Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 553
Filtrar
1.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2020 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415420

RESUMO

Betulin (BE) has exceedingly become a potential natural product, providing multiple pharmacological and biological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-viral, and anti-inflammatory benefits. Previous research indicated that the solvatomorphism of BE can easily occur through crystallization with different organic solvents. This property of BE can directly affect its extraction, isolation, and preparation process. In this study, a system of thermogravimetry (TG)-differential thermal analysis (DTA) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) with electron ionization (EI) and photoionization (PI) capability, equipped with the skimmer-type interface (i.e., skimmer-type interfaced TG-DTA-EI/PI-MS system), as a real-time and onsite analysis technique, was employed. Then, four solvatomorphs of BE, namely, with pyridine and water (A), sec-butanol (B), n,n-dimethylformamide (DMF) (C), and isopropanol (V), were analyzed for the first time. Finally, five kinds of the main volatile gaseous species, including H2O, pyridine, sec-butanol, DMF, and isopropanol, were identified clearly. Furthermore, the multi-step desolvation processes of the four solvatomorphs of BE were revealed by this system for the first time. This system showed great potential for the rapid and accurate analysis of various solvatomorphs of natural products.

2.
Cell ; 2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425270

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic urgently needs therapeutic and prophylactic interventions. Here we report the rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies by high-throughput single-cell RNA and VDJ sequencing of antigen-enriched B cells from 60 convalescent patients. From 8,558 antigen-binding IgG1+ clonotypes, 14 potent neutralizing antibodies were identified with the most potent one, BD-368-2, exhibiting an IC50 of 1.2 ng/mL and 15 ng/mL against pseudotyped and authentic SARS-CoV-2, respectively. BD-368-2 also displayed strong therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy in SARS-CoV-2-infected hACE2-transgenic mice. Additionally, the 3.8Å Cryo-EM structure of a neutralizing antibody in complex with the spike-ectodomain trimer revealed the antibody's epitope overlaps with the ACE2 binding site. Moreover, we demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies could be directly selected based on similarities of their predicted CDR3H structures to those of SARS-CoV neutralizing antibodies. Altogether, we showed that human neutralizing antibodies could be efficiently discovered by high-throughput single B-cell sequencing in response to pandemic infectious diseases.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(18): e20073, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358389

RESUMO

Individuals infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are often coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, individuals with chronic HBV infection living with acute HIV infection have a significantly lower HBV viral load, along with higher HBeAg and HBsAg loss than HBV-infected individuals alone. Here, we investigated the possible role of natural killer cells (NK cell) function in this progressive course to explore the relationship between phenotypic/functional changes in NK cells during acute HIV infection and HBV clearance in patients with HIV/HBV coinfection.Peripheral blood NK cells from 38 patients with primary HIV infection, including 20 with untreated HIV infection and 18 treatment-naïve patients with HIV/HBV coinfection and 16 patients with chronic HBV infection, were enrolled in this study.We found that the HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals had higher levels of NK cells than the HBV-infected individuals, due to expansion of the CD56 NK cell population. The proportion of NK cells in CD56 and CD56 NK subsets was not found significant difference between HIV/HBV-coinfected and HBV-infected individuals. However, NKG2C levels on NK cells and subsets were significantly higher in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals than in HBV-infected individuals, whereas NKG2A levels were unaffected or decreased. In addition, the levels of degranulation CD107a, cytotoxicity and IFN-γ production of NK cells were increased in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals than in HBV-infected individuals. The level of IL-10 production of NK cells was decreased in HIV/HBV-coinfected individuals than in HBV-infected individuals. Furthermore, the level of HBV-DNA was inversely correlated with the proportion of NKG2C and NKG2CNKG2A NK cells, while positively correlated with the proportion of NKG2A and NKG2CNKG2A NK cells. IFN-γ production was inversely correlated with levels of HBV-DNA, but the CD107a expression and IL-10 production of NK cells were not correlated with HBV-DNA levels.These results demonstrate that the upregulation of NKG2C expression, but not of NKG2A expression on the surface of NK cells increases cytolytic capacity and the amounts of cytokines produced and may play a crucial role in HBV clearance during HIV/HBV-coinfection.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Thousands of medical staff had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 virus with hundreds of deaths reported. Such loss could be prevented if there is a serologic assay for SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies for serological surveillance of its infection at the early stage of disease. METHODS: Using CHO cell expressed full length SARS-CoV-2 S1 protein as capturing antigen, a COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 S1 serology ELISA kit was developed and validated with negative samples collected prior to the outbreaks or during the outbreak, and positive samples from patients confirmed with COVID-19. RESULTS: The specificity of the ELISA kit was 97.5%, as examined against total 412 normal human samples. The sensitivity was 97.1% by testing against 69 samples from hospitalized and/or recovered COVID-19 patients. The overall accuracy rate reached 97.3%. The assay was able to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibody on day one after the onset of COVID-19 disease. The average antibody levels increased during the hospitalization and after been discharged for two weeks. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in 28 out of 276 asymptomatic medical staff and one out of five nucleic acid test-negative "Close contacts" of COVID-19 patient. CONCLUSION: With the assays developed here, we can screen medical staff, in-coming patients, passengers and people who are in close contact with the confirmed patients to identify the "innocent viral spreaders", protect the medical staff and stop the further spreading of the virus.

