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1.
Blood ; 2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34657154

RESUMO

The cellular mechanisms required to ensure homeostasis of the hematopoietic niche and the ability of this niche to support hematopoiesis upon stress remain elusive. We here identify Wnt5a in Osterix+ mesenchymal progenitor and stem cells (MSPCs) as a critical factor for niche-dependent hematopoiesis. Mice lacking Wnt5a in MSPCs suffer from stress-related bone marrow failure and increased mortality. Niche cells devoid of Wnt5a show defective actin stress fiber orientation due to an elevated activity of the small Rho GTPase CDC42. This results in incorrect positioning of autophagosomes and lysosomes, thus reducing autophagy and increasing oxidative stress. In MSPCs from patients from bone marrow (BM) failure states which share features of peripheral cytopenia and hypocellular BM, we find similar defects in actin stress fiber orientation, reduced and incorrect colocalization of autophagosomes and lysosomes, and CDC42 activation. Strikingly, a short pharmacological intervention to attenuate elevated CDC42 activation in vivo in mice prevents defective actin- anchored autophagy in MSPCs, salvages hematopoiesis and protects against lethal cytopenia upon stress. In summary, our study identifies Wnt5a as a restriction factor for niche homeostasis by affecting CDC42-regulated actin stress-fiber orientation and autophagy upon stress. Our data further imply a critical role for autophagy in MSPCs for adequate support of hematopoiesis by the niche upon stress and in human diseases characterized by peripheral cytopenias and hypocellular BM.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360992

RESUMO

Several protocols exist for generating megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) with limited efficiency. We observed previously that mesoderm induction improved endothelial and stromal differentiation. We, therefore, hypothesized that a protocol modification prior to hemogenic endothelial cell (HEC) differentiation will improve MK progenitor (MKP) production and increase platelet output. We further asked if basic media composition affects MK maturation. In an iterative process, we first compared two HEC induction protocols. We found significantly more HECs using the modified protocol including activin A and CHIR99021, resulting in significantly increased MKs. MKs released comparable platelet amounts irrespective of media conditions. In a final validation phase, we obtained five-fold more platelets per hiPSC with the modified protocol (235 ± 84) compared to standard conditions (51 ± 15; p < 0.0001). The regenerative potency of hiPSC-derived platelets was compared to adult donor-derived platelets by profiling angiogenesis-related protein expression. Nineteen of 24 angiogenesis-related proteins were expressed equally, lower or higher in hiPSC-derived compared to adult platelets. The hiPSC-platelet's coagulation hyporeactivity compared to adult platelets was confirmed by thromboelastometry. Further stepwise improvement of hiPSC-platelet production will, thus, permit better identification of platelet-mediated regenerative mechanisms and facilitate manufacture of sufficient amounts of functional platelets for clinical application.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Técnicas de Reprogramação Celular/métodos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Megacariócitos/citologia , Células Cultivadas , Meios de Cultura/química , Humanos , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo
3.
Theranostics ; 11(17): 8430-8447, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373751

RESUMO

Self-assembly of solid organs from single cells would greatly expand applicability of regenerative medicine. Stem/progenitor cells can self-organize into micro-sized organ units, termed organoids, partially modelling tissue function and regeneration. Here we demonstrated 3D self-assembly of adult and induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived fibroblasts, keratinocytes and endothelial progenitors into both, planar human skin in vivo and a novel type of spheroid-shaped skin organoids in vitro, under the aegis of human platelet lysate. Methods: Primary endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs), skin fibroblasts (FBs) and keratinocytes (KCs) were isolated from human tissues and polyclonally propagated under 2D xeno-free conditions. Human tissue-derived iPSCs were differentiated into endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs), fibroblasts (hiPSC-FBs) and keratinocytes (hiPSC-KCs) according to efficiency-optimized protocols. Cell identity and purity were confirmed by flow cytometry and clonogenicity indicated their stem/progenitor potential. Triple cell type floating spheroids formation was promoted by human platelet-derived growth factors containing culture conditions, using nanoparticle cell labelling for monitoring the organization process. Planar human skin regeneration was assessed in full-thickness wounds of immune-deficient mice upon transplantation of hiPSC-derived single cell suspensions. Results: Organoids displayed a distinct architecture with surface-anchored keratinocytes surrounding a stromal core, and specific signaling patterns in response to inflammatory stimuli. FGF-7 mRNA transfection was required to accelerate keratinocyte long-term fitness. Stratified human skin also self-assembled within two weeks after either adult- or iPSC-derived skin cell-suspension liquid-transplantation, healing deep wounds of mice. Transplant vascularization significantly accelerated in the presence of co-transplanted endothelial progenitors. Mechanistically, extracellular vesicles mediated the multifactorial platelet-derived trophic effects. No tumorigenesis occurred upon xenografting. Conclusion: This illustrates the superordinate progenitor self-organization principle and permits novel rapid 3D skin-related pharmaceutical high-content testing opportunities with floating spheroid skin organoids. Multi-cell transplant self-organization facilitates development of iPSC-based organ regeneration strategies using cell suspension transplantation supported by human platelet factors.

