal B (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.10-2.15) than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Younger women (20-39 years) had higher odds of TNBC (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.54-2.02) and luminal B (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.35-1.80) compared to women 50-64 years; minority women had higher odds of non-luminal HER2-expressing and lower odds of luminal A than NHWs. TNBC was associated with the poorest survival rates. These findings highlight a need for enhanced screening to promote earlier diagnosis and improve breast cancer outcomes, particularly in minorities and younger women, which will be essential for achieving health equity.

13.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 28(7): 890-896, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31264934

RESUMO

Background: Despite advances in cervical cancer screening, a significant number of women in the United States have not received adequate screening. Studies have suggested that approximately half of the women who developed cervical cancer were not adequately screened. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Case Investigation of Cervical Cancer (CICC) Study took a unique approach to reconstruct the time before a woman's cervical cancer diagnosis and understand the facilitators and barriers to screening and care. This article provides an overview of the study. Methods: This study included all cervical cancer survivors diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer aged 21 years and older in three U.S. states from 2014-2016. The study design consisted of three different data collection methods, including comprehensive registry data, a mailed survey, and medical chart abstraction. This overview compares the characteristics of cervical cancer survivors in the three states by study participation and eligibility status. Results: Registries identified 2,748 women diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer. Of these, 1,730 participants were eligible for participation, 28% (n = 481) enrolled in the study and 23% (n = 400) consented to the medical chart abstraction. Conclusion: The CICC Study is unique in that it addresses, with medical record verification, the medical history of woman 5 years before their cervical cancer diagnosis as well as provides information from the woman on her health care behaviors. This study provides data on a general population of cervical cancer survivors in three states that could be used to guide interventions to increase cervical cancer screening.


Assuntos
Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Sobreviventes , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Healthc Qual ; 41(5): 281-296, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30829854

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that shared care, where the oncologist, primary care physician, and/or other specialty physicians jointly participate in care, can improve the quality of patients' cancer care. This cross-sectional study of breast and colorectal cancer patients (N = 534) recruited from the New Jersey State Cancer Registry examined patient and health system factors associated with receipt of shared care during cancer treatment into the early survivorship phase. We also assessed whether shared care was associated with quality indicators of cancer care: receipt of comprehensive care, follow-up care instructions, and written treatment summaries. Less than two-thirds of participants reported shared care during their cancer treatment. The odds of reporting shared care were 2.5 (95% CI: 1.46-4.17) times higher for colorectal than breast cancer patients and 52% (95% CI: 0.24-0.95) lower for uninsured compared with privately insured, after adjusting for other sociodemographic, clinical/tumor, and health system factors. No significant relationships were observed between shared care and quality indicators of cancer care. Given a substantial proportion of patients did not receive shared care, there may be missed opportunities for integrating primary care and nononcology specialists in cancer care, who can play critical roles in care coordination and managing comorbidities during cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Relações Interprofissionais , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Médicos de Atenção Primária/psicologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey
16.
Am J Epidemiol ; 188(5): 928-939, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30689685

RESUMO

When recruiting research participants through central cancer registries, high response fractions help ensure population-based representation. We conducted multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression to identify case and study characteristics associated with making contact with and obtaining cooperation of Utah cancer cases using data from 17 unique recruitment efforts undertaken by the Utah Cancer Registry (2007-2016) on behalf of the following studies: A Population-Based Childhood Cancer Survivors Cohort Study in Utah, Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation for Prostate Cancer (CEASAR Study), Costs and Benefits of Follow-up Care for Adolescent and Young Adult Cancers, Study of Exome Sequencing for Head and Neck Cancer Susceptibility Genes, Genetic Epidemiology of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia, Impact of Remote Familial Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment and Counseling (Family CARE Project), Massively Parallel Sequencing for Familial Colon Cancer Genes, Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma (MTC) Surveillance Study, Osteosarcoma Surveillance Study, Prostate Cancer Outcomes Study, Risk Education and Assessment for Cancer Heredity Project (REACH Project), Study of Shared Genomic Segment Analysis and Tumor Subtyping in High-Risk Breast-Cancer Gene Pedigrees, Study of Shared Genomic Segment Analysis for Localizing Multiple Myeloma Genes. Characteristics associated with lower odds of contact included Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio (OR) = 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27, 0.41), nonwhite race (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.60), and younger age at contact. Years since diagnosis was inversely associated with making contact. Nonwhite race and age ≥60 years had lower odds of cooperation. Study features with lower odds of cooperation included longitudinal design (OR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.61) and study brochures (OR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.90). Increased odds of cooperation were associated with including a questionnaire (OR = 3.19, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.59), postage stamps (OR = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.12), and incentives (OR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.57). Among cases not responding after the first contact, odds of eventual response were lower when >10 days elapsed before subsequent contact (OR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.85). Obtaining high response is challenging, but study features identified in this analysis support better results when recruiting through central cancer registries.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Seleção de Pacientes , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Utah/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer ; 125(8): 1330-1340, 2019 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561793

