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1.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 2019 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778156

RESUMO

The diversity of cyanobacteria along the Alaskan North Slope was investigated. We isolated and cultivated 57 strains of cyanobacteria and sequenced a section of their rRNA operon containing a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. Here, we describe 17 found species belonging mainly to families Coleofasciculaceae, Microcoleaceae, Oculatellaceae, Leptolyngbyaceae and to the order Synechococcales. In pursuing a conservative polyphasic approach, we utilized suggested thresholds in 16S rRNA gene differences in parallel with morphological differences between new and already described taxa for description of new species and genera. Based on the combination of morphological, molecular and ecological analysis on collected and cultured strains we describe two genera Gibliniella and Shackletoniella as well as six cyanobacterial species; Cephalothrix alaskaensis, Tildeniella alaskaensis, Pseudophormidium americanum, Leptodesmis alaskaensis, Albertania alaskaensis and Nodosilinea alaskaensis. Here, a polyphasic approach was used to identify 8 novel and 9 established cyanobacterial taxa from a previously non-investigated region that uncovered a high degree of biodiversity in extreme polar environments.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527457

RESUMO

The continuous rise of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) prevalent in the past few decades is causing an increase in public health and socioeconomic concern. A consensus suggests the involvement of both genetic and environmental factors in the ASD etiopathogenesis. Fluoride (F) is rarely recognized among the environmental risk factors of ASD, since the neurotoxic effects of F are not generally accepted. Our review aims to provide evidence of F neurotoxicity. We assess the risk of chronic F exposure in the ASD etiopathology and investigate the role of metabolic and mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation, immunoexcitotoxicity, and decreased melatonin levels. These symptoms have been observed both after chronic F exposure as well as in ASD. Moreover, we show that F in synergistic interactions with aluminum's free metal cation (Al3+) can reinforce the pathological symptoms of ASD. This reinforcement takes place at concentrations several times lower than when acting alone. A high ASD prevalence has been reported from countries with water fluoridation as well as from endemic fluorosis areas. We suggest focusing the ASD prevention on the reduction of the F and Al3+ burdens from daily life.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
3.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 277, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30853950

RESUMO

While photosynthetic processes have become increasingly understood in cyanobacterial model strains, differences in the spatial distribution of thylakoid membranes among various lineages have been largely unexplored. Cyanobacterial cells exhibit an intriguing diversity in thylakoid arrangements, ranging from simple parietal to radial, coiled, parallel, and special types. Although metabolic background of their variability remains unknown, it has been suggested that thylakoid patterns are stable in certain phylogenetic clades. For decades, thylakoid arrangements have been used in cyanobacterial classification as one of the crucial characters for definition of taxa. The last comprehensive study addressing their evolutionary history in cyanobacteria was published 15 years ago. Since then both DNA sequence and electron microscopy data have grown rapidly. In the current study, we map ultrastructural data of >200 strains onto the SSU rRNA gene tree, and the resulting phylogeny is compared to a phylogenomic tree. Changes in thylakoid architecture in general follow the phylogeny of housekeeping loci. Parietal arrangement is resolved as the original thylakoid organization, evolving into complex arrangement in the most derived group of heterocytous cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria occupying intermediate phylogenetic positions (greater filamentous, coccoid, and baeocytous types) exhibit fascicular, radial, and parallel arrangements, partly tracing the reconstructed course of phylogenetic branching. Contrary to previous studies, taxonomic value of thylakoid morphology seems very limited. Only special cases such as thylakoid absence or the parallel arrangement could be used as taxonomically informative apomorphies. The phylogenetic trees provide evidence of both paraphyly and reversion from more derived architectures in the simple parietal thylakoid pattern. Repeated convergent evolution is suggested for the radial and fascicular architectures. Moreover, thylakoid arrangement is constrained by cell size, excluding the occurrence of complex architectures in cyanobacteria smaller than 2 µm in width. It may further be dependent on unknown (eco)physiological factors as suggested by recurrence of the radial type in unrelated but morphologically similar cyanobacteria, and occurrence of special features throughout the phylogeny. No straightforward phylogenetic congruences have been found between proteins involved in photosynthesis and thylakoid formation, and the thylakoid patterns. Remarkably, several postulated thylakoid biogenesis factors are partly or completely missing in cyanobacteria, challenging their proposed essential roles.