5.
Front Immunol ; 11: 678, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32425931

RESUMO

The innate immune system, which senses invading pathogens, plays a critical role as the first line of host defense. After recognition of foreign RNA ligands (e.g., RNA viruses), host cells generate an innate immune or antiviral response via the interferon-mediated signaling pathway. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-1) acts as a major sensor that recognizes a broad range of RNA ligands in mammals; however, chickens lack a RIG-1 homolog, meaning that RNA ligands should be recognized by other cellular sensors such as melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5) and toll-like receptors (TLRs). However, it is unclear which of these cellular sensors compensates for the loss of RIG-1 to act as the major sensor for RNA ligands. Here, we show that chicken MDA5 (cMDA5), rather than chicken TLRs (cTLRs), plays a pivotal role in the recognition of RNA ligands, including poly I:C and influenza virus. First, we used a knockdown approach to show that both cMDA5 and cTLR3 play roles in inducing interferon-mediated innate immune responses against RNA ligands in chicken DF-1 cells. Furthermore, targeted knockout of cMDA5 or cTLR3 in chicken DF-1 cells revealed that loss of cMDA5 impaired the innate immune responses against RNA ligands; however, the responses against RNA ligands were retained after loss of cTLR3. In addition, double knockout of cMDA5 and cTLR3 in chicken DF-1 cells abolished the innate immune responses against RNA ligands, suggesting that cMDA5 is the major sensor whereas cTLR3 is a secondary sensor. Taken together, these findings provide an understanding of the functional role of cMDA5 in the recognition of RNA ligands in chicken DF-1 cells and may facilitate the development of an innate immune-deficient cell line or chicken model.

6.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398313

RESUMO

Cryptococcus neoformans is a human-pathogenic fungal pathogen that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals. To investigate the roles of N-glycan core structure in cryptococcal pathogenicity, we constructed mutant strains of C. neoformans with defects in the assembly of lipid-linked N-glycans in the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Deletion of ALG3 (alg3Δ), which encodes dolichyl-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man)-dependent α-1,3-mannosyltransferase, resulted in the production of truncated neutral N-glycans carrying five mannose residues as a major species. Despite moderate or nondetectable defects in virulence-associated phenotypes in vitro, the alg3Δ mutant was avirulent in a mouse model of systemic cryptococcosis. Notably, the mutant did not show defects in early stages of host cell interaction during infection, including attachment to lung epithelial cells, opsonic/nonopsonic phagocytosis, and manipulation of phagosome acidification. However, the ability to drive macrophage cell death was greatly decreased in this mutant, without loss of cell wall remodeling capacity. Furthermore, deletion of ALG9 and ALG12, encoding Dol-P-Man-dependent α-1,2-mannosyltransferases and α-1,6-mannosyltransferases, generating truncated core N-glycans with six and seven mannose residues, respectively, also displayed remarkably reduced macrophage cell death and in vivo virulence. However, secretion levels of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) were not reduced in the bone marrow-derived dendritic cells obtained from Asc- and Gsdmd-deficient mice infected with the alg3Δ mutant strain, excluding the possibility that pyroptosis is a main host cell death pathway dependent on intact core N-glycans. Our results demonstrated N-glycan structures as a critical feature in modulating death of host cells, which is exploited by as a strategy for host cell escape for dissemination of C. neoformans IMPORTANCE We previously reported that the outer mannose chains of N-glycans are dispensable for the virulence of C. neoformans, which is in stark contrast to findings for the other human-pathogenic yeast, Candida albicans Here, we present evidence that an intact core N-glycan structure is required for C. neoformans pathogenicity by systematically analyzing alg3Δ, alg9Δ, and alg12Δ strains that have defects in lipid-linked N-glycan assembly and in in vivo virulence. The alg null mutants producing truncated core N-glycans were defective in inducing host cell death after phagocytosis, which is triggered as a mechanism of pulmonary escape and dissemination of C. neoformans, thus becoming inactive in causing fatal infection. The results clearly demonstrated the critical features of the N-glycan structure in mediating the interaction with host cells during fungal infection. The delineation of the roles of protein glycosylation in fungal pathogenesis not only provides insight into the glycan-based fungal infection mechanism but also will aid in the development of novel antifungal agents.

