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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184740

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the contamination levels of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and cadmium (Cd) in raw milk and the subsequent potential health risk to local consumers close to leather-processing plants in China. The As and Pb concentrations in milk from contaminated areas were 0.43 ± 0.21 and 2.86 ± 0.96 µg/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.20 ± 0.05 and 2.32 ± 0.78 µg/L, respectively. The Cr and Cd levels in milk from contaminated areas were 1.21 ± 1.57 and 0.15 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, which were slightly higher than in milk from unpolluted farm, with values of 0.87 ± 0.61 and 0.13 ± 0.04 µg/L, respectively, (P > 0.05). Target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) values for As, Pb, Cr, and Cd from milk consumption were calculated for individuals aged 3 to 69. The THQ followed a descending order of As > Pb > Cr > Cd, with values of 0.0066-0.0441, 0.0033-0.0220, 0.0019-0.0124, and 0.0007-0.0046, respectively. The HI values (0.0124-0.0832) were far below the threshold of 1.

2.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113322, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610504

RESUMO

Various industrial activities lead to environmental pollution by heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals enter the food chain of dairy cows through feed and water, then transferred into milk. This study investigated the correlations of heavy metal contents between individual cows' milk, water, silage and soil. The relationships between heavy metal contents in individual cows' milk with milk protein, fat, lactose, solid nonfat (SNF), and total solids (TS) were analysed. Concentrations of Pb, As, Cr, and Cd in milk, silage and water were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Lead, Cr, and Cd in soil were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS), and As was detected by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS). One-way non-parametric tests and Spearman correlation analyses were performed using SAS 9.4 software. Levels of Pb and Cd in milk from the unpolluted area were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than those from industrial area. Significantly higher (P < 0.01) As residue was recorded in milk from unpolluted area. Positive correlation of Pb was observed between milk and silage, and As in milk was positively correlated with As in water. Content of As in milk was slightly (r = 0.09) correlated with As in silage, even though strong positive correlation (r = 0.78) was observed between silage and water. Positive correlations were observed for Cr and Cd between milk and silage, as well as milk and soil. Positive correlations were observed in Pb-protein, Cr-protein, and Cd-lactose; other positive correlation coefficients were nearly equal to