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cancer outcomes for Medicaid enrollees may be affected by patients' primary care (PC) utilization and complex Medicaid enrollment dynamics, which have recently changed for many states under the Affordable Care Act. METHODS: With New Jersey State Cancer Registry and linked Medicaid claims data, a retrospective cohort study was conducted for patients with incident breast, colorectal, or invasive cervical cancer (aged 21-64 years) diagnosed in 2012-2014. Associations of Medicaid enrollment factors and PC utilization with the stage at diagnosis and treatment delays were examined with multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: The study included 19,209 total cancer cases and 3253 linked Medicaid cases. Medicaid cases were more likely to be diagnosed at a late stage and to experience treatment delays in comparison with non-Medicaid cases. In adjusted analyses, Medicaid cases with 1 or more PC visits before the diagnosis had lower odds of a late-stage diagnosis (odds ratio, 0.47; 95% confidence interval, 0.33-0.67) in comparison with Medicaid cases with no outpatient visits. New enrollees (<6 months) and longer term enrollees in fee-for-service (FFS) Medicaid had greater odds of a late-stage diagnosis and treatment delays in comparison with those in Medicaid managed care. CONCLUSIONS: Medicaid patients with cancer diagnosed just before and in the initial year of eligibility expansion had worse outcomes than non-Medicaid cases. Poor outcomes were especially pronounced among new enrollees, those without outpatient visits before their diagnosis, and FFS enrollees. Targeted strategies to enhance care continuity, including access to PC providers before the diagnosis and a better understanding of pathways to cancer care upon Medicaid enrollment, are needed to improve outcomes in this population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Masculino , Medicaid , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , New Jersey , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Tempo para o Tratamento , Estados Unidos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/terapia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Womens Health ; 18(1): 162, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend a Pap test every 3 years for women age 21-65 years, or for women 30-65 years who want to lengthen the screening interval, a combination of Pap test and high-risk human papilloma virus testing (co-testing) every 5 years. Little population-based data are available on human papilloma virus test utilization and human papilloma virus infection rates. The objective of this study was to examine the patient-level, cervical cancer screening, and area-level factors associated with human papilloma virus testing and infection among a diverse sample of uninsured and underinsured women enrolled in the New Jersey Cancer Early Education and Detection (NJCEED) Program. METHODS: We used data for a sample of 50,510 uninsured/underinsured women, age ≥ 29 years, who screened for cervical cancer through NJCEED between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2015. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between ever having a human papilloma virus test or a positive test result, and individual- (age, race/ethnicity, birthplace) and area-level covariates (% below federal poverty level, % minority, % uninsured), and number of screening visits. RESULTS: Only 26.6% (13,440) of the sample had at least one human papilloma virus test. Among women who underwent testing, 13.3% (1792) tested positive for human papilloma virus. Most women who were positive for human papilloma virus (99.4%) had their first test as a co-test. Human papilloma virus test utilization and infection were significantly associated with age, race/ethnicity, birthplace (country), and residential area-level poverty. Rates of human papilloma virus testing and infection also differed significantly across counties in the state of New Jersey. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that despite access to no-cost cervical cancer screening for eligible women, human papilloma virus test utilization was relatively low among diverse, uninsured and underinsured women in New Jersey, and test utilization and infection were associated with individual-level and area-level factors.