4.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids ; 25: 237-250, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34458008

RESUMO

Gene editing via homology-directed repair (HDR) currently comprises the best strategy to obtain perfect corrections for pathogenic mutations of monogenic diseases, such as the severe recessive dystrophic form of the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB). Limitations of this strategy, in particular low efficiencies and off-target effects, hinder progress toward clinical applications. However, the severity of RDEB necessitates the development of efficient and safe gene-editing therapies based on perfect repair. To this end, we sought to assess the corrective efficiencies following optimal Cas9 nuclease and nickase-based COL7A1-targeting strategies in combination with single- or double-stranded donor templates for HDR at the COL7A1 mutation site. We achieved HDR-mediated correction efficiencies of up to 21% and 10% in primary RDEB keratinocytes and fibroblasts, respectively, as analyzed by next-generation sequencing, leading to full-length type VII collagen restoration and accurate deposition within engineered three-dimensional (3D) skin equivalents (SEs). Extensive on- and off-target analyses confirmed that the combined treatment of paired nicking and single-stranded oligonucleotides constituted a highly efficient COL7A1-editing strategy, associated with a significantly improved safety profile. Our findings, therefore, represent a further advancement in the field of traceless genome editing for genodermatoses.

5.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 176: 113872, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284058

RESUMO

Rigorous measures are required to cope with the advance of extracellular vesicle (EV) research, from 183 studies published in 2012 to 2,309 studies published in 2020. The International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) proposed Minimal Information for Studies of Extracellular Vesicles (MISEV) guidelines in 2014, updated in 2018, for assuring and improving EV research quality. We performed a systematic review using a text mining approach to assess adherence to MISEV criteria. A keyword search was conducted in 5,093 accessible publications over the period 2012-2020 and analyzed the methodology used for EV isolation and characterization. We found a significant improvement over the years particularly regarding EV characterization where recent papers used a higher number of methods and EV markers to check for quantity and purity. Interestingly, we also found that EV papers using more methods and EV markers were cited more frequently. Papers citing MISEV criteria were more prone to use a higher number of characterization methods. We therefore established a concise checklist summarizing MISEV criteria to support EV researchers towards reaching the highest standards in the field.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34068404

RESUMO

Numerous cell-based therapeutics are currently being tested in clinical trials. Human platelet lysate (HPL) is a valuable alternative to fetal bovine serum as a cell culture medium supplement for a variety of different cell types. HPL as a raw material permits animal serum-free cell propagation with highly efficient stimulation of cell proliferation, enabling humanized manufacturing of cell therapeutics within a reasonable timeframe. Providers of HPL have to consider dedicated quality issues regarding identity, purity, potency, traceability and safety. Release criteria have to be defined, characterizing the suitability of HPL batches for the support of a specific cell culture. Fresh or expired platelet concentrates from healthy blood donors are the starting material for HPL preparation, according to regulatory requirements. Pooling of individual platelet lysate units into one HPL batch can balance donor variation with regard to essential platelet-derived growth factors and cytokines. The increasingly applied pathogen reduction technologies will further increase HPL safety. In this review article, aspects and regulatory requirements of whole blood donation and details of human platelet lysate manufacturing are presented. International guidelines for raw materials are discussed, and defined quality controls, as well as release criteria for safe and GMP-compliant HPL production, are summarized.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/normas , Diferenciação Celular , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Meios de Cultura , Humanos
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33918735

