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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(4): 1817-1831, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32234870

RESUMO

Almost all individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) develop peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs), mainly benign neurofibromas, however about 10% of PNSTs will undergo transformation to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). Surgical treatment of PNSTs has traditionally been regarded as a standard approach. The availability of new agents that target specific molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of PNST has led to a number of clinical trials, which resulted in increased chances for better survival and quality of life. This review presents the latest evidence and clinical implications for new therapies of PNSTs in patients with NF1 emphasizing the potential benefit from the use of Ras/MAPK pathway inhibitors, immunotherapy, chemotherapy or radiation therapy. We present evaluation of current knowledge on available treatment modalities.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150770

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this nationwide study was to evaluate the characteristics of bacterial infections (BI), invasive fungal disease (IFD), and viral infections (VI) in pediatric patients with PID after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In total, 114 HSCT recipients were enrolled into the study. At least one infectious complication (IC) was diagnosed in 60 (52.6%) patients aged 0.1-17.7 years, that is, 59.5% with SCID and 49.4% with non-SCID. RESULTS: Among 60 HSCT recipients diagnosed with at least one IC, 188 episodes of infectious complications (EIC) were recorded, that is, 46.8% of BI, 41.5% of VI, and 11.7% of proven/probable IFD. According to PID and HSCT donor type, the incidence of EIC was comparable (P = .679). The localization of infections differed significantly due to PID type (P = .002). After each HSCT donor type, the most common site of infection was GI. Overall, BI caused by Gram-positive strains (59.1%) were prevalent, especially Staphylococcaceae. The multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens were diagnosed in 52.3%, especially ESBL + Enterobacteriaceae. The profile of VI was comparable for SCID and non-SCID patients (P = .839). The incidence of IFD was comparable for each PID and HSCT donor type. Survival after infection was 91.5% and was comparable for PID and HSCT donor type. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of patients diagnosed with IC among pediatric PID-HSCT recipients did not depend on PID type, but rather on HSCT donor type. The localization of IC depended on PID and HSCT donor type. Within bacterial infections, predominated Gram-positive strains and the MDR pathogens were responsible for more than half of EIC.

3.
Transplant Proc ; 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217016

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple myeloma (MM) has become a chronic disease in majority of patients, and remission consolidation with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (ASCT) remains the backbone of treatment in transplant-eligible patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional nationwide retrospective study was to evaluate the epidemiology, etiology, and outcome of infections in patients with MM undergoing ASCT in 13 Polish transplant centers, carried out on behalf of the Infectious Complications Study Group of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group. METHODS: A total number of consecutive 1374 patients with MM treated in Polish adult transplant centers from 2012 to 2014 were followed for infectious complications up to day +100 after ASCT in nationwide study. RESULTS: Altogether 490 infection episodes in 336 patients (49% male, aged 21-72 years) were reported, including 145 episodes of neutropenic fever (103 patients) and 34 episodes of clinically documented infections (CDIs) (27 patients). Among microbiologically confirmed infections there were 251 episodes of bacterial infections (180 patients), 42 episodes of fungal infections (38 patients), and 18 episodes of viral infections (17 patients). The overall incidence of infections reached 13.1% for bacterial, 3.6% for fungal, and 1.3% for viral infections. There were 16 cases of infection-related deaths after ASCT (1.2%). The mortality risk factors included multidrug-resistant bacteria etiology (odds ratio [OR], 3.5; P = .033), coexistence of bacterial and fungal infection (OR, 6.3; P = .002), and CDI (OR, 5.5; P = .007). CONCLUSION: ASCT in patients with MM was connected with low risk of life-threatening infections. However, multidrug-resistant bacteria bacterial etiology, mixed etiology, and CDI increased the risk of fatal outcome.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203263

RESUMO

Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) receive fractionated total body irradiation (FTBI) as myeloablative conditioning (MAC) for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), it is an important matter of debate if chemotherapy can effectively replace FTBI. To compare outcomes after FTBI versus chemotherapy-based conditioning (CC), we performed a retrospective EBMT registry study. Children aged 2-18 years after MAC for first allo-HSCT of bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) from matched-related (MRD) or unrelated donors (UD) in first (CR1) or second remission (CR2) between 2000 and 2012 were included. Propensity score weighting was used to control pretreatment imbalances of the observed variables. 3.054 patients were analyzed. CR1 (1.498): median follow-up (FU) after FTBI (1.285) and CC (213) was 6.8 and 6.1 years. Survivals were not significantly different. CR2 (1.556): median FU after FTBI (1.345) and CC (211) was 6.2 years. Outcomes after FTBI were superior as compared with CC with regard to overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse incidence (RI), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). However, we must emphasize the preliminary character of the results of this retrospective "real-world-practice" study. These findings will be prospectively assessed in the ALL SCTped 2012 FORUM trial.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203268

RESUMO

Treosulfan-based conditioning prior to allogeneic transplantation has been shown to have myeloablative, immunosuppressive, and antineoplastic effects associated with reduced non-relapse mortality (NRM) in adults. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of treosulfan-based conditioning in children with hematological malignancies in this phase II trial. Overall, 65 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (35.4%), acute myeloid leukemia (44.6%), myelodysplastic syndrome (15.4%), or juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (4.6%) received treosulfan intravenously at a dose of 10 mg/m2/day (7.7%), 12 g/m2/day (35.4%), or 14 g/m2/day (56.9%) according to their individual body surface area in combination with fludarabine and thiotepa. The incidence of complete donor chimerism at day +28 was 98.4% with no primary and only one secondary graft failure. At 36 months, NRM was only 3.1%, while relapse incidence was 21.7%, and overall survival was 83.0%. The cumulative incidence of acute graft-vs.-host disease was 45.3% for grades I-IV and 26.6% for grades II-IV. At 36 months, 25.8% overall and 19.4% moderate/severe chronic graft-vs.-host disease were reported. These data confirm the safe and effective use of treosulfan-based conditioning in pediatric patients with hematological malignancies. Therefore, treosulfan/fludarabine/thiotepa can be recommended for myeloablative conditioning in children with hematological malignancies.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047286

RESUMO

The aim of this survey was to summarize the current antimicrobial practice in febrile neutropenia and the presence of key aspects of antimicrobial stewardship. A questionnaire was sent to 567 centers, and complete responses were obtained from 194 (34.2%). Fluoroquinolone and co-trimoxazole prophylaxis are used in 57.1% and 89.1%, respectively. In 66.4%, the first-line empirical therapy is piperacillin/tazobactam, whereas 10.9% use carbapenems. Empirical combination therapy is used in stable patients without history of resistant pathogens in 37.4%. De-escalation to monotherapy is performed within 3 days in 35.3% and after 10 days in 19.1%. Empirical addition of a glycopeptide is performed when fever persists more than 2-3 days in 60.8%. Empirical escalation to a broader spectrum agent is performed when fever persists more than 3-5 days in 71.4%. In case of positive blood cultures with a susceptible pathogen and uncomplicated presentation, 76.7% of centers de-escalate and 36.6% discontinue before neutrophil recovery. In fever of unknown origin with uncomplicated presentation, 54.1% of centers de-escalate and 49.5% discontinue before neutrophil recovery. Recommendations put forward in the ECIL guidelines are not widely implemented in clinical practice. Specific problems include overuse of carbapenems and combination therapy and unjustified addition of glycopeptides without further de-escalation or discontinuation.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066864

RESUMO

Hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) is widely used for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. Number of transplants performed in Europe and associated countries continues to rise with 47,468 HCT in 42,901 patients [19,630 allogeneic (41%) and 27,838 autologous (59%)] reported by 701 centers in 50 countries in 2018. Main indications were myeloid malignancies 10,679 (25%; 97% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 27,318 (64%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1625 (4%; 2.9% allogeneic), and nonmalignant disorders 3063 (7%; 81% allogeneic). This year's analysis focuses on cellular therapies with the marked growth in CAR T-cell therapies from 151 in 2017 to 301 patients reported in 2018. Other cellular therapy numbers show less significant changes. Important trends in HCT include a 49% increase in allogeneic HCT for chronic phase CML (although transplant numbers remain low) and a 24% increase in aplastic anemia. In autologous HCT, there is an ongoing increase in autoimmune diseases (by 19%), predominantly due to activity in multiple sclerosis. This annual report reflects current activity and highlights important trends, useful for health care planning.

8.
Mycoses ; 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32009262

RESUMO

Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) optimal duration of antifungal treatment is not known. In a joint effort, four international scientific societies/groups performed a survey to capture current practices in European haematology centres regarding management of IPA. We conducted a cross-sectional internet-based questionnaire survey in 2017 to assess practices in sixteen European countries concerning IPA management in haematology patients including tools to evaluate treatment response, duration and discontinuation. The following four groups/societies were involved in the project: European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) Fungal Infection Study Group (EFISG), Infectious Diseases Working Party-European Society for Blood and Bone Marrow Transplantation (IDWP-EBMT), European Organisation for Research and Treatment-Infectious Disease group (EORTC-IDG) and Sorveglianza Epidemiologica Infezioni nelle Emopatie (SEIFEM). A total of 112 physicians from 14/16 countries answered the survey. Galactomannan antigen was available in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage in most centres (106/112 [95%] and 97/112 [87%], respectively), quantitative Aspergillus PCR in 27/112 (24%) centres, ß-D-glucan in 24/112 (21%) and positron emission tomography in 50/112 (45%). Treatment duration differed between haematological malignancies, with a median duration of 6 weeks [IQR 3-12] for patients with AML, 11 [4-12] for patients with allogenic stem cell transplantation and GvHD and 6 [3-12] for patients with lymphoproliferative disease. Treatment duration significantly differed according to country. Essential IPA biomarkers are not available in all European countries, and treatment duration is highly variable according to country. It will be important to provide guidelines to help with IPA treatment cessation with algorithms according to biomarker availability.

9.
J Neurol ; 267(2): 430-439, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664549

RESUMO

We performed a prospective study to evaluate the types and characteristics of central nervous system (CNS) disorders in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The study included 163 episodes of CNS disorders of which 58 (36%) were infections. Proven or probable infections were documented in 34 patients and included fungi (n = 10, 29%), viruses (n = 12, 35%), Toxoplasma spp. (n = 9, 27%) and bacteria (n = 3, 9%). Non-infectious neurological disorders (n = 105, 64%) frequently encompassed metabolic/drug-induced abnormalities (n = 28, 27%) or cerebral vascular events (n = 22, 21%). Median onset times were later for infectious (day + 101) vs non-infectious neurological disorders (day + 50, p = 0.009). An unremarkable cranial CT scan was found in 33% of infection episodes. Absence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis despite a normal or increased peripheral blood white blood cell count occurred in 26% of infections. Day-30 mortality rates were significantly higher for fungal (87%) vs non-fungal infections (40%, p < 0.001). Significantly higher mortality rates were also documented for cerebral vascular events than for other non-infectious disorders (86% vs 34%, p < 0.001). Our prospective study shows that diagnostic findings in CNS infections might differ between hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients and immunocompetent hosts. Special awareness and timely initiation of adequate diagnostics are crucial to improve the prognosis of these patients.

10.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(1): 110-116, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31435035

RESUMO

The incidence, the clinical characteristics, and the outcome of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in patients after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were assessed. During the period 1987-2018, 13 cases of KS were diagnosed, 3 females and 10 males, median age of 50 years, median time from HSCT of 7 months. KS had an incidence of 0.17% in allogeneic and 0.05% in autologous HSCT. HHV-8 was documented in eight of nine tumor tissue samples assessed. The organ involvement was: skin in nine, lymph nodes in six, oral cavity in four, and visceral in three patients, respectively; seven patients had >1 organ involved. Five patients had immunosuppression withdrawn, whereas four and three patients received radiotherapy and chemotherapy, respectively. Eight patients are alive (median follow-up 48 months, range 5-128), whereas five patients died after a median time of 8 months from the diagnosis of KS. However, no death was caused by KS. We conclude that the incidence of KS after HSCT is very low. Although KS can be managed with the reduction of immunosuppression, visceral forms may require chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The low prevalence of KS indicates that screening for HHV-8 serology and surveillance for HHV-8 viremia are not indicated in HSCT patients.

11.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 55(1): 126-136, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455899

RESUMO

Information on incidence, and factors associated with mortality is a prerequisite to improve outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, 55'668 deaths in 114'491 patients with HSCT (83.7% allogeneic) for leukemia were investigated in a landmark analysis for causes of death at day 30 (very early), day 100 (early), at 1 year (intermediate) and at 5 years (late). Mortality from all causes decreased from cohort 1 (1980-2001) to cohort 2 (2002-2015) in all post-transplant phases after autologous HSCT. After allogeneic HSCT, mortality from infections, GVHD, and toxicity decreased up to 1 year, increased at 5 years; deaths from relapse increased in all post-transplant phases. Infections of unknown origin were the main cause of infectious deaths. Lethal bacterial and fungal infections decreased from cohort 1 to cohort 2, not unknown or mixed infections. Infectious deaths were associated with patient-, disease-, donor type, stem cell source, center, and country- related factors. Their impact varied over the post-transplant phases. Transplant centres have successfully managed to reduce death after HSCT in the early and intermediate post-transplant phases, and have identified risk factors. Late post-transplant care could be improved by focus on groups at risk and better identification of infections of "unknown origin".

12.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 297-316, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753925

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are a novel class of anti-cancer therapy in which autologous or allogeneic T cells are engineered to express a CAR targeting a membrane antigen. In Europe, tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah™) is approved for the treatment of refractory/relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia in children and young adults as well as relapsed/refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, while axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta™) is approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory high-grade B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma. Both agents are genetically engineered autologous T cells targeting CD19. These practical recommendations, prepared under the auspices of the European Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, relate to patient care and supply chain management under the following headings: patient eligibility, screening laboratory tests and imaging and work-up prior to leukapheresis, how to perform leukapheresis, bridging therapy, lymphodepleting conditioning, product receipt and thawing, infusion of CAR T cells, short-term complications including cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome, antibiotic prophylaxis, medium-term complications including cytopenias and B-cell aplasia, nursing and psychological support for patients, long-term follow-up, post-authorization safety surveillance, and regulatory issues. These recommendations are not prescriptive and are intended as guidance in the use of this novel therapeutic class.

13.
Folia Parasitol (Praha) ; 662019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31823860

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a potentially fatal complication after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Pre-transplant seropositivity of graft recipient to Toxoplasma gondii (Nicolle et Manceaux, 1908) is an important factor for disease reactivation after HCT. As toxoplasmosis epidemiology varies all over the world, we performed a Polish nationwide retrospective cohort study to determine the seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in donors and pediatric allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients and the incidence of clinically evident toxoplasmosis in this patient group. Polish adult donors had higher anti-T. gondii seroprevalence than Polish pediatric donors (28% vs 8%; OR = 4.4; p = 0.02) and allo-HCT recipients (28% vs 17%; OR = 1.9; p = 0.01). Clinically apparent disease occurred in 1% of allo-HCT recipients: it was diagnosed by PCR as cerebral and/or ocular toxoplasmosis and successfully treated with antiprotozoal therapy. Regarding current practice, no prospective screening for infection of T. gondii in pediatric HCT centres is being performed, but, vast majority of HCT pediatric patients are receiving anti-T. gondii active prophylaxis. Since pre-HCT T. gondii serology was not assessed in all HCT; recipients, we propose this test should be a standard practice. Standardisation of management with infection of T. gondii in children after HCT is needed.

14.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 5853-5859, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The objective of the study was to propose clinical guidelines for the use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in pediatric oncology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two groups of experts, including pediatric surgeons and pediatric oncologists were created in order to establish strategies of diagnostic and therapeutic surgical management in pediatric oncology. RESULTS: On the basis of the analysis of the existing literature, we elaborated guidelines that were graded according to the simple practical clinical system: yes/no. This project was dedicated to the following topics: adrenal tumors including neuroblastoma, renal tumors including Wilms tumor (nephroblastoma), ovarian tumors and pulmonary nodules and metastases (osteosarcoma). CONCLUSION: Although existing data do not allow the recommendation of the use of MIS for all indications, this technique should currently be regarded as a standard of care in several areas of pediatric oncology.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Minimamente Invasivos/métodos , Neoplasias/cirurgia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Criança , Humanos
16.
Anticancer Res ; 39(11): 6389-6392, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is characterized by the occurrence of multisystem tumors, among which the most characteristic are optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) and plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs). With the development of new anticancer drugs targeting the immune system, it is important to examine the immunological status of patients with NF1. Furthermore, the immune system has been suggested as a probable modulator of NF1-associated phenotypes. The objective of this study was the analysis of lymphocyte subset populations with respect to the presence of PNFs and OPGs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients with NF1 diagnosed with OPG/PNF were analyzed for lymphocyte subpopulations. RESULTS: Significantly lower levels of B-cells, T-cells and natural killer (NK) cells were observed in the group of patients with PNFs compared to those with OPG. CONCLUSION: Our observation may indicate a correlation between weakened functioning of the immune system and the formation of PNFs.


Assuntos
Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/citologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/citologia , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/imunologia , Neurofibromatose 1/imunologia , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/citologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurofibroma Plexiforme/etiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/complicações , Glioma do Nervo Óptico/etiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636397

RESUMO

In many healthcare settings, benchmarking for complex procedures has become a mandatory requirement by competent authorities, regulators, payers and patients to assure clinical performance, cost-effectiveness and safe care of patients. In several countries inside and outside Europe, benchmarking systems have been established for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but access is not universal. As benchmarking is now integrated into the FACT-JACIE standards, the EBMT and JACIE established a Clinical Outcomes Group (COG) to develop and introduce a universal system accessible across EBMT members. Established systems from seven European countries (United Kingdom, Italy, Belgium, France, Germany, Spain, Switzerland), USA and Australia were appraised, revealing similarities in process, but wide variations in selection criteria and statistical methods. In tandem, the COG developed the first phase of a bespoke risk-adapted international benchmarking model for one-year survival following allogeneic and autologous HSCT based on current capabilities within the EBMT registry core dataset. Data completeness, which has a critical impact on validity of centre comparisons, is also assessed. Ongoing development will include further scientific validation of the model, incorporation of further variables (when appropriate) alongside implementation of systems for clinically meaningful interpretation and governance aiming to maximise acceptance to centres, clinicians, payers and patients across EBMT.

18.
Pediatr Transplant ; 23(8): e13592, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31587440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to analyze the profile of infections in children with BMF following alloHCT. METHODS: Data of 169 consecutive children with inherited and acquired BMF treated with alloHCT between 2012 and 2017 in Polish pediatric transplant departments were analyzed in registry-based retrospective study, with respect to the type of infection, and clinical outcome. RESULTS: At least 1 infection was diagnosed in 107/169 patients (60.4%). In total, 182 infections were diagnosed. The most common were VI (96; 52.7%), followed by BI (71; 39.0%), and FI (15; 8.2%), P < .001. The most common etiological factors of VI were as follows: CMV (38.5%), EBV (22.9%), and BK virus (24%); while of BI were as follows: Staphylococcus spp. (17; 23.9%), Enterococcus faecium (10; 14.1%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (9; 12.7%). No difference was found between the occurrence of infections with respect to donor type, graft source, and conditioning type. GvHD had no impact on the incidence of VI, BI, and FI. Fifteen FI were diagnosed in 12 patients, of which 14 FI were diagnosed in children transplanted for FA. Of total 107 children, 9 died (8.4%), of which 4 (3.7%) due to infections: bacterial sepsis (2) and invasive FI (2). CONCLUSION: Infections in children with BMF following alloHCT remain an important cause of morbidity. Children with FA had high incidence of FI. In our analysis, aGvHD had no impact on the occurrence on infections, although the study was not strong enough to prove such a difference.

20.
Clin Exp Hepatol ; 5(3): 195-202, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598555

RESUMO

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the main causes of chronic liver diseases and hepatocellular carcinoma. After infection the majority of HBV-infected patients achieve immune control leading to HBV-DNA stabilization at a low level. The risk of HBV reactivation rises significantly when HBV-infected patients receive immunosuppressive treatments. Presented recommendations provide guidelines for management of patients scheduled or undergoing therapies, which through their immunomodulatory activity contribute to the impairment of antiviral immunity, including chemotherapy, immunosuppressive treatment or biological therapy.

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