Assuntos
Detecção Precoce de Câncer/economia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Pessoas sem Cobertura de Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Teste de Papanicolaou/economia , Infecções por Papillomavirus/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Esfregaço Vaginal/economia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pract Radiat Oncol ; 8(5): 307-316, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30177030

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Quality measures represent the standards of appropriate treatment agreed upon by experts in the field and often supported by data. The extent to which providers in the community adhere to quality measures in radiation therapy (RT) is unknown. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation study enrolled men with clinically localized prostate cancer in 2011 and 2012. Patients completed surveys and medical records were reviewed. Patients were risk-stratified according to D'Amico classification criteria. Patterns of care and compliance with 8 quality measures as endorsed by national consortia as of 2011 were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 926 men underwent definitive RT (69% external beam radiation therapy [EBRT]), 17% brachytherapy (BT), and 14% combined EBRT and BT with considerable variation in radiation techniques across risk groups. Most men who received EBRT had dose-escalated EBRT (>75 Gy; 93%) delivered with conventional fractionation (<2 Gy; 95%), intensity modulated RT (76%), and image guided RT (85%). Most men treated with BT received I125 (77%). Overall, 73% of the men received EBRT that was compliant with the quality measures (dose-escalation, image-guidance, appropriate use of androgen deprivation therapy, and appropriate treatment target) but only 60% of men received BT that was compliant with quality measures (postimplant dosimetry and appropriate dose). African-American men (64%) and other minorities (62%) were less likely than white men (77%) to receive EBRT that was compliant with quality measures. CONCLUSIONS: Most men who received RT for localized prostate cancer were treated with an appropriately high dose and received image guidance and intensity modulated RT. However, compliance with some nationally recognized quality measures was relatively low and varied by race. There are significant opportunities to improve the delivery of RT and especially for men of a minority race.


Assuntos
Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Controle de Qualidade , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/organização & administração , Idoso , Braquiterapia/métodos , Braquiterapia/normas , Braquiterapia/estatística & dados numéricos , Fracionamento da Dose de Radiação , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Padrões de Prática Médica , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Próstata/efeitos da radiação , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Radioterapia (Especialidade)/estatística & dados numéricos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/métodos , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/normas , Radioterapia Guiada por Imagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/normas , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
20.
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys ; 102(1): 116-126, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102188

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare patient-reported disease-specific functional outcomes after external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and EBRT combined with low-dose-rate brachytherapy prostate boost (EB-LDR) among men with localized prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The prospective, population-based Comparative Effectiveness Analysis of Surgery and Radiation study enrolled men with localized prostate cancer in 2011 to 2012. The 26-item Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite measured patient-reported disease-specific function at baseline and at 6, 12, and 36 months. Higher domain scores indicate better function. Minimal clinically important difference was defined as 6 for urinary incontinence, 5 for urinary irritative function, 4 for bowel function, 12 for sexual function, and 4 for hormonal function. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were fit to estimate the effect of treatment on patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS: Five-hundred seventy-eight men received EBRT and 109 received EB-LDR. Median patient age was 69 years, and 70% had intermediate- or high-risk disease. Men in the EB-LDR group were younger (P < .001) and less likely to receive androgen deprivation therapy (P < .001). Baseline urinary, bowel, sexual, and hormonal function was similar between treatment groups (P > .05). On multivariable analyses, men receiving EB-LDR reported worse urinary irritative function at 6 months (adjusted mean difference [AMD] -14.4, P < .001), 12 months (AMD -12.9, P < .001), and 36 months (AMD -4.7, P = .034) than men receiving EBRT. At 12 months, men receiving EB-LDR reported worse bowel function (AMD -5.8, P = .002), but these differences were not seen at 36 months. There were no significant differences in sexual or hormone function between treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: Men treated with EB-LDR report worse bowel function at 1 year and worse urinary irritative function through 3 years compared with men treated with EBRT alone. These side effect profiles should be discussed with patients when considering EB-LDR versus EBRT treatment.


Assuntos
Braquiterapia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Doses de Radiação , Idoso , Braquiterapia/efeitos adversos , Hormônios/metabolismo , Humanos , Intestinos/fisiopatologia , Intestinos/efeitos da radiação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/fisiopatologia , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Incontinência Urinária/etiologia
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