4.
Extremophiles ; 23(1): 35-48, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30284641

RESUMO

Genotypic and morphological diversity of cyanobacteria in the Rupite hot spring (Bulgaria) was investigated by means of optical microscopy, cultivation, single-cell PCR, and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Altogether, 34 sites were investigated along the 71-39 °C temperature gradient. Analysis of samples from eight representative sites shown that Illumina, optical microscopy, and Roche 454 identified 72, 45 and 19% respective occurrences of all cumulatively present taxa. Optical microscopy failed to detect species of minor occurrence; whereas, amplicon sequencing technologies suffered from failed primer annealing and the presence of species with extensive extracellular polysaccharides production. Amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene V5-V6 region performed by Illumina identified the cyanobacteria most reliably to the generic level. Nevertheless, only the combined use of optical microscopy, cultivation and sequencing methods allowed for reliable estimate of the cyanobacterial diversity. Here, we show that Rupite hot-spring system hosts one of the richest cyanobacterial flora reported from a single site above 50 °C. Chlorogloeopsis sp. was the most abundant at the highest temperature (68 °C), followed by Leptolyngbya boryana, Thermoleptolyngbya albertanoae, Synechococcus bigranulatus, Oculatella sp., and Desertifilum sp. thriving above 60 °C, while Leptolyngbya geysericola, Geitlerinema splendidum, and Cyanobacterium aponinum were found above 50 °C.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/genética , Fontes Termais/microbiologia , Microbiota , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/citologia , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
5.
Surg Neurol Int ; 9: 74, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29721353

RESUMO

Our review suggests that most autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors are connected, either directly or indirectly, to immunoexcitotoxicity. Chronic brain inflammation is known to enhance the sensitivity of glutamate receptors and interfere with glutamate removal from the extraneuronal space, where it can trigger excitotoxicity over a prolonged period. Neuroscience studies have clearly shown that sequential systemic immune stimulation can activate the brain's immune system, microglia, and astrocytes, and that with initial immune stimulation, there occurs CNS microglial priming. Children are exposed to such sequential immune stimulation via a growing number of environmental excitotoxins, vaccines, and persistent viral infections. We demonstrate that fluoride and aluminum (Al3+) can exacerbate the pathological problems by worsening excitotoxicity and inflammation. While Al3+ appears among the key suspicious factors of ASD, fluoride is rarely recognized as a causative culprit. A long-term burden of these ubiquitous toxins has several health effects with a striking resemblance to the symptoms of ASD. In addition, their synergistic action in molecules of aluminofluoride complexes can affect cell signaling, neurodevelopment, and CNS functions at several times lower concentrations than either Al3+ or fluoride acting alone. Our review opens the door to a number of new treatment modes that naturally reduce excitotoxicity and microglial priming.

6.
J Phycol ; 51(6): 1040-54, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26987000

RESUMO

Members of the morphologically unusual cyanobacterial family Gomontiellaceae were studied using a polyphasic approach. Cultured strains of Hormoscilla pringsheimii, Starria zimbabweënsis, Crinalium magnum, and Crinalium epipsammum were thoroughly examined, and the type specimen of the family, Gomontiella subtubulosa, was investigated. The results of morphological observations using both light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were consistent with previous reports and provided evidence for the unique morphological and ultrastructural traits of this family. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene confirmed the monophyletic origin of non-marine repre-sentatives of genera traditionally classified into this family. The family was phylogenetically placed among other groups of filamentous cyanobacterial taxa. The presence of cellulose in the cell wall was analyzed and confirmed in all cultured Gomontiellaceae members using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. Evaluation of toxins produced by the studied strains revealed the hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin (CYN) in available strains of the genus Hormoscilla. Production of this compound in both Hormoscilla strains was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem with high resolution mass spectrometry and confirmed by positive PCR amplification of the cyrJ gene from the CYN biosynthetic cluster. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CYN production by soil cyanobacteria, establishing a previously unreported CYN-producing lineage. This study indicates that cyanobacteria of the family Gomontiellaceae form a separate but coherent cluster defined by numerous intriguing morphological, ultrastructural, and biochemical features, and exhibiting a toxic potential worthy of further investigation.