7.
Microb Cell Fact ; 19(1): 97, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For decades, plastic has been a valuable global product due to its convenience and low price. For example, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was one of the most popular materials for disposable bottles due to its beneficial properties, namely impact resistance, high clarity, and light weight. Increasing demand of plastic resulted in indiscriminate disposal by consumers, causing severe accumulation of plastic wastes. Because of this, scientists have made great efforts to find a way to biologically treat plastic wastes. As a result, a novel plastic degradation enzyme, PETase, which can hydrolyze PET, was discovered in Ideonella sakaiensis 201-F6 in 2016. RESULTS: A green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which produces PETase, was developed for this study. Two representative strains (C. reinhardtii CC-124 and CC-503) were examined, and we found that CC-124 could express PETase well. To verify the catalytic activity of PETase produced by C. reinhardtii, cell lysate of the transformant and PET samples were co-incubated at 30 °C for up to 4 weeks. After incubation, terephthalic acid (TPA), i.e. the fully-degraded form of PET, was detected by high performance liquid chromatography analysis. Additionally, morphological changes, such as holes and dents on the surface of PET film, were observed using scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: A PET hydrolyzing enzyme, PETase, was successfully expressed in C. reinhardtii, and its catalytic activity was demonstrated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of PETase expression in green algae.

9.
Cells ; 9(4)2020 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252475

RESUMO

Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) including human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) have been extensively studied as an alternative cellular model for recapitulating phenotypic and pathophysiologic characters of human diseases. Particularly, hiPSCs generated from the genetic disease somatic cells could provide a good cellular model to screen potential drugs for treating human genetic disorders. However, the patient-derived cellular model has a limitation when the patient samples bearing genetic mutations are difficult to obtain due to their rarity. Thus, in this study, we explored the potential use of hPSC-derived Wilson's disease model generated without a patient sample to provide an alternative approach for modeling human genetic disease by applying gene editing technology. Wilson's disease hPSCs were generated by introducing a R778L mutation in the ATP7B gene (c.2333G>T) using Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system into wildtype hESCs. Established Wilson's disease hESCs were further differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs) and analyzed for disease phenotypes and responses against therapeutic agent treatment. R778L mutation in the ATP7B gene was successfully introduced into wildtype hESCs, and the introduction of the mutation neither altered the self-renewal ability of hESCs nor the differentiation capability into HLCs. However, R778L mutation-introduced HLCs exhibited higher vulnerability against excessive copper supplementation than wildtype HLCs. Finally, the applicability of the R778L mutation introduced HLCs in drug screening was further demonstrated using therapeutic agents against the Wilson's diseases. Therefore, the established model in this study could effectively mimic the Wilson's disease without patient's somatic cells and could provide a reliable alternative model for studying and drug screening of Wilson's disease.

10.
Chempluschem ; 85(4): 725-733, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286740

RESUMO

Cellular heterogeneity is always present in any cell population. It is the fundamental to understand how single cells and cell ensembles behave under perturbation, which is essential for both basic research and clinical application. Various approaches have been developed to study cell-to-cell difference at the single-cell level, among which electrochemiluminescence (ECL) single-cell analysis has emerged in recent years. This Minireview focuses on the advances in ECL single cell analysis. After a brief introduction to single cell analysis and ECL, this overview mainly covers the ECL mechanisms and systems involved in ECL cytosensors, as well as the applications in ECL single cell analysis, which are classified into two main categories, namely intensity- and imaging-based methods. Finally, the outlooks and challenges in this field are discussed.