RESUMO

Stem cells secrete paracrine factors including extracellular vesicles (EVs) which can mediate cellular communication and support the regeneration of injured tissues. Reduced oxygen (hypoxia) as a key regulator in development and regeneration may influence cellular communication via EVs. We asked whether hypoxic conditioning during human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) culture effects their EV quantity, quality or EV-based angiogenic potential. We produced iPSC-EVs from large-scale culture-conditioned media at 1%, 5% and 18% air oxygen using tangential flow filtration (TFF), with or without subsequent concentration by ultracentrifugation (TUCF). EVs were quantified by tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS), characterized according to MISEV2018 guidelines, and analyzed for angiogenic potential. We observed superior EV recovery by TFF compared to TUCF. We confirmed hypoxia efficacy by HIF-1α stabilization and pimonidazole hypoxyprobe. EV quantity did not differ significantly at different oxygen conditions. Significantly elevated angiogenic potential was observed for iPSC-EVs derived from 1% oxygen culture by TFF or TUCF as compared to EVs obtained at higher oxygen or the corresponding EV-depleted soluble factor fractions. Data thus demonstrate that cell-culture oxygen conditions and mode of EV preparation affect iPSC-EV function. We conclude that selecting appropriate protocols will further improve production of particularly potent iPSC-EV-based therapeutics.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/metabolismo , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Transporte Biológico , Biomarcadores , Hipóxia Celular , Autorrenovação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5944, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723276

RESUMO

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders with a poor prognosis, especially for elderly patients. Increasing evidence suggests that alterations in the non-hematopoietic microenvironment (bone marrow niche) can contribute to or initiate malignant transformation and promote disease progression. One of the key components of the bone marrow (BM) niche are BM stromal cells (BMSC) that give rise to osteoblasts and adipocytes. It has been shown that the balance between these two cell types plays an important role in the regulation of hematopoiesis. However, data on the number of BMSC and the regulation of their differentiation balance in the context of hematopoietic malignancies is scarce. We established a stringent flow cytometric protocol for the prospective isolation of a CD73+ CD105+ CD271+ BMSC subpopulation from uncultivated cryopreserved BM of MDS and AML patients as well as age-matched healthy donors. BMSC from MDS and AML patients showed a strongly reduced frequency of CFU-F (colony forming unit-fibroblast). Moreover, we found an altered phenotype and reduced replating efficiency upon passaging of BMSC from MDS and AML samples. Expression analysis of genes involved in adipo- and osteogenic differentiation as well as Wnt- and Notch-signalling pathways showed significantly reduced levels of DLK1, an early adipogenic cell fate inhibitor in MDS and AML BMSC. Matching this observation, functional analysis showed significantly increased in vitro adipogenic differentiation potential in BMSC from MDS and AML patients. Overall, our data show BMSC with a reduced CFU-F capacity, and an altered molecular and functional profile from MDS and AML patients in culture, indicating an increased adipogenic lineage potential that is likely to provide a disease-promoting microenvironment.

9.
Cytometry A ; 99(5): 476-487, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32542988

RESUMO

Culture-expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for clinical cell-based therapies. MSC products are heterogeneous and we therefore investigated whether acoustophoresis, an ultrasound-based separation technology, could be used for the label-free enrichment of functionally different MSC populations. Acoustophoresis uses an ultrasonic standing wave field in a microchannel that differentially affects the movement of cells depending on their acoustophysical properties, such as size, density, and compressibility. Human bone marrow (BM) MSCs were generated by standard adherent culture in xeno-free medium and separated by microchip acoustophoresis. MSCs with up to 20% higher proliferation and 1.7-fold increased clonogenic potential were enriched in the side outlet of the chip compared to the input sample. These cells were significantly smaller (average diameter 14.5 ± 0.4 µm) compared to the center outlet fraction (average diameter 17.1 ± 0.6 µm) and expressed higher levels of genes related to proliferation and stem cell properties (i.e., Ki-67 [1.9-fold], Nanog1 [6.65-fold], Oct4 [2.9-fold], and CXCL12 [1.8-fold], n = 3) in the side outlet compared to input. Fractions of MSCs in G0 /G1 cell cycle phase were significantly enriched in the side fraction and an up to 2.8-fold increase of cells in S/G2 /M phases were observed in center fractions compared to side fractions and 1.3-fold increased compared to the input sample. Acoustophoresis did not compromise MSC phenotype, proliferation, clonogenic capacity, and viability (generally 87-98%), nor did it affect differentiation or immunomodulatory capacities. These results demonstrate that label-free acoustic separation can enrich functionally different MSC subsets which can potentially be employed to produce better-defined stromal cell products from cultured MSCs. Hence, acoustophoresis is a potentially promising separation technology to provide improved cell products for research and possible future clinical use. © 2020 The Authors. Cytometry Part A published by Wiley Periodicals LLC. on behalf of International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