7.
PLoS One ; 8(6): e66323, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23823729

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are an ancient group of photosynthetic prokaryotes, which are significant in biogeochemical cycles. The most primitive among living cyanobacteria, Gloeobacter violaceus, shows a unique ancestral cell organization with a complete absence of inner membranes (thylakoids) and an uncommon structure of the photosynthetic apparatus. Numerous phylogenetic papers proved its basal position among all of the organisms and organelles capable of plant-like photosynthesis (i.e., cyanobacteria, chloroplasts of algae and plants). Hence, G. violaceus has become one of the key species in evolutionary study of photosynthetic life. It also numbers among the most widely used organisms in experimental photosynthesis research. Except for a few related culture isolates, there has been little data on the actual biology of Gloeobacter, being relegated to an "evolutionary curiosity" with an enigmatic identity. Here we show that members of the genus Gloeobacter probably are common rock-dwelling cyanobacteria. On the basis of morphological, ultrastructural, pigment, and phylogenetic comparisons of available Gloeobacter strains, as well as on the basis of three new independent isolates and historical type specimen, we have produced strong evidence as to the close relationship of Gloeobacter to a long known rock-dwelling cyanobacterial morphospecies Aphanothece caldariorum. Our results bring new clues to solving the 40 year old puzzle of the true biological identity of Gloeobacter violaceus, a model organism with a high value in several biological disciplines. A probable broader distribution of Gloeobacter in common wet-rock habitats worldwide is suggested by our data, and its ecological meaning is discussed taking into consideration the background of cyanobacterial evolution. We provide observations of previously unknown genetic variability and phenotypic plasticity, which we expect to be utilized by experimental and evolutionary researchers worldwide.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias/metabolismo , Tilacoides/metabolismo , Cianobactérias/classificação , Cianobactérias/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico/genética
8.
J Phycol ; 49(6): 1167-80, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27007635

RESUMO

Ninety-two strains of Microcoleus vaginatus (=nomenclatural-type species of the genus Microcoleus Desmazières ex Gomont) and Phormidium autumnale Trevisan ex Gomont from a wide diversity of regions and biotopes were examined using a combination of morphological and molecular methods. Phylogenies based on the 16S rDNA and 16S-23S ITS (partial) demonstrated that the 92 strains, together with a number of strains in GenBank, were members of a highly supported monophyletic clade of strains (Bayesian posterior probability = 1.0) distant from the species-cluster containing the generitype of Phormidium. Similarity of the 16S rRNA gene exceeded 95.5% among all members of the Microcoleus clade, but was less than 95% between any Microcoleus strains and species outside of the clade (e.g., Phormidium sensu stricto). These findings, which are in agreement with earlier studies on these taxa, necessitate the revision of Microcoleus to include P. autumnale. Furthermore, the cluster of Phormidium species in the P. autumnale group (known as Group VII) must be moved into Microcoleus as well, and these nomenclatural transfers are included in this study. The main diacritical characters defining Microcoleus are related to the cytomorphology of trichomes, including: narrowed trichome ends, calyptra, cells shorter than wide up to more or less isodiametric, and facultative presence of sheaths. The majority of species are 4-10 µm in diameter. The possession of multiple trichomes in a common sheath is present facultatively in many but not all species.

9.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 82(2): 482-90, 2012 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22671691

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are well adapted to freezing and desiccation; they have been proposed as possible survivors of comprehensive Antarctic glaciations. Filamentous types from the order Oscillatoriales, especially the species Phormidium autumnale Kützing ex Gomont 1892, have widely diverse morphotypes that dominate in Antarctic aquatic microbial mats, seepages, and wet soils. Currently little is known about the dispersion of cyanobacteria in Antarctica and of their population history. We tested the hypothesis that cyanobacteria survived Antarctic glaciations directly on site after the Gondwana breakup by using the relaxed and strict molecular clock in the analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. We estimated that the biogeographic history of Antarctic cyanobacteria belonging to P. autumnale lineages has ancient origins. The oldest go further back in time than the breakup of Gondwana and originated somewhere on the supercontinent between 442 and 297 Ma. Enhanced speciation rate was found around the time of the opening of the Drake Passage (c. 31-45 Ma) with beginning of glaciations (c. 43 Ma). Our results, based primarily on the strains collected in maritime Antarctica, mostly around James Ross Island, support the hypothesis that long-term survival took place in glacial refuges. The high morphological diversification of P. autumnale suggested the coevolution of lineages and formation of complex associations with different morphologies, resulting in a specific endemic Antarctic cyanobacterial flora.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cianobactérias/classificação , Filogenia , Regiões Antárticas , Teorema de Bayes , Cianobactérias/genética , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Especiação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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