11.
Biotechnol Prog ; : e3007, 2020 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32329219

RESUMO

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) belongs to the TNF cytokine superfamily that specifically induces apoptosis in a broad spectrum of human cancer cell lines but not in most healthy cells. The antitumor potential of recombinant human TRAIL (rhTRAIL) has attracted great attention among biologists and oncologists. However, attempts to express rhTRAIL in Escherichia coli often results in limited yield of bioactive protein due to the formation of inclusion bodies (IBs), which are dense insoluble particulate protein aggregates inside cells. We describe herein a highly simplified method to produce pure bioactive rhTRAIL using E. coli. The method is straightforward and requires only basic laboratory equipment, with highly efficient purification and high yield of renaturation, and may also be applied to produce other proteins that form IBs in E. coli.

12.
Nat Prod Bioprospect ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306209

RESUMO

Salvianolic acid A (Sal A), a water-soluble ingredient in Danshen, has various biological activities. Sal A and its impurities have similar physical and chemical properties, as well as strong reducibility; therefore, they are difficult to prepare and purify. In this study, high-purity Sal A was obtained by purification of sephadex chromatography and preparative chromatography. Furthermore, HPLC-DAD tandem ECD and HPLC-DAD tandem MS methods were used for non-volatile organic impurity analysis, ICP-MS method was used for non-volatile inorganic impurities and mass balance method and quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance were employed to certify the product. The structures of Sal A and its relative impurities were validated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry, and their contents were quantified as well. Following the principles of ISO Guides 34:2009 and 35:2005, a Sal A reference material was certified, covering homogeneity studies, stability studies, characterization, and uncertainty estimations.

13.
J Clin Neurosci ; 2020 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327379

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To overcome the limitations of traditional mechanical thrombectomy (MT), including catheter aspiration and stent retrievers, such as thrombus fragmentation or migration, we designed hybrid MT using an intermediate aspiration catheter and a Trevo stent simultaneously. We retrospectively compared hybrid MT with the traditional MT. METHODS: From January 2017 to January 2019, we performed MT on 91 occlusions, including internal carotid artery bifurcation (n = 17), M1 segment (n = 53) and M2 segment (n = 21), using hybrid MT (n = 42) and traditional MT (n = 49). RESULTS: Hybrid MT had a shorter procedure time (52.4 ± 22.0 vs. 73.0 ± 36.2 min, p = 0.002) and fewer attempts (1.50 ± 0.86 vs. 1.92 ± 1.10 times, p = 0.049) than traditional MT did. Hybrid MT achieved more good clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale score, 2 or less) and better successful recanalization (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction grade, 2b or 3) than traditional MT did, but the difference was not significant (61.9% vs. 55.1%, p = 0.531, 92.9% vs. 87.8%, p = 0.498). Hybrid MT showed a higher first pass successful recanalization rate than traditional MT did (69.0% vs. 40.8%, p = 0.011). Multivariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated that first pass successful recanalization is related to the M1 segment rather than other segments (adjusted odds ratio (OR); 3.277, confidence interval (CI); 1.227-8.749, p = 0.018) and hybrid MT rather than traditional MT (adjusted OR; 4.995, CI; 1.725-14.460, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Hybrid MT can be used as a first-line MT modality, particularly in M1 occlusion, based on our high first pass successful recanalization results.

14.
Physiol Behav ; 220: 112882, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205145

RESUMO

Ghrelin is a 28 amino acid peptide hormone that targets the brain to promote feeding and adiposity. The ghrelin receptor, the GHSR1a, is expressed within most hypothalamic nuclei, including the DMH, but the role of GHSR1a in this region on energy balance is unknown. In order to investigate whether GHSR1a within the DMH modulate energy balance, we implanted osmotic minipumps filled with saline, ghrelin, or the GHSR1a antagonist JMV2959, and connected it to a cannula aimed unilaterally at the DMH of adult male C57BLJ6 mice and assessed their metabolic profile. We found that chronic infusion of ghrelin in the DMH promoted an increase in caloric intake as well as a decrease in energy expenditure. This translated to an overall increase in weight gain, primarily in the form of adipose tissue in ghrelin treated animals. Further, chronic ghrelin unilateral infusion into the DMH slowed glucose clearance. These results suggest that GHSR in the DMH significantly contribute to the metabolic effects produced by ghrelin.