10.
Clin Transl Med ; 10(8): e262, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377658

RESUMO

The lack of approved anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective therapies in otology has been acknowledged in the last decades and recent approaches are heralding a new era in the field. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human multipotent (mesenchymal) stromal cells (MSC) can be enriched in vesicular secretome fractions, which have been shown to exert effects (eg, neuroprotection and immunomodulation) of their parental cells. Hence, MSC-derived EVs may serve as novel drug candidates for several inner ear diseases. Here, we provide first evidence of a strong neuroprotective potential of human stromal cell-derived EVs on inner ear physiology. In vitro, MSC-EV preparations exerted immunomodulatory activity on T cells and microglial cells. Moreover, local application of MSC-EVs to the inner ear significantly attenuated hearing loss and protected auditory hair cells from noise-induced trauma in vivo. Thus, EVs derived from the vesicular secretome of human MSC may represent a next-generation biological drug that can exert protective therapeutic effects in a complex and nonregenerating organ like the inner ear.

11.
Cell Commun Signal ; 18(1): 61, 2020 04 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (cSCC) are the primary cause of premature deaths in patients suffering from the rare skin-fragility disorder recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), which is in marked contrast to the rarely metastasizing nature of these carcinomas in the general population. This remarkable difference is attributed to the frequent development of chronic wounds caused by impaired skin integrity. However, the specific molecular and cellular changes to malignancy, and whether there are common players in different types of aggressive cSCCs, remain relatively undefined. METHODS: MiRNA expression profiling was performed across various cell types isolated from skin and cSCCs. Microarray results were confirmed by qPCR and by an optimized in situ hybridization protocol. Functional impact of overexpression or knock-out of a dysregulated miRNA was assessed in migration and 3D-spheroid assays. Sample-matched transcriptome data was generated to support the identification of disease relevant miRNA targets. RESULTS: Several miRNAs were identified as dysregulated in cSCCs compared to control skin. These included the metastasis-linked miR-10b, which was significantly upregulated in primary cell cultures and in archival biopsies. At the functional level, overexpression of miR-10b conferred the stem cell-characteristic of 3D-spheroid formation capacity to keratinocytes. Analysis of miR-10b downstream effects identified a novel putative target of miR-10b, the actin- and tubulin cytoskeleton-associated protein DIAPH2. CONCLUSION: The discovery that miR-10b mediates an aspect of cancer stemness - that of enhanced tumor cell adhesion, known to facilitate metastatic colonization - provides an important avenue for future development of novel therapies targeting this metastasis-linked miRNA.

12.
J Invest Dermatol ; 140(10): 1985-1993.e5, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142798

RESUMO

End-joining‒based gene editing is frequently used for efficient reframing and knockout of target genes. However, the associated random, unpredictable, and often heterogeneous repair outcomes limit its applicability for therapeutic approaches. This study revealed more precise and predictable outcomes simply on the basis of the sequence context at the CRISPR/Cas9 target site. The severe dystrophic form of the blistering skin disease epidermolysis bullosa (DEB) represents a suitable model platform to test these recent developments for the disruption and reframing of dominant and recessive alleles, respectively, both frequently seen in DEB. We delivered a CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease as ribonucleoprotein into primary wild-type and recessive DEB keratinocytes to introduce a precise predictable single adenine sense-strand insertion at the target site. We achieved type VII collagen knockout in more than 40% of ribonucleoprotein-treated primary wild-type keratinocytes and type VII collagen restoration in more than 70% of ribonucleoprotein-treated recessive DEB keratinocytes. Next-generation sequencing of the on-target site revealed the presence of the precise adenine insertion upstream of the pathogenic mutation in at least 17% of all analyzed COL7A1 alleles. This demonstrates that COL7A1 editing based on precise end-joining‒mediated DNA repair is an efficient strategy to revert the disease-associated nature of DEB regardless of the mutational inheritance.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Colágeno Tipo VII/genética , Epidermólise Bolhosa Distrófica/genética , Edição de Genes , Células Cultivadas , Reparo do DNA por Junção de Extremidades , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Mutação , Ribonucleoproteínas/farmacologia
13.
Int J Cancer ; 147(2): 519-531, 2020 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077087

RESUMO

Disseminated tumor cells (dTCs) can frequently be detected in the bone marrow (BM) of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, raising the possibility that the BM serves as a reservoir for metastatic tumor cells. Identification of dTCs in BM aspirates harbors the potential of assessing therapeutic outcome and directing therapy intensity with limited risk and effort. Still, the functional and prognostic relevance of dTCs is not fully established. We have previously shown that CRC cell clones can be traced to the BM of mice carrying patient-derived xenografts. However, cellular interactions, proliferative state and tumorigenicity of dTCs remain largely unknown. Here, we applied a coculture system modeling the microvascular niche and used immunofluorescence imaging of the murine BM to show that primary CRC cells migrate toward endothelial tubes. dTCs in the BM were rare, but detectable in mice with xenografts from most patient samples (8/10) predominantly at perivascular sites. Comparable to primary tumors, a substantial fraction of proliferating dTCs was detected in the BM. However, most dTCs were found as isolated cells, indicating that dividing dTCs rather separate than aggregate to metastatic clones-a phenomenon frequently observed in the microvascular niche model. Clonal tracking identified subsets of self-renewing tumor-initiating cells in the BM that formed tumors out of BM transplants, including one subset that did not drive primary tumor growth. Our results indicate an important role of the perivascular BM niche for CRC cell dissemination and show that dTCs can be a potential source for tumor relapse and tumor heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Medula Óssea/patologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/patologia , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/citologia , Animais , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Rastreamento de Células , Técnicas de Cocultura , Neoplasias Colorretais/metabolismo , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Camundongos , Células Neoplásicas Circulantes/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica , Prognóstico , Nicho de Células-Tronco , Imagem com Lapso de Tempo , Células Tumorais Cultivadas/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
14.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 98(2): 193-207, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863152

RESUMO

During histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo, maternal platelets may be the first circulating maternal cells that find their way into the placental intervillous space through narrow intertrophoblastic gaps within the plugs of spiral arteries. Activation of platelets at the maternal-fetal interface can influence trophoblast behavior and has been implicated in serious pregnancy pathologies. Here, we show that platelet-derived factors impaired expression and secretion of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit (ßhCG) in human first trimester placental explants and the trophoblast cell line BeWo. Impaired ßhCG synthesis was not the consequence of hampered morphological differentiation, as assessed by analysis of differentiation-associated genes and electron microscopy. Platelet-derived factors did not affect intracellular cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB, but activated Smad3 and its downstream-target plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in forskolin-induced BeWo cell differentiation. While TGF-ß type I receptor inhibitor SB431542 did not restore impaired ßhCG production in response to platelet-derived factors, Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 interfered with CREB activation, suggesting an interaction of cAMP/CREB and Smad3 signaling. Sequestration of transcription co-activators CBP/p300, known to bind both CREB and Smad3, may limit ßhCG production, since CBP/p300 inhibitor C646 significantly restricted its forskolin-induced upregulation. In conclusion, our study suggests that degranulation of maternal platelets at the early maternal-fetal interface can impair placental ßhCG production, without substantially affecting morphological and biochemical differentiation of villous trophoblasts. KEY MESSAGES: Maternal platelets can be detected on the surface of the placental villi and in intercellular gaps of trophoblast cell columns from gestational week 5 onwards. Platelet-derived factors impair hCG synthesis in human first trimester placenta. Platelet-derived factors activate Smad3 in trophoblasts. Smad3 inhibitor SIS3 interferes with forskolin-induced CREB signaling. Sequestration of CBP/p300 by activated Smad3 may limit placental hCG production.


Assuntos
Plaquetas , Gonadotropina Coriônica Humana Subunidade beta/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Placenta/metabolismo , Proteína Smad3/metabolismo , Proteína de Ligação a CREB/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Proteína p300 Associada a E1A/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/metabolismo
15.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(2): 752-764, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31471878

RESUMO

PPARGC1A encodes a transcriptional co-activator also termed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) which orchestrates multiple transcriptional programs. We have recently identified CNS-specific transcripts that are initiated far upstream of the reference gene (RG) promoter. The regulation of these isoforms may be relevant, as experimental and genetic studies implicated the PPARGC1A locus in neurodegenerative diseases. We therefore studied cis- and trans-regulatory elements activating the CNS promoter in comparison to the RG promoter in human neuronal cell lines. A naturally occurring variable guanidine thymidine (GT) repeat polymorphism within a microsatellite region in the proximal CNS promoter increases promoter activity in neuronal cell lines. Both the RG and the CNS promoters are activated by ESRRA, and the PGC-1α isoforms co-activate ESRRA on their own promoters suggesting an autoregulatory feedback loop. The proximal CNS, but not the RG, promoter is induced by FOXA2 and co-activated by PGC-1α resulting in robust activation. Furthermore, the CNS, but not the RG, promoter is targeted by the canonical hypoxia response involving HIF1A. Importantly, the transactivation by HIF1A is modulated by the size of the GT polymorphism. Increased expression of CNS-specific transcripts in response to hypoxia was observed in an established rat model, while RG transcripts encoding the full-length reference protein were not increased. These results suggest a role of the CNS region of the PPARGC1A locus in ischemia and warrant further studies in humans as the activity of the CNS promoter as well as its induction by hypoxia is subject to inter-individual variability due to the GT polymorphism.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Central/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Hipóxia/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Isquemia Encefálica/genética , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Ciclopirox/farmacologia , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Masculino , Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos Wistar
16.
J Extracell Vesicles ; 10(1): e12033, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33708360

RESUMO

An important aspect in the development of extracellular vesicle (EV) therapeutics is identifying and quantifying the key features defining their identity, purity, sterility, potency and stability to ensure batch-to-batch reproducibility of their therapeutic efficacy. Apart from EV-inherent features, therapeutic efficacy depends on a variety of additional parameters, like dosing, frequency of application, and administration route, some of which can be addressed only in clinical trials. Before initiating clinical trials, EV-inherent features should be tested in well-standardized quantitative assays in vitro or in appropriate animal models in vivo. Ideally, such assays would predict if a particular EV preparation has the potential to achieve its intended therapeutic effects, and could be further developed into formal potency assays as published by the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use guidelines. Furthermore, such assays should facilitate the comparison of EV preparations produced in different batches, on different manufacturing platforms or deriving from different cell sources. For now, a wide spectrum of in vitro and in vivo assays has been used to interrogate the therapeutic functions of EVs. However, many cannot accurately predict therapeutic potential. Indeed, several unique challenges make it difficult to set up reliable assays to assess the therapeutic potential of EVs, and to develop such assays into formal potency tests. Here, we discuss challenges and opportunities around in vitro and in vivo testing of EV therapeutic potential, including the need for harmonization, establishment of formal potency assays and novel developments for functional testing.

17.
Front Neurol ; 10: 1225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849808

RESUMO

Spinal cord injury is characterized by initial neural tissue disruption that triggers secondary damage and extensive non-resolving inflammation, which aggravates loss of function and hinders recovery. The early onset of inflammation following traumatic spinal cord injury underscores the importance of acute intervention after the initial trauma. Injections of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) can reduce inflammation following spinal cord injury. We asked if extracellular vesicles (EVs) can substitute the anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring activities of their parental MSCs in a rat model of contusion spinal cord injury. We report that MSC-EVs were as potent as the parental intact cells in reducing the level of neuroinflammation for up to 2 weeks post-injury. Acute application of EVs after spinal cord injury was shown to robustly decrease the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the spinal cord parenchyma in the very early phase of secondary damage. Moreover, the anti-scarring impact of MSC-EVs was even more efficient than the parental cells. We therefore conclude that anti-inflammatory and anti-scarring activities of MSC application can be mediated by their secreted EVs. In light of their substantial safety and druggability advantages, EVs may have a high potential in early therapeutic treatment following traumatic spinal cord injury.

18.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2474, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31781089

RESUMO

Heterogeneous populations of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSC) are among the most frequently tested cellular therapeutics for treating degenerative and immune disorders, which occur predominantly in the aging population. Currently, it is unclear whether advanced donor age and commonly associated comorbidities affect the properties of ex vivo-expanded BMSCs. Thus, we stratified cells from adult and elderly donors from our biobank (n = 10 and n = 13, mean age 38 and 72 years, respectively) and compared their phenotypic and functional performance, using multiple assays typically employed as minimal criteria for defining multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). We found that BMSCs from both cohorts meet the standard criteria for MSC, exhibiting similar morphology, growth kinetics, gene expression profiles, and pro-angiogenic and immunosuppressive potential and the capacity to differentiate toward adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. We found no substantial differences between cells from the adult and elderly cohorts. As positive controls, we studied the impact of in vitro aging and inflammatory cytokine stimulation. Both conditions clearly affected the cellular properties, independent of donor age. We conclude that in vitro aging rather than in vivo donor aging influences BMSC characteristics.


Assuntos
Células-Tronco Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Adultas/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Adipogenia , Adulto , Células-Tronco Adultas/imunologia , Idoso , Envelhecimento/imunologia , Envelhecimento/patologia , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Diferenciação Celular , Linhagem da Célula , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Senescência Celular/imunologia , Senescência Celular/fisiologia , Condrogênese , Comorbidade , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Osteogênese , Fenótipo , Doadores de Tecidos , Transcriptoma
19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7258, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076619

RESUMO

Pooled human platelet lysate (pHPL) is increasingly used as replacement of animal serum for manufacturing of stromal cell therapeutics. Porcine heparin is commonly applied to avoid clotting of pHPL-supplemented medium but the influence of heparin on cell behavior is still unclear. Aim of this study was to investigate cellular uptake of heparin by fluoresceinamine-labeling and its impact on expression of genes, proteins and function of human stromal cells derived from bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord (UC) and white adipose tissue (WAT). Cells were isolated and propagated using various pHPL-supplemented media with or without heparin. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry showed differential cellular internalization and lysosomal accumulation of heparin. Transcriptome profiling revealed regulation of distinct gene sets by heparin including signaling cascades involved in proliferation, cell adhesion, apoptosis, inflammation and angiogenesis, depending on stromal cell origin. The influence of heparin on the WNT, PDGF, NOTCH and TGFbeta signaling pathways was further analyzed by a bead-based western blot revealing most alterations in BM-derived stromal cells. Despite these observations heparin had no substantial effect on long-term proliferation and in vitro tri-lineage differentiation of stromal cells, indicating compatibility for clinically applied cell products.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Heparina/metabolismo , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Soro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Cordão Umbilical/metabolismo
20.
J Transl Med ; 17(1): 432, 2019 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Innovative human stromal cell therapeutics require xeno-free culture conditions. Various formulations of human platelet lysate (HPL) are efficient alternatives for fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, a consistent lack of standardized manufacturing protocols and quality criteria hampers comparability of HPL-products. Aim of this study was to compare the biochemical composition of three differential HPL-preparations with FBS and to investigate their impact on stromal cell biology. METHODS: Stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow (BM), white adipose tissue (WAT) and umbilical cord (UC) and cultured in medium supplemented with pooled HPL (pHPL), fibrinogen-depleted serum-converted pHPL (pHPLS), mechanically fibrinogen-depleted pHPL (mcpHPL) and FBS. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in comparison to standard values in whole blood. Distinct growth factors and cytokines were measured by bead-based multiplex technology. Flow cytometry of stromal cell immunophenotype, in vitro differentiation, and mRNA expression analysis of transcription factors SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, OCT4 and NANOG were performed. RESULTS: Biochemical parameters were comparable in all pHPL preparations, but to some extent different to FBS. Total protein, glucose, cholesterol and Na+ were elevated in pHPL preparations, K+ and Fe3+ levels were higher in FBS. Compared to FBS, pHPL-based media significantly enhanced stromal cell propagation. Characteristic immunophenotype and in vitro differentiation potential were maintained in all four culture conditions. The analysis of growth factors and cytokines revealed distinct levels depending on the pre-existence in pHPL, consumption or secretion by the stromal cells. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the transcription and mitotic bookmarking factors cMYC and KLF4 was significantly enhanced in a source dependent manner in stromal cells cultured in pHPL- compared to FBS-supplemented media. SOX2 mRNA expression of all stromal cell types was increased in all pHPL culture conditions. CONCLUSION: All pHPL-supplemented media equally supported proliferation of WAT- and UC-derived stromal cells significantly better than FBS. Mitotic bookmarking factors, known to enable a quick re-entry to the cell cycle, were significantly enhanced in pHPL-expanded cells. Our results support a better characterization and standardization of humanized culture media for stromal cell-based medicinal products.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Mitose , Regulação para Cima , Tecido Adiposo Branco/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Imunofenotipagem , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/metabolismo , Mitose/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Células Estromais/citologia , Células Estromais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Regulação para Cima/genética
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