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1.
Physiol Behav ; 223: 112967, 2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479805

RESUMO

This study investigated whether physical activity (PA) influences the association between depression risk and low-grade inflammation. This was a cross-sectional study including 8,048 adults (18-59y). Depression symptoms were evaluated with the Beck depression inventory (BDI) and physical activity through the international physical activity questionnaire. Adults with infectious and inflammatory diseases were excluded. Blood samples were collected, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of low-grade inflammation when ≥3mg/L. Additional measures of LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides and fasting glucose were also determined. Sex, chronological age, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure and fasting glucose were used as covariates. Mediation models were conducted using the procedures of Karlson Holm Breen. Adults with elevated CRP (≥3mg/L) compared to those with low CRP (<3mg/L) presented with higher BDI scores [8.5%(95%CI:7.2%-10.1%) vs. 5.8%(95%CI:5.2-6.4)] as well as higher prevalence of physical inactivity 67.4% (95%CI:64.9-69.9) vs. 59.7% (95%CI:58.4-60.9). The prevalence of elevated CRP was highest in physically inactive adults with greater depression risk. Models revealed that physical activity risk explained 13% of the association between depression risk and elevated CRP (p=0.035), independently of potential confounders. Physical activity may reduce the association between depression symptoms and elevated CRP. Future longitudinal research is required to determine the directionality of the relationships observed.

2.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 130, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the enormous financial and humanistic burden of chronic low back pain (CLBP), there is little consensus on what constitutes the best treatment options from a multitude of competing interventions. The objective of this network meta-analysis (NMA) is to determine the relative efficacy and acceptability of primary care treatments for non-specific CLBP, with the overarching aim of providing a comprehensive evidence base for informing treatment decisions. METHODS: We will perform a systematic search to identify randomised controlled trials of interventions endorsed in primary care guidelines for the treatment of non-specific CLBP in adults. Information sources searched will include major bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, CINAHL, PsycINFO and LILACS) and clinical trial registries. Our primary outcomes will be patient-reported pain ratings and treatment acceptability (all-cause discontinuation), and secondary outcomes will be functional ability, quality of life and patient/physician ratings of overall improvement. A hierarchical Bayesian class-based NMA will be performed to determine the relative effects of different classes of pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, paracetamol, anti-depressants, muscle relaxants) and non-pharmacological (exercise, patient education, manual therapies, psychological therapy, multidisciplinary approaches, massage, acupuncture, mindfulness) interventions and individual treatments within a class (e.g. NSAIDs: diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen). We will conduct risk of bias assessments and threshold analysis to assess the robustness of the findings to potential bias. We will compute the effect of different interventions relative to placebo/no treatment for both short- and long-term efficacy and acceptability. DISCUSSION: While many factors are important in selecting an appropriate intervention for an individual patient, evidence for the analgesic effects and acceptability of a treatment are key factors in guiding this selection. Thus, this NMA will provide an important source of evidence to inform treatment decisions and future clinical guidelines. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO registry number: CRD42019138115.

3.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488906

RESUMO

AIMS: This study aimed to use an umbrella review methodology to capture the range of outcomes that were associated with low-dose aspirin and to systematically assess the credibility of this evidence. METHODS: Aspirin is associated with several health outcomes, but the overall benefit/risk balance related to aspirin use is unclear. We searched three major databases up to 15 August 2019 for meta-analyses of observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including low-dose aspirin compared to placebo or other treatments. Based on random-effects summary effect sizes, 95% prediction intervals, heterogeneity, small-study effects and excess significance, significant meta-analyses of observational studies were classified from convincing (class I) to weak (class IV). For meta-analyses of RCTs, outcomes with random effects P-value < .005 and a moderate/high GRADE assessment, were classified as strong evidence. From 6802 hits, 67 meta-analyses (156 outcomes) were eligible. RESULTS: Observational data showed highly suggestive evidence for aspirin use and increased risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (RR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.97-2.64). In RCTs of low-dose aspirin, we observed strong evidence for lower risk of CVD in people without CVD (RR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79-0.87) and in general population (RR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.79-0.89), higher risk of major gastrointestinal (RR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.26-1.72) and intracranial bleeding (RR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.18-1.53), and of major bleedings in people without CVD (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.26-2.08). CONCLUSION: Compared to other active medications, low-dose aspirin had strong evidence for lower risk of bleeding, but also lower comparative efficacy. Low-dose aspirin significantly lowers CVD risk and increases risk of bleeding. Evidence for multiple other health outcomes is limited.

4.
Adv Nutr ; 2020 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488249

RESUMO

Multiple studies have suggested that ω-3 fatty acid intake may have a protective effect on cancer risk; however, its true association with cancer risk remains controversial. We performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses to summarize and evaluate the evidence for the association between ω-3 fatty acid intake and cancer outcomes. We searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from inception to December 1, 2018. We included meta-analyses of observational studies that examined associations between intake of fish or ω-3 fatty acid and cancer risk (gastrointestinal, liver, breast, gynecologic, prostate, brain, lung, and skin) and determined the level of evidence of associations. In addition, we appraised the quality of the evidence of significant meta-analyses by using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. We initially screened 598 articles, and 15 articles, including 57 meta-analyses, were eligible. Among 57 meta-analyses, 15 reported statistically significant results. We found that 12 meta-analyses showed weak evidence of an association between ω-3 fatty acid intake and risk of the following types of cancer: liver cancer (n = 4 of 6), breast cancer (n = 3 of 14), prostate cancer (n = 3 of 11), and brain tumor (n = 2 of 2). In the other 3 meta-analyses, studies of endometrial cancer and skin cancer, there were no assessable data for determining the evidence levels. No meta-analysis showed convincing, highly suggestive, or suggestive evidence of an association. In the sensitivity analysis of meta-analyses by study design, we found weak associations between ω-3 fatty acid intake and breast cancer risk in cohort studies, but no statistically significant association in case-control studies. However, the opposite results were found in case of brain tumor risk. Although ω-3 fatty acids have been studied in several meta-analyses with regard to a wide range of cancer outcomes, only weak associations were identified in some cancer types, with several limitations. Considering the nonsignificant or weak evidence level, clinicians and researchers should cautiously interpret reported associations between ω-3 fatty acid consumption and cancer risks.

5.
J Addict Med ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exercise addiction (EA) can be debilitating and can be a symptom of an eating disorder. To date, the prevalence rates of EA without indicated eating disorders in the general population and associated correlates remain unreported. METHODS: Two authors searched major databases from inception to 31/12/2018 to identify studies investigating the prevalence of EA in any population without indicated eating disorders. We conducted a random effects meta-analysis to report (i) prevalence rates of EA using the exercise addiction inventory and exercise dependence scale and compare sub-populations, (ii) compare methods of EA measurement and explore heterogeneity, and (iii) report on correlates. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies including 3635 people were included. The prevalence of EA among general exercisers was 8.1% (95% CI 1.5%-34.2%), amateur competitive athletes was 5.0% (95% CI 1.3%-17.3%), and university students was 5.5% (95% CI 1.4-19.1%%). Overall prevalence rates varied depending on the EA measurement tool. EA subjects were more likely to have lower levels of overall wellbeing (only in amateur competitive athletes), higher anxiety levels, and have greater frontal brain activity. CONCLUSIONS: EA is prevalent in the absence of indicated eating disorders across populations but varies depending on measurement tool. Further research is needed to explore EA without indicated eating disorders in different populations using homogenous measurement tools, further determine psychological correlates, and examine which measures of EA without indicated eating disorders predict poor health outcomes.

6.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 349-358, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390358

RESUMO

Globally and in Africa specifically, female sex workers (FSWs) are at an extraordinarily high risk of contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has emerged as an effective and ethical method with which to prevent HIV infection among FSWs. PrEP efficacy is, however, closely linked to adherence, and adherence to PrEP among FSWs is a complex and interrelated process that has been shown to be of importance to public health policies and HIV control and intervention programs. This comprehensive review categorizes barriers to and facilitators of adherence to HIV PrEP for FSWs, and describes five strategies for promoting PrEP adherence among FSWs. These strategies encompass 1) a long-term educational effort to decrease the stigma associated with sex work and PrEP use, 2) education on how PrEP works, 3) lifestyle modification, 4) research on next-generation PrEP products to address the inconvenience of taking daily pills, and 5) integration of PrEP into existing services, such as social services and routine primary care visits, to reduce the economic burden of seeking the medication. Our review is expected to be useful for the design of future PrEP intervention programs. Multidisciplinary intervention should be considered to promote PrEP adherence among FSWs in order to help control the HIV epidemic.

7.
Preprint em Inglês | PREPRINT-SCIELO | ID: pps-526

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the associations of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), vigorous physical activity (VPA), moderate physical activity (MPA), and sedentary behavior (SB) with depressive, anxiety, and co-occurring depressive and anxiety symptoms (D&A) during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.Methods: Cross-sectional online survey in self-isolating people. Self-reported MVPA, VPA, MPA, and SB (exposures), and depressive and anxiety symptoms (Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories [BDI and BAI]) were collected. Associations of MVPA, VPA, MPA, and SB with prevalent depressive (BDI>9), anxiety (BAI>7), and D&A (BDI>9+BAI>7) symptoms were investigated using logistic regressions, presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Linear regressions were performed testing associations with symptom severity. Models were adjusted for confounding factors. Results: Participants (n=937, females=72.3%) performing ≥30min/day MVPA or ≥15min/day VPA had lower odds of prevalent depressive (ORMVPA=0.71, 95%CI=0.53-0.96; ORVPA=0.60, 95%CI=0.43-0.82), anxiety (ORMVPA=0.71, 95%CI=0.54-0.96; ORVPA=0.70, 95%CI=0.51-0.96), and co-occurring D&A symptoms (ORMVPA=0.71, 95%CI=0.52-0.96; ORVPA=0.59, 95%CI=0.41-0.83). People spending ≥10h/day sedentary were more likely to have depressive symptoms (OR=1.39,95%CI=1.02-1.90). Each hour spent sedentary corresponded to 0.22 (95%CI=0.10-0.33) points and 0.16 (95%CI=0.02-0.31) points higher on the BDI and BAI, respectively.Conclusion: Higher MVPA and VPA levels are associated with lower odds of depressive, anxiety and D&A symptoms. Higher SB is associated with higher odds of depressive symptoms.

8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 152, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424116

RESUMO

The literature on non-genetic peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders is broad, with conflicting results. An umbrella review of meta-analyses of non-genetic peripheral biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder, and schizophrenia, including first-episode psychosis. We included meta-analyses that compared alterations in peripheral biomarkers between participants with mental disorders to controls (i.e., between-group meta-analyses) and that assessed biomarkers after treatment (i.e., within-group meta-analyses). Evidence for association was hierarchically graded using a priori defined criteria against several biases. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) instrument was used to investigate study quality. 1161 references were screened. 110 met inclusion criteria, relating to 359 meta-analytic estimates and 733,316 measurements, on 162 different biomarkers. Only two estimates met a priori defined criteria for convincing evidence (elevated awakening cortisol levels in euthymic BD participants relative to controls and decreased pyridoxal levels in participants with schizophrenia relative to controls). Of 42 estimates which met criteria for highly suggestive evidence only five biomarker aberrations occurred in more than one disorder. Only 15 meta-analyses had a power >0.8 to detect a small effect size, and most (81.9%) meta-analyses had high heterogeneity. Although some associations met criteria for either convincing or highly suggestive evidence, overall the vast literature of peripheral biomarkers for major mental disorders is affected by bias and is underpowered. No convincing evidence supported the existence of a trans-diagnostic biomarker. Adequately powered and methodologically sound future large collaborative studies are warranted.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 155, 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424169

RESUMO

Aerobic exercise is effective in alleviating mood symptoms while the mechanism is poorly understood. There are limited clinical trials that investigated the effect of exercise on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key brain region involved in mood regulations, in adolescents with subthreshold mood syndromes. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) of aerobic exercise was undertaken in a middle school in Guangzhou, China. Participants were adolescents aged 12-14 with subthreshold mood syndromes including depressive and manic symptoms and were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise intervention or a psychoeducation control group. Participants in the exercise group received moderate-intensity exercise intervention, consisting of 30 mins running, 4 days per week for 3 months. The primary outcome in this study was structural changes in the ACC from baseline to post intervention. The trial was registered with ClinicalTrial.gov (NCT03300778). Of 56 participants who met the criteria for subthreshold mood syndromes, 39 (41.03% males) had complete MRI data, with 20 and 19 subjects in the exercise and control group, respectively. At baseline, demographic information (e.g., age and sex), clinical symptoms, and the gray matter volume and cortical thickness of ACC were matched between the two groups. After 12 weeks of treatment, participants in the exercise group displayed increased gray matter volume of the left rostral ACC (F1,30 = 5.73, p = 0.02) and increased cortical thickness of the right rostral ACC (F1,30 = 7.83, p = 0.01) when compared with the control group. No significant differences were found for caudal ACC cortical thickness and gray matter volume. Our data demonstrate that 12-week, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can induce structural changes in the rostral ACC in adolescents with subthreshold mood syndromes.

10.
Br J Sports Med ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423912

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether physically active yoga is superior to waitlist control, treatment as usual and attention control in alleviating depressive symptoms in people with a diagnosed mental disorder recognised by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. DATA SOURCES: Data were obtained from online databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CENTRAL, EMCARE, PEDro). The search and collection of eligible studies was conducted up to 14 May 2019 (PROSPERO registration No CRD42018090441). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: We included randomised controlled trials with a yoga intervention comprising ≥50% physical activity in adults with a recognised diagnosed mental disorder according to DSM-3, 4 or 5. RESULTS: 19 studies were included in the review (1080 participants) and 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis (632 participants). Disorders of depression, post-traumatic stress, schizophrenia, anxiety, alcohol dependence and bipolar were included. Yoga showed greater reductions in depressive symptoms than waitlist, treatment as usual and attention control (standardised mean difference=0.41; 95% CI -0.65 to -0.17; p<0.001). Greater reductions in depressive symptoms were associated with higher frequency of yoga sessions per week (ß=-0.44, p<0.01).

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8026, 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415128

RESUMO

To assess the therapeutic benefits of antidepressants in depressive women during and after menopausal transition, PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Science Direct were systematically searched from inception to February 1, 2020 for randomized controlled trials examining antidepressants compared to placebo. Primary outcome was change in depressive symptom severity, while secondary outcomes were rates of response/remission rates and dropout/discontinuation due to adverse events. Seven trials involving 1,676 participants (mean age = 52.6 years) showed significant improvement in depressive symptoms (k = 7, Hedges' g = 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.32 to 0.57, p < 0.001) relative to that in controls. Furthermore, response (k = 3, odds ratio (OR) = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.24 to 5.15, p = 0.01) and remission (k = 3, OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.57, p < 0.001) rates were significantly higher in antidepressant-treated groups compared to those with controls. Although dropout rates did not differ between antidepressant and control groups (k = 6, OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.70 to 1.26, p = 0.68), the rate of discontinuation due to adverse events was significantly higher in antidepressant-treated groups (k = 6, OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.35 to 0.86, p = 0.01). Subgroup analysis indicated that antidepressants were also efficacious for depressive symptoms in those without diagnosis of MDD. The results demonstrated that antidepressants were efficacious for women with depressive syndromes during and after menopausal transition but associated with a higher risk of discontinuation due to adverse events.

13.
J Psychosom Res ; 134: 110122, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403057

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depression is commonly associated to physical multimorbidity and there is an urgent need to identify modifiable risk factors. Physical activity (PA) is good for health, but the association between PA and multimorbidity with depressive symptoms is unclear. Thus, we investigated whether meeting weekly recommended PA guidelines influences the association between multimorbidity and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Data were used from a national survey conducted in Brazil in 2013 with 60,202 adults (≥ 18 years). Information regarding depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), PA, and chronic disease was collected via interview-administered questionnaires. Data on covariates (age, educational status, employment status, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, and TV-viewing) were also assessed. Adjusted logistic regression models were used. RESULTS: Overall, men and women with one or more chronic conditions who were inactive (engaging in <150 min PA per week) had higher odds of elevated depressive symptoms than active individuals with no chronic condition. However, only in men, physical inactivity interacts with heart disease (OR: 2.59; 95%CI: 1.10 to 6.09), cancer (OR: 21.54; 95%CI: 2.67 to 173.94) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR: 8.26; 95%CI: 2.20 to 31.01) regarding elevated depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that engaging in weekly recommended PA targets may attenuate association of heart disease, cancer and COPD with depressive symptoms among men.

15.
J Pineal Res ; : e12663, 2020 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347977

RESUMO

Although exogenous melatonin supplementation has been suggested to be effective for episodic migraine prophylaxis, there is no conclusive evidence comparing the efficacy of exogenous melatonin supplementation to the other FDA-approved pharmacotherapy for episodic migraine prophylaxis. The aim of the current network meta-analysis (NMA) was to compare the efficacy of exogenous melatonin supplementation in patients with episodic migraine. The randomized placebo-controlled trials or randomized controlled trials (RCTs) incorporating a placebo in the study designs were included in our analyses. All of the NMA procedures were conducted under the frequentist model. The primary outcome was changes in frequency of migraine days and response rate after migraine prophylaxis with melatonin supplementation or pharmacological interventions. We included 25 RCTs in total with 4499 patients (mean age = 36.0 years, mean female proportion = 78.9%). The NMA demonstrated that migraine prophylaxis with oral melatonin 3 mg/d (immediate-release) at bedtime was associated with the greatest improvement in migraine frequency [mean difference = -1.71 days, 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.27 to -0.14 days compared to placebo] and the second highest response rate (odds ratio = 4.19, 95% CI = 1.46 to 12.00 compared to placebo). Furthermore, oral melatonin 3 mg (immediate-release) at bedtime was the most preferred pharmacological intervention among all of the investigated interventions when improvements in migraine frequency, response rate, dropout rate, and rates of any adverse events were taken into account. This pilot NMA suggests the potential prophylactic role of exogenous melatonin supplementation in patients with episodic migraine.

16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1228: 345-352, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342469

RESUMO

Anxiety disorders are a group of highly prevalent mental health conditions that can have a debilitating impact on daily functioning and well-being. They can co-occur with other mental health disorders, such as depression. People with anxiety disorders are also at an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Physical activity appears to be protective against anxiety disorders in clinical and nonclinical populations. Exercise, a subset of physical activity, has been shown to significantly reduce the symptoms of anxiety. The mechanisms through which exercise produces these effects are likely to involve a combination of biological and psychological factors. Physical activity may also be useful in reducing the symptoms of comorbid mental health conditions and the risk of physical health complications over time. Promoting physical activity could be a method of preventing or treating anxiety disorders with a wide range of benefits. However, further research will be necessary to address important gaps in the literature before these approaches can be fully implemented in mental health services.

17.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321678

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the risk of hospitalized fall or hip fracture among older adults using mental health services. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Residents of a South London catchment aged >60 years receiving specialist mental health care between 2008 and 2016. MEASURES: Falls and/or a hip fracture leading to hospitalization were ascertained from linked national records. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were age- and gender-standardized to the catchment population. Multivariable survival analyses were applied investigating falls and/or hip fractures as outcomes. RESULTS: In 22,103 older adults, incidence rates were 60.1 per 1000 person-years for hospitalized falls and 13.7 per 1000 person-years for hip fractures, representing standardized IRRs of 2.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.07-2.28] and 4.18 (3.79-4.60), respectively. The IRR for falls was high in those with substance-use disorder [IRR = 6.72 (5.35-8.33)], bipolar disorder [IRR = 3.62 (2.50-5.05)], depression [IRR = 2.28 (2.00-2.59)], and stress-related disorders [IRR = 2.57 (2.10-3.11)]. Hip fractures were increased in all populations (IRR > 2.5), with greatest risk in substance use disorders [IRR = 12.64 (7.22-20.52)], dementia [IRR = 4.38 (3.82-5.00)], and delirium [IRR = 4.03 (3.00-5.29)]. Comparing mental disorder subgroups with each other, after the adjustment for 25 potential confounders, patients with dementia and substance use had a significantly increased risk of falls, and patients with dementia also had an increased risk of hip fractures. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Older people using mental health services have more than double the incidence of falls and 4 times the incidence of hip fractures compared to the general population. Although incidences differ between diagnostic subgroups, all groups have a higher incidence than the general population. Targeted interventions to prevent falls and hip fractures among older adult mental health service users are urgently needed.

18.
Pain Med ; 2020 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219435

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to give an overview of the effectiveness of adjunctive analgesics in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving (chemo-) radiotherapy. DESIGN: Systematic review. INTERVENTIONS: This systematic review was conducted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched for studies concerning "head neck cancer," "adjunctive analgesics," "pain," and "radiotherapy." OUTCOME MEASURES: Pain outcome, adverse events, and toxicity and other reported outcomes, for example, mucositis, quality of life, depression, etc. RESULTS: Nine studies were included in our synthesis. Most studies were of low quality and had a high risk of bias on several domains of the Cochrane Collaboration tool. Only two studies comprised high-quality randomized controlled trials in which pregabalin and a doxepin rinse showed their effectiveness for the treatment of neuropathic pain and pain from oral mucositis, respectively, in HNC patients receiving (chemo-) radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: More high-quality trials are necessary to provide clear evidence on the effectiveness of adjunctive analgesics in the treatment of HNC (chemo-) radiation-induced pain.

19.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 7(3): 262-271, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying modifiable risk factors is essential to reduce the prevalence adolescent depression. Self-report data suggest that physical activity and sedentary behaviour might be associated with depressive symptoms in adolescents. We examined associations between depressive symptoms and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in adolescents. METHODS: From a population-based cohort of adolescents whose mothers were invited to participate in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) study, we included participants with at least one accelerometer recording and a Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised (CIS-R) depression score at age 17·8 years (reported as age 18 years hereafter). Amounts of time spent in sedentary behaviour and physical activity (light or moderate-to-vigorous) were measured with accelerometers at around 12 years, 14 years, and 16 years of age. Total physical activity was also recorded as count per minute (CPM), with raw accelerometer counts averaged over 60 s epochs. Associations between the physical activity and sedentary behaviour variables and depression (CIS-R) scores at age 18 years were analysed with regression and group-based trajectory modelling. FINDINGS: 4257 adolescents from the 14 901 enrolled in the ALSPAC study had a CIS-R depression score at age 18 years. Longitudinal analyses included 2486 participants at age 12 years, 1938 at age 14 years, and 1220 at age 16 years. Total follow-up time was 6 years. Total physical activity decreased between 12 years and 16 years of age, driven by decreasing durations of light activity (mean 325·66 min/day [SD 58·09] at 12 years; 244·94 min/day [55·08] at 16 years) and increasing sedentary behaviour (430·99 min/day [65·80]; 523·02 min/day [65·25]). Higher depression scores at 18 years were associated with a 60 min/day increase in sedentary behaviour at 12 years (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1·111 [95% CI 1·051-1·176]), 14 years (1·080 [1·012-1·152]), and 16 years of age (1·107 [1·015-1·208]). Depression scores at 18 years were lower for every additional 60 min/day of light activity at 12 years (0·904 [0·850-0·961]), 14 years (0·922 [0·857-0·992]), and 16 years of age (0·889 [0·809-0·974]). Group-based trajectory modelling across 12-16 years of age identified three latent subgroups of sedentary behaviour and activity levels. Depression scores were higher in those with persistently high (IRR 1·282 [95% CI 1·061-1·548]) and persistently average (1·249 [1·078-1·446]) sedentary behaviour compared with those with persistently low sedentary behaviour, and were lower in those with persistently high levels of light activity (0·804 [0·652-0·990]) compared with those with persistently low levels of light activity. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (per 15 min/day increase) at age 12 years (0·910 [0·857-0·966]) and total physical activity (per 100 CPM increase) at ages 12 years (0·941 [0·910-0·972]) and 14 years (0·965 [0·932-0·999]), were negatively associated with depressive symptoms. INTERPRETATION: Sedentary behaviour displaces light activity throughout adolescence, and is associated with a greater risk of depressive symptoms at 18 years of age. Increasing light activity and decreasing sedentary behaviour during adolescence could be an important target for public health interventions aimed at reducing the prevalence of depression. FUNDING: Details of funding are provided in the Acknowledgments.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Depressão , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria/métodos , Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Correlação de Dados , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Psiquiatria Preventiva/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido
20.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32085951

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We summarized and compared meta-analyses of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions targeting physical health outcomes among people with dementia. DESIGN: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: People with dementia, confirmed through validated assessment measures. METHODS: Major databases were searched until October 21, 2019. Effect sizes [standardized mean difference (SMD)/Hedges g or risk ratio (RR)] were compared separately. RESULTS: Of 3773 search engine hits, 4 meta-analyses were included, representing 31 meta-analyzed trials and 10,054 study participants. Although meta-analyses were generally of adequate high quality, meta-analyzed studies were less so. Nutritional supplements were the only one to show a weight-increasing effect [SMD 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38-0.68, ie, medium effect; N = 12, n = 748]. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are associated with an increased risk for weight loss (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5‒3.0; N = 9, n = 7010). For the treatment of pain, sensory stimulation has a medium effect (SMD -0.58, 95% CI -0.99 to -0.17; N = 6, n = 199), whereas physical activity has a small effect (SMD -0.24, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.59; N = 2, n = 75). When exploring the characteristics of the psychosocial interventions, group-based interventions demonstrated a medium (SMD -0.55, 95% CI -1.02 to -0.09; N = 6, n = 157) and individual psychosocial interventions a small effect (SMD -0.27, 95% CI -1.06 to 0.53; N = 2, n = 55). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Despite frequent physical comorbidities, the current evidence for pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions in people with dementia to prevent and treat these conditions is still in its infancy, and larger trials targeting a wide range of physical health outcomes are urgently needed. Based on the SMDs and RRs, nutritional supplements can be recommended as an intervention to treat malnutrition. Clinicians should be careful in treating patients with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, as it shows medium weight reducing effects. For the treatment of comorbid pain, sensory stimulation and psychosocial interventions are recommended.

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