15.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(1): 129-134, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122840

RESUMO

EGHB010 is a standardized herbal formula of the rhizome mixture of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas and Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. Neovascularization in the retina is a common pathophysiology of diabetic retinal microvasculopathy and exudative macular degeneration. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of EGHB010 on abnormal retinal angiogenesis in a hyperoxia-induced neovascular retinopathy model. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated vascular tube formation was assayed in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Experimental angiogenesis in the retinas was induced by exposing C57BL/6 pups to hyperoxic environment (75% oxygen) on postnatal day 7 (P7) and then returning them to normal oxygen pressure on P12. EGHB010 (50 and 100 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days (P12 - P16). Retinal flat mounts were prepared to measure the extent of retinal neovascularization on P17. The incubation of HUVECs with EGHB010 (1-25 µg/mL) resulted in the inhibition of VEGF-mediated tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. EGHB010 at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg/day inhibited the formation of retinal neovascular tufts by 31.15±2.28% and 59.83±2.92%, respectively. Together, our results indicate that EGHB010 is a potent anti-angiogenic agent and may have potential for the control of abnormal retinal vessel growth in patients with ischemic retinopathy.

16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 158, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075584

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has improved significantly due to antiretroviral treatment (ART), ART-related adverse events (AEs) remain an issue. Therefore, investigating the factors associated with ART-related AEs may provide vital information for monitoring risks. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted among adult patients (aged 18 years or older) with HIV who received Tenofovir (TDF) + Lamivudine (3TC) + Efavirenz (EFV) as first-line ART regimens. All AEs during the first 12 months of therapy were recorded. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables associated with AEs. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-four patients receiving TDF+ 3TC+ EFV ART regimens between March 2017 and October 2017 were included in the study analysis. Among them, 472 (99.6%) experienced at least one AE, 436 (92.0%) patients experienced at least one AE within 1 month of treatment, 33 (7.0%) between one and 3 months of treatment, and three (0.6%) patients after 3 months of treatment. The most commonly reported AE was nervous system (95.6%) related, followed by dyslipidemia (79.3%), and impaired liver function (48.1%). Patients with baseline body mass index (BMI) greater than 24 kg/m2 (adjusted OR 1.77, 95%CI 1.03-3.02), pre-existing multiple AEs (adjusted OR 2.72, 95%CI 1.59-4.64), and pre-existing severe AEs (adjusted OR 5.58, 95%CI 2.65-11.73) were at increased odds of developing a severe AE. Patients with baseline BMI greater than 24 kg/m2 (adjusted OR 2.72, 95%CI 1.25-5.89) were more likely to develop multiple AEs. CONCLUSION: The incidence of ART-related adverse events over a 12-month period in China was high. Baseline BMI greater than 24 kg/m2, pre-existing multiple AEs, and pre-existing severe AEs were shown to be independent risk factors for developing a severe AE.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/efeitos adversos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Benzoxazinas/efeitos adversos , Benzoxazinas/uso terapêutico , Índice de Massa Corporal , China/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lamivudina/efeitos adversos , Lamivudina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cobertura de Condição Pré-Existente , Estudos Prospectivos , Tenofovir/efeitos adversos , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
17.
Anal Chem ; 92(5): 3844-3851, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043863

RESUMO

Herein we report the fabrication of highly sensitive solid-state pH sensors based on iridium oxide nanowires (IONWs) for a wide-range of pH measurements. IONWs were confined electrodeposits on the indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode using a highly ordered silica nanochannel membrane as the template. Subsequently removing the template produced amorphous IONWs consisting of hydrated iridium oxyhydroxides. The IONW/ITO sensor can rapidly respond to the pH of the aqueous solutions in a wide range (from 0 to 13), avoiding the acid and alkaline errors encountered by conventional pH electrodes and exhibiting a super-Nernst analytical sensitivity as high as 235.5 mV/pH in the very acidic range of ∼0-2.5 and 90.1 mV/pH beyond (pH = ∼2.5-13). The sensitivity was associated with the interconversion of oxidation states of iridium oxyhydroxides. While in the very acidic range, intercalation of Cl- was proved to be responsible for the exceptionally high pH sensitivity. Moreover, the sensor was also demonstrated to work in organic solutions too. Finally, the flexible IONW/ITO electrode was prepared and interfaced to a wireless electrochemical device for real-time epidermal pH analysis with smartphones.

