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1.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 43(3): 314-323, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249197

RESUMO

Objective: To grade the evidence about risk factors for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder) with an umbrella review approach. Methods: This was a systematic review of observational studies on risk factors for eating disorders published in PubMed/PsycInfo/Embase until December 11th, 2019. We recalculated random-effect meta-analyses, heterogeneity, small-study effect, excess significance bias and 95% prediction intervals, grading significant evidence (p < 0.05) from convincing to weak according to established criteria. Quality was assessed with the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews 2 (AMSTAR-2) tool. Results: Of 2,197 meta-analyses, nine were included, providing evidence on 50 risk factors, 29,272 subjects with eating disorders, and 1,679,385 controls. Although no association was supported by convincing evidence, highly suggestive evidence supported the association between childhood sexual abuse and bulimia nervosa (k = 29, 1,103 cases with eating disorders, 8,496 controls, OR, 2.73, 95%CI 1.96-3.79, p = 2.1 x 10-9, AMSTAR-2 moderate quality) and between appearance-related teasing victimization and any eating disorder (k = 10, 1,341 cases with eating disorders, 3,295 controls, OR 2.91, 95%CI 2.05-4.12, p = 1.8x10-9, AMSTAR-2 moderate quality). Suggestive, weak, or no evidence supported 11, 29, and 8 associations, respectively. Conclusions: The most credible evidence indicates that early traumatic and stressful events are risk factors for eating disorders. Larger collaborative prospective cohort studies are needed to identify risk factors for eating disorders, particularly anorexia nervosa.

2.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 15-21, 2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087751

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our aim was to investigate whether different types and social contexts of physical activity (PA) participation are prospectively associated with psychological distress and well-being among middle-aged adults. METHODS: Data from the 1970 British Cohort Study was used (N = 5144-2733 women). At age 42y, participants reported their type of leisure-time PA, which was classified as individual PA or group PA (exposure). At age 46y, participants reported co-primary outcomes: psychological distress (Malaise Inventory) and well-being (Warwick-Edinburgh scale). Highest academic achievement, employment status, country of interview, baseline values of psychological distress and well-being, smoking, alcohol use, TV-viewing and total physical activity at 42y were used as covariates. Main analyses included linear regression stratifying by sex. RESULTS: Jogging, cross-country, road-running (both sexes) as well as team sports (men) were associated with higher well-being. Health, fitness, gym or conditioning activities and jogging, cross-country (women), road-running (women) and team sports (men) were associated with lower psychological distress. Participation in both individual and group PA were associated with lower psychological distress and higher well-being for both sexes in crude models. However, adjusted models revealed that only group PA was associated with lower psychological distress (B: -0.106; 95%CI: -0.188 to -0.025) and higher well-being (0.835; 0.050 to 1.619) among men but not women. In the sensitivity analysis, group PA was associated with higher well-being (0.855; 0.094 to 1.616) when compared with individual PA among men. Group PA was not associated with psychological distress among both sexes and well-being among women when compared with individual PA. CONCLUSION: Group PA was prospectively associated with lower psychological distress and higher well-being among men but not females. Future PA interventions could focus on group activities for males. Further research to understand the relationship between individual/group PA and mental health is required in females.

3.
J Psychiatr Res ; 140: 228-234, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34118641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous evidence supports the notion that the physical activity (PA) domain (leisure-time or transport), and the amount of time spent in PA, influence the association of PA with depressive and anxiety symptoms. However, no study evaluated the associations of different volumes of leisure-time PA (LTPA) and transport PA (TPA) with prevalent depression, anxiety, and co-occurring depression and anxiety (D&A) disorders. AIM: To investigate the associations between different volumes of LTPA and TPA with prevalent depression, anxiety, and D&A. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using baseline data of the ELSA-Brasil cohort. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long-form was used to assess PA levels in each domain. The Clinical Interview Scheduled Revised (CIS-R) was used to diagnose prevalent depressive, anxiety, and D&A disorders. Logistic regressions, adjusting for confounding factors, were employed. Results are expressed as adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: A total of 14,381 adults (54.5% female, 67.5% aged 45-64 years) were assessed. Time spent in LTPA was associated with a lower prevalence of depression in low, and high volumes (60-89min/weekaOR = 0.47, 95%CI = 0.29-0.76, p = 0.002, >300min/weekaOR = 0.43, 95%CI = 0.31-0.59, p < 0.001). High volumes of LTPA were associated with a lower prevalence D&A (270-299min/weekaOR = 0.55, 95%CI 0.38-0.79, p = 0.001; >300 minutesaOR = 0.63, 95%CI 0.54-0.74, p < 0.001). Low (60-89min/weekaOR = 0.56,95%CI = 0.40-0.79, p = 0.001) volumes of TPA were associated with lower prevalence of depression. LIMITATIONS: Cross-sectional design and self-reported PA. Lack of assessment of sedentary behaviour or occupational PA. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the importance of contextual factors in the association between PA and mental health, particularly at higher levels.

4.
Psychiatry Res ; 302: 114046, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126464

RESUMO

Exercise as a treatment option for people with mental disorders is a field of growing interest. The increased number of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of exercise in the treatment of anxiety and related disorders in recent years calls for an update of the available meta-analytic evidence. Electronic databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PSYCArticles, and Embase) were searched up to 17.2.2021, for RCTs evaluating the effects of exercise on anxiety and stress symptoms in adults with anxiety and related disorders. A random effects meta-analysis was conducted. A total of 13 RCTs comprising 731 adult participants (exercise n=376; control n=355) were included. Exercise had a small, bordering medium, but statistically significant effect on decreasing anxiety symptoms compared to control condition (standardized mean difference=-0.425, 95%CI -0.67 to -0.17; I2 = 47.9%) in people with anxiety and related disorders. Our meta-analysis updates the existing evidence supporting exercise as an efficacious intervention for anxiety and related disorders. Although the updated meta-analytic evidence is less heterogenous than previously reported, future research is still needed to explore the factors moderating the effects of exercise on outcome such as frequency, intensity, duration of the sessions, and type of exercise and qualification of the provider in more detail.

5.
Ageing Res Rev ; 69: 101362, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Serotonergic dysfunction may be involved in the etiology of overall neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) and agitation in patients with dementia; therefore, we aim to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy of serotonergic antidepressants in such populations. METHODS: We systematically searched PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library to obtain randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from the date of their inception until December 11, 2020 to examine the effect of serotonergic antidepressants on the outcomes of interest in patients with dementia. Data were pooled using a random-effects model. Co-primary outcomes were mean changes in overall NPS and agitation as a specific symptom of NPS. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in depressive symptoms, cognition, and care burden. RESULTS: Fourteen randomized controlled trials were eligible (n = 1,374; mean age = 76.8 years; mean proportion of female = 61.9 %). Serotonergic antidepressants significantly reduced the overall NPS (k = 12, n = 1276, Hedges' g = -0.49, 95 % confidence intervals [CIs] = -0.74 to -0.24, p < 0.001) and agitation severity (k = 9, n = 749, Hedges' g = -0.28, 95 % CIs = -0.43 to -0.14, p < 0.001), both with small effect size in patients with dementia. For secondary outcome, serotonergic antidepressants also significantly improved depressive symptoms, cognition, and care burden with small to very small effect sizes (depressive symptoms, k = 8, n = 938, Hedges' g = -0.32, 95 % CIs = -0.49 to -0.15, p < 0.001;cognition, k = 6, n = 983, Hedges' g = 0.15, 95 % CIs = 0.002 to 0.29, p = 0.046; care burden, k = 7, n = 961, Hedges' g = -0.24, 95 % CIs = -0.41 to -0.07, p = 0.005). Subgroup analysis showed that both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and non-SSRIs significant reduced agitation and depressive symptoms (For agitation, SSRIs, k = 6, n = 605, Hedges' g = -0.25, 95 % CIs = -0.41 to -0.09, p=0.002; non-SSRIs, k = 3, n = 144, Hedges' g = -0.41, 95 % CIs = -0.74 to -0.08, p = 0.016; For depression, SSRIs, k = 6, n = 736, Hedges' g = -0.29, 95 % CIs = -0.48 to -0.09, p=0.004; non-SSRIs, k = 343, n = 144, Hedges' g = -0.43, 95 % CIs = -0.78 to -0.09, p = 0.016), whereas only SSRIs reduced overall NPS (k = 9, n = 1109, Hedges' g = -0.49, 95 % CIs = -0.78 to -0.20, p = 0.001) and care burden (k = 5, n = 740, Hedges' g = -0.29, 95 % CIs = -0.50 to -0.08, p=0.007). CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis indicates that serotonergic antidepressants effectively alleviate overall NPS, agitation, depressive symptoms, and care burden, and improve cognitive function.

6.
Sleep Breath ; 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046817

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on both sleep and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with depression. METHODS: Using a single pre- and post-test study design with no control group, 82 patients diagnosed with depressive disorders underwent HIIT comprising a total of 24 15-min sessions, three times per week for 8 weeks. Depressive symptoms, sleep quality, and cardiorespiratory fitness were evaluated using the Beck depression inventory-II, the Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in the form of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max), respectively. RESULTS: All 82 patients completed the intervention. HIIT training was associated with significant improvements in BDI-II score (diff = - 1.57 [95% CI - 2.40 to - 0.73], P = 0.001), PSQI score (diff = - 1.20 [95% CI - 2.10 to - 0.32], P = 0.008), and CPET VO2 max (diff = 0.95 [95% CI 0.62-1.28], P = 0.001). Effect size calculations revealed that the greatest improvement occurred in CPET VO2 max (Cohen's d = 0.64) and that improvements in the BDI-II and PSQI scores were somewhat smaller in magnitude (Cohen's d = - 0.41 and - 0.30, respectively). Sleep quality improvements were observed in sleep latency, habitual sleep efficiency, and the use of sleep-promoting medications (Cohen's d = 0.18, 0.19, and 0.25, respectively). Change in cardiorespiratory fitness successfully predicted change in sleep quality but not in depressive symptoms. Adverse effects were limited to minor injuries which did not interfere with completion of training. CONCLUSIONS: HIIT training delivered over 8 weeks was associated with improvements in depression symptoms, sleep quality, and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with depressive disorders.

7.
Aging Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34003711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purposes of this study were to analyze the effect of resistance training (RT) on depressive and anxiety symptomsand examine the possible consequences of age, cognitive alterations, and muscular strength on such symptoms.Method: Forty-one older women (68 ± 8 years) composed a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG was submitted to a supervised, progressive RT program over 12 weeks, involving eight whole-body exercises performed with three sets of 8-12 repetitions, three days per week, whereas CG remains with no intervention for the same period. Muscular strength (one-repetition maximum tests), cognitive function (Montreal Cognitive Assessment - MoCA; Verbal Fluency Tests), depression (15-item eriatric Depression Scale - GDS-15), and anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory - BAI) were assessed before and after the intervention period. RESULTS: There were observed significant (P < 0.001) RT-induced improvements on total muscular strength (TG: pre = 122.4 ± 24.1/post = 134.3 ± 36.7; CG: pre = 105.4 ± 15.4/post = 99.2 ± 17.1) and MoCA (TG: pre =21.7 ± 4.5/post = 22.5 ± 4.7; CG: pre = 20.3 ± 3.7/post = 19.3 ± 4.1). Depressive and anxiety symptoms (even when adjusted by chronological age and changes in muscular strength or cognitive function) were reduced with RT according to GDS-15 (TG: pre = 2.26 ± 1.53/post = 1.92 ± 1.68; CG: pre =2.68 ± 1.13/post = 2.25 ± 1.18) and BAI (TG: pre = 4.07 ± 5.68/post = 2.33 ± 3.71; CG: pre = 5.18 ± 7.70/post = 9.81 ± 7.10). The time x group interactions were significant for depressive and anxiety symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that a 12-week RT program reduces depressive and anxiety symptoms, regardless of age, muscular strength, and cognition function in older women.

8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33972697

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity has recently been recognized as a neurocognitive disorder involving circuits associated with the reward system and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has been proposed as a strategy for the management of obesity. However, the results have been inconclusive. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of different NIBS modalities for weight reduction in participants with obesity. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining NIBS interventions in patients with obesity were analyzed using the frequentist model of NMA. The coprimary outcome was change in body mass index (BMI) and acceptability, which was calculated using the dropout rate. RESULTS: Overall, the current NMA, consisting of eight RCTs, revealed that the high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the left DLPFC was ranked to be associated with the second-largest decrease in BMI and the largest decrease in total energy intake and craving severity, whereas the high-frequency deep TMS over bilateral DLPFC and the insula was ranked to be associated with the largest decrease in BMI. CONCLUSION: This pilot study provided a "signal" for the design of more methodologically robust and larger RCTs based on the findings of the potentially beneficial effect on weight reduction in participants with obesity by different NIBS interventions.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801381

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). TB multimorbidity [TB and ≥1 non-communicable diseases (NCDs)] is common, but studies are sparse. Cross-sectional, community-based data including adults from 21 low-income countries and 27 middle-income countries were utilized from the World Health Survey. Associations between 9 NCDs and TB were assessed with multivariable logistic regression analysis. Years lived with disability (YLDs) were calculated using disability weights provided by the 2017 Global Burden of Disease Study. Eight out of 9 NCDs (all except visual impairment) were associated with TB (odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.38-4.0). Prevalence of self-reported TB increased linearly with increasing numbers of NCDs. Compared to those with no NCDs, those who had 1, 2, 3, 4, and ≥5 NCDs had 2.61 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.14-3.22), 4.71 (95%CI = 3.67-6.11), 6.96 (95%CI = 4.95-9.87), 10.59 (95%CI = 7.10-15.80), and 19.89 (95%CI = 11.13-35.52) times higher odds for TB. Among those with TB, the most prevalent combinations of NCDs were angina and depression, followed by angina and arthritis. For people with TB, the YLDs were three times higher than in people without multimorbidity or TB, and a third of the YLDs were attributable to NCDs. Urgent research to understand, prevent and manage NCDs in people with TB in LMICs is needed.


Assuntos
Doenças não Transmissíveis , Tuberculose , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Países em Desenvolvimento , Saúde Global , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Multimorbidade , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Tuberculose/epidemiologia
10.
Sleep Med Rev ; 57: 101469, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836486

RESUMO

This network meta-analysis aimed at investigating efficacy/tolerability of pharmacologic/hormonal interventions for menopausal sleep disturbances. Major databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining pharmacologic or hormonal interventions with either placebo or active controlled designs. Primary outcomes were improvements in sleep disturbance severity/tolerability (i.e., overall dropout rates), whereas secondary outcome was adverse event-related discontinuation rates. Analysis of 43 RCTs with 25 treatment arms involving 32,271 women during/after menopausal transition (age: 61.24 ± 4.23, duration: 90.83 ± 66.29 wks) showed therapeutic effect of melatonin-fluoxetine [SMD = -2.47 (95% CI:-4.19-0.74)] against sleep disturbances compared to placebo. Subgroup analysis of 15 RCTs on vasomotor symptoms demonstrated superior benefits of gabapentin [SMD = -1.04 (95% CI:-1.90-0.18)], oral combined hormone therapy [SMD = -0.62 (95% CI:-1.06-0.18)], and bazedoxifene-conjugated estrogens [SMD = -0.50 (95% CI:-0.96-0.04)] to placebo/control. Despite benefits of raloxifene-only [SMD = -1.86 (95% CI:-3.09-0.63)] and raloxifene-oral estrogen [SMD = -2.64 (95% CI:-4.64-0.63)], patient selection may be a confounder. Dropout rates were comparable between interventions and placebo/control. Eszopiclone [RR = 3.84 (95% CI: 1.14-12.87)] and oral combined hormone therapy [RR = 2.51 (95% CI: 1.04-6.07)] were associated with higher rates of adverse event-related discontinuation. The results support combined estrogen-progesterone therapy for menopausal sleep disturbances associated with vasomotor symptoms but showed no significant effects of hypnotics in this clinical setting.

11.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; : 1-11, 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899657

RESUMO

Background: Oropharyngeal/esophageal candidiasis are the most common opportunistic infections observed in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). While the commonly recommended treatment is fluconazole, relapse of oropharyngeal or esophageal candidiasis has been gradually increasing in recent decades.Methods: The current network meta-analysis (NMA) included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the efficacy and acceptability (i.e. drop-out rate) of different anti-fungal interventions against oropharyngeal or esophageal candidiasis in adults with HIV. All NMA procedures were conducted using the frequentist model.Results: Twenty-seven RCTs and 6277 participants were included. For oropharyngeal candidiasis, photosensitizer-based antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) with laser irradiation plus methylene blue was associated with the highest cure rate and the lowest relapse rate among the investigated interventions [odds ratio (OR) = 6.82, 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) = 0.19 to 244.42, p = 0.293, and OR = 0.03, 95%CIs = 0.00 to 0.77, p = 0.034, compared to fluconazole]. None of the investigated anti-fungal interventions were superior to fluconazole for esophageal candidiasis in respect of cure rates/relapse rates. All investigated anti-fungal interventions were well-accepted.Conclusions: aPDT could be the preferred strategy to manage oropharyngeal candidiasis; however the evidence for esophageal candidiasis still remained inconclusive.

12.
Schizophr Res ; 231: 122-133, 2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33839370

RESUMO

As employment and relationship status are important long-term outcomes in individuals with a diagnosis of first episode psychosis (FEP) disorders, there is a need to elucidate more accurately the extent of these social deficits in people with FEP. This in turn can aid treatment planning and policy development ultimately ensuring more complete and sustainable recoveries. We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies in FEP reporting on employment and relationship status during the illness course. Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were employed. Seventy-four studies were included with a sample totalling 15,272 (range = 20-1724) FEP cases with an average follow-up duration of 8.3 years (SD = 7.2). 32.5% (95%CI = 28.5-36.9) of people with a diagnosis of FEP disorders were employed and 21.3% (95%CI = 16.5-27.1) were in a relationship at the end of follow-up. Studies from high-income countries and Europe had a higher proportion of people in employment at the end of follow-up compared to middle-income nations and non-European countries. The inverse was found for relationship status. The proportion of people with a diagnosis of FEP in employment decreased significantly with longer follow-up. Living with family, being in a relationship at first contact and Black and White ethnicities were identified as significant moderators of these outcomes. These findings highlight marked functional recovery deficits for people with FEP, although cultural factors need to be considered. They support the need for interventions to improve employment opportunities, and social functioning, both in early psychosis and during the longitudinal illness course.

13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 197, 2021 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) is a commonly used psychometric scale of depression. A four-factor structure (depressed affect, positive affect, somatic symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties) was initially identified in an American sample aged 18 to 65. Despite emerging evidence, a latent structure has not been established in adolescents. This review aimed to investigate the factor structure of the CES-D in adolescents. METHODS: We searched Web of Science, PsychINFO and Scopus and included peer-reviewed, original studies assessing the factor structure of the 20-item CES-D in adolescents aged ≤18. Two independent researchers screened results and extracted data. RESULTS: Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria and were primarily from school-based samples in the USA or Asia. Studies that conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 9) reported a four-factor structure consistent with the original factor structure; these studies were primarily USA-based. Conversely, studies that conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) reported distinct two or three factor structures (n = 4) and were primarily based in Asia. LIMITATIONS: Studies in a non-English language and those that included individuals aged > 18 years were excluded. Ethnic or cultural differences as well as different analytical methods impacted generalisability of results. The use of CFA as the primary analysis may have biased towards a four-factor structure. CONCLUSIONS: A four-factor CES-D structure was an appropriate fit for adolescents in Western countries; further research is required to determine the fit in in Asian countries. This has important implications for clinical use of the scale. Future research should consider how cultural differences shape the experience of depression in adolescents.


Assuntos
Depressão , Grupos Étnicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851476

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Physical restraint is used across the NHS in Mental Health, Learning disability and other specialist settings. Physical restraint should be used as a last resort, with least amount of force for the minimum amount of time. There is no national set of skills from which trainers or practitioners choose what might be appropriate for them and the population they care for. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: A national online survey gathered insights from representatives of public and private training services in relation to 20 selected techniques and their perceived risks. The most frequently taught techniques are identified and evident trends were seen among respondents according to their perceived suitability for different population groups. The need to be able to compare and contrast techniques is discussed, and the utility of developing an evaluative framework is outlined. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: In England the restraint training is now being regulated. This survey reveals the variation in the techniques used across groups or settings. The ability to compare techniques and make informed decisions around which techniques to commission, specify or use, could support the aims of the RRN Training Standards (RRN, 2020a) and Towards Safer Services (RRN, 2020b) and in so doing support the goals of safer, less restrictive person-centred practice. Individuals are encouraged to reflect on their practice and think critically about what is a good restraint technique. ABSTRACT: Introduction Despite widespread use of restraint techniques, it is unclear what techniques are taught. Aim To identify the types of techniques commonly taught. Method A national online survey was developed through iteration and stakeholder involvement. Ethical approval was obtained and it was disseminated through the Positive and Safe network, and the Restraint Reduction Network Community of Practice where expert practitioners answered questions relating to 20 randomly selected used physical 'Holds'. Results One hundred seventy-two people completed the survey. The most commonly taught techniques were a Guiding Posture (71%), a Guiding Hold (44%), a Two-Handed Forearm Hold (36%), a Finger, Thumb & Wrist Hold (27%) and a Cupped/Capped Fist Hold (26%). The Guiding Posture (71%), and Guiding Hold were used most commonly across populations. Despite the potential to induce pain, the Finger, Thumb and Wrist Hold was deemed suitable for Adult populations, but not Older Adults, Young Persons and Children. Wrap-Type Holds were seen as unsuitable for all populations. Discussion There is currently high variation in which techniques are taught across different settings. An evaluation framework could be beneficial. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: An evaluation framework could aid training commissioners, providers and practitioner reflect on what constitutes a good restraint technique.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877370

RESUMO

PURPOSE: It is well known that loneliness can worsen physical and mental health outcomes, but there is a dearth of research on the impact of loneliness in populations receiving mental healthcare. This study aimed to investigate cross-sectional correlates of loneliness among such patients and longitudinal risk for acute general hospitalisations. METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted on the data from patients aged 18 + receiving assessment/care at a large mental healthcare provider in South London. Recorded loneliness status was ascertained among active patients on the index date, 30th Jun 2012. Acute general hospitalisation (emergency/elective) outcomes were obtained until 31st Mar 2018. Length of stay was modelled using Poisson regression models and time-to hospitalisation and time-to mortality were modelled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: The data from 26,745 patients were analysed. The prevalence of patients with recorded loneliness was 16.4% at the index date. In the fully adjusted model, patients with recorded loneliness had higher hazards of emergency (HR 1.15, 95% CI 1.09-1.22) and elective (1.05, 1.01-1.12) hospitalisation than patients who were not recorded as lonely, and a longer duration of both emergency (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 1.05-1.07) and elective (1.02, 1.01-1.03) general hospitalisations. There was no association between loneliness and mortality. Correlates of loneliness included having an eating disorder (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.29-2.25) and serious mental illnesses (OR 1.44, 1.29-1.62). CONCLUSION: Loneliness in patients receiving mental healthcare is associated with higher use of general hospital services. Increased attention to the physical healthcare of this patient group is therefore warranted.

16.
Disabil Rehabil ; : 1-12, 2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861676

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Understanding enablers of and barriers for physical activity (PA) participation in people with intellectual disability (ID) is an essential first step to develop effective interventions. This systematic review examined correlates of PA across the socio-ecological model (i.e., intra-personal, inter-personal, environmental and policy level) in people with ID across the lifespan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Major electronic databases were searched from inception until 15 February 2021. Keywords included "physical activity" or "exercise" and "intellectual disability" or "mental retardation." A summary coding was used to analyze the data for adolescents (<18 years), adults (18 < 50 years), and older adults (50≤ years). RESULTS: Out of 83 PA correlates, retrieved from 39 studies (n = 26,456), only three consistent (i.e., reported in four or more studies) correlates were identified. In adults, older age (7/11, 64%), more severe ID (9/9, 100%) and the presence of physical mobility problems (3/4, 75%) were associated with decreased PA. From 38 correlates identified, no consistent correlates were identified for children and adolescents and older people. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the abundance of evidence of the PA benefits for people with ID, we only found consistent evidence for three correlates reliably being related to PA in adults with ID. More research, particularly among young and older people is urgently needed.IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATIONMore severe intellectual disability is an important barrier for being active in adults with intellectual disability.Presence of physical health problems is an important barrier for being active in adults with intellectual disability.

17.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 21(1): 202-202, ene.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: This study explored the association between active school travel (AST) and suicide attempts among adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). METHOD: We used the data from the Global School-based Health Survey, including 127,097 adolescents aged 13-17 years from 34 LMICs. A self-reported survey was used to collect data on AST and suicide attempts as well as some variables. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to assess the association between AST and suicide attempts. A meta-analysis with random effects was undertaken to identify the difference in the association between AST and suicide attempts. RESULTS: Across all the adolescents, the prevalence of AST was 37% and the prevalence of suicide attempts was 11.60%. Adolescents who engaged in AST were less likely to have suicide attempts irrespective of gender. The country-wise analysis indicated a large inconsistency in the association between AST and suicide attempt across the countries. CONCLUSIONS: AST would appear to be a protective factor for reducing suicide attempts among adolescents. However, the association between AST and suicide attempts varied greatly across the countries. Future studies should confirm the association between AST and suicide attempts


OBJETIVO: Se exploró la asociación entre desplazamientos escolares activos (AST, por sus siglas en inglés) e intentos de suicidio entre adolescentes en países de ingresos bajos y medios. MÉTODO: Se utilizaron datos de la Global School-based Health Survey, que incluyó a 127.097 adolescentes de 13 a 17 años de 34 países de ingresos bajos y medios. Se utilizó una encuesta autoinformada para recopilar datos sobre AST e intentos de suicidio, así como otras variables. Se realizó una regresión logística multivariable para evaluar la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio. Se realizó un metanálisis con efectos aleatorios para identificar la diferencia en la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de AST fue del 37% y la prevalencia de intentos de suicidio fue del 11,60%. Los adolescentes que participaron en AST tenían menos probabilidades de tener intentos de suicidio independientemente del sexo. El análisis por países indicó una gran inconsistencia en la asociación entre AST e intento de suicidio. CONCLUSIONES: AST parece ser un factor protector para reducir los intentos de suicidio entre adolescentes. Sin embargo, la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio varió mucho entre países. Estudios futuros deberían confirmar la asociación entre AST e intentos de suicidio


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Instituições Acadêmicas , Saúde Mental , Modelos Logísticos , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Autorrelato , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Proteção
18.
Eur J Clin Invest ; : e13536, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective was to capture the breadth of outcomes that have been associated with metformin use and to systematically assess the quality, strength and credibility of these associations using the umbrella review methodology. METHODS: Four major databases were searched until 31 May 2020. Meta-analyses of observational studies and meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (including active and placebo control arms) were included. RESULTS: From 175 eligible publications, we identified 427 different meta-analyses, including 167 meta-analyses of observational studies, 147 meta-analyses of RCTs for metformin vs placebo/no treatment and 113 meta-analyses of RCTs for metformin vs active medications. There was no association classified as convincing or highly suggestive from meta-analyses of observational studies, but some suggestive/weak associations of metformin use with a lower mortality risk of CVD and cancer. In meta-analyses of RCTs, metformin was associated with a lower incidence of diabetes in people with prediabetes or no diabetes at baseline; lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome incidence (in women in controlled ovarian stimulation); higher success for clinical pregnancy rate in poly-cystic ovary syndrome (PCOS); and significant reduction in body mass index in people with type 1 diabetes mellitus, in women who have obesity/overweight with PCOS and in obese/overweight women. Of 175 publications, 166 scored as low or critically low quality per AMSTAR 2 criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Observational evidence on metformin seems largely unreliable. Randomized evidence shows benefits for preventing diabetes and in some gynaecological and obstetrical settings. However, almost all meta-analyses are of low or critically low quality according to AMSTAR 2 criteria.

19.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 13(1): 70, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785077

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is currently unknown whether exergaming is efficacious in people with major neurocognitive disorder (MNCD) residing in long-term care facilities. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) explored the efficacy of a stepping exergame program on gait speed, balance, mobility, reaction time, cognitive and neuropsychiatric outcomes, quality of life, and daily life functioning in people with MNCD residing in long-term care facilities. METHODS: Participants were randomly assigned to 8 weeks, three times weekly, 15 min of exergaming versus watching preferred music videos. The exergame device consisted of a pressure-sensitive step training platform on which participants performed stepping movements to play the games. The device automatically adapted the training level to the participants' capabilities. The Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), step reaction time test (SRTT), Montréal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), Dementia Quality of Life (DQoL), and Katz Activities of Daily Living (Katz ADL) were assessed at baseline and post-intervention. A Quade's non-parametric ANCOVA controlling for baseline values with post hoc Bonferroni correction (p < 0.00625) was used to analyze pre- and post-differences between the groups. Partial eta-squared (η2p) effect sizes were calculated. RESULTS: Forty-five of 55 randomized inpatients with mild to moderate MNCD (Mini-Mental State Examination score = 17.2 ± 4.5; aged 70-91; 35 women) completed the study. The exergame group (n = 23) demonstrated improvements in gait speed (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.41), total SPPB (p < 0.001, η2p = 0.64), SRTT (p<0.001, η2p = 0.51), MoCA (p<0.001, η2p = 0.38), and reductions in CSDD (p<0.001, η2p = 0.43) compared to the control group (n = 22). There were no differences in NPI (p = 0.165, η2p = 0.05), DQoL (p = 0.012, η2p = 0.16), and ADL (p = 0.008, η2p = 0.16) post-intervention scores between the experimental and control group, albeit DQol and ADL measures showed large effect sizes in the exergame group. The mean attendance rate was 82.9% in the exergame group and 73.7% in the music control group. There were no study-related adverse events reported by the participants, nor observed by the research team. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot RCT suggest that an individually adapted exergame training improves lower extremity functioning, cognitive functioning and step reaction time and symptoms of depression in inpatients with MNCD residing in long-term care facilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04436302.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33786598

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Multimorbidity is common among older adults from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Social participation has a role in protecting against negative health consequences, yet its association with multimorbidity is unclear, particularly in LMICs. Thus, this study investigated the relationship between physical multimorbidity and social participation among older adults across six LMICs. METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data including adults aged ≥65 years from six LMICs were analyzed from the WHO Study on Global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) survey. The association between 11 individual chronic conditions or the number of chronic conditions (independent variable) and social participation (range 0-10 with higher scores indicating greater social participation) (dependent variable) was assessed by multivariable linear regression analysis. RESULTS: 14,585 individuals [mean age 72.6 (SD 11.5) years; 54.9% females] were included. Among individual conditions, hearing problems, visual impairment, and stroke were significantly associated with lower levels of social participation. Overall, an increasing number of chronic conditions was dose-dependently associated with lower levels of social participation [e.g., ≥4 vs. 0 conditions ß=-0.26 (95%CI=-0.39, -0.13)]. The association was more pronounced among males than females. DISCUSSION: Older people with multimorbidity had lower levels of social participation in LMICs. Future longitudinal studies are warranted to further investigate temporal associations, and whether addressing social participation can lead to better health outcomes among older people with multimorbidity in LMICs.

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