18.
Neuroradiology ; 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055943

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Acute vertebrobasilar occlusion (VBO) has a grave clinical course; however, thrombectomy in VBO patients has rarely been reported. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and radiological outcomes of thrombectomy in VBO patients. METHODS: From March 2010 to December 2017, 38 patients with 40 acute VBOs underwent thrombectomy at our hospital. Thrombectomy was performed using catheter aspiration (n = 11, 26.8%) or a stent retriever (n = 29, 70.7%). RESULTS: Good clinical outcomes (3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS) of 2 or lower) were achieved in 9 cases (22.5%), and successful recanalization (thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (TICI) grade of 2b or 3) was achieved in 35 cases (87.5%). Good clinical outcomes were significantly related to aetiologies other than atherosclerosis (p = 0.020) and lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores on admission (p = 0.025). The clinical and radiological outcomes did not differ significantly between catheter aspiration and stent retriever thrombectomy (p = 1.000 and p = 0.603, respectively); however, stent retriever thrombectomy had a shorter procedure time than catheter aspiration (59.7 ± 31.2 vs. 84.5 ± 35.1 min, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: In our series, good clinical outcomes were associated with a lower NIHSS score on admission and stroke aetiologies other than atherosclerosis. The two thrombectomy modalities showed similar clinical and radiological outcomes. However, stent retrievers seemed to allow more rapid recanalization than catheter aspiration in VBO.

19.
Virol J ; 17(1): 17, 2020 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32014042

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anhui Province in China is facing a severe HIV epidemic with an increasing number of newly diagnosed cases. METHODS: In this study, HIV genetic characteristics in the province were investigated. Newly reported HIV-positive individuals from 15 districts of Anhui Province were enrolled and interviewed. Total viral RNA was extracted from plasma isolated from blood samples. We amplified and sequenced an HIV pol fragment of the 1062 bp. The sequences were used for determination of HIV subtypes and the presence of drug resistance mutations. Transmission networks were constructed to explore possible relationships. And all of assembled partial pol genes were submitted to the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database website to find the transmitted drug resistance. RESULTS: Partial pol gene sequences were obtained from 486 cases. The results showed that MSM was the most dominant transmission route (253, 52.06%), followed by heterosexual transmission (210, 43.21%) and blood-borne transmission (1, 0.21%). Many subtypes were identified, including CRF01_AE (226, 46.50%), CRF07_BC (151, 31.07%), subtype B (28, 5.76%), CRF08_BC (20, 4.12%), CRF55_01B (15, 3.09%), CRF68_01B (7, 1.44%), CRF67_01B (3, 0.62%), CRF57_BC (2, 0.41%), CRF59_01B (2, 0.41%), CRF79_0107 (2, 0.41%), subtype C (2, 0.41%), CRF64_BC (1, 0.21%), and circulating recombinant forms (URFs) (27, 5.55%). Four transmission subnetworks containing high transmission risk individuals (with degree ≥4) were identified based on CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC sequences, including two CRF01_AE transmission subnetworks constituted by elderly people with average ages of 67.9 and 61.5 years. Infection occurred most likely through heterosexual transmission, while the other two CRF07_BC transmission subnetworks consist mainly of MSMs with average ages of 31.73 and 34.15. The level of HIV-transmitted drug resistance is 3.09%. CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous spread of multiple HIV subtypes in Anhui province underscores that close surveillance of the local HIV epidemic is necessary. Furthermore, the elderly people were frequently involved, arguing for behaviour intervention in this specific population besides the MSM risk group.

20.
J Leukoc Biol ; 107(4): 597-612, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31965635

RESUMO

The morbidity and mortality of HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-related diseases were dramatically diminished by the grounds of the introduction of potent antiretroviral therapy, which induces persistent suppression of HIV-1 replication and gradual recovery of CD4+ T-cell counts. However, ∼10-40% of HIV-1-infected individuals fail to achieve normalization of CD4+ T-cell counts despite persistent virological suppression. These patients are referred to as "inadequate immunological responders," "immunodiscordant responders," or "immunological non-responders (INRs)" who show severe immunological dysfunction. Indeed, INRs are at an increased risk of clinical progression to AIDS and non-AIDS events and present higher rates of mortality than HIV-1-infected individuals with adequate immune reconstitution. To date, the underlying mechanism of incomplete immune reconstitution in HIV-1-infected patients has not been fully elucidated. In light of this limitation, it is of substantial practical significance to deeply understand the mechanism of immune reconstitution and design effective individualized treatment strategies. Therefore, in this review, we aim to highlight the mechanism and risk factors of incomplete immune reconstitution and strategies to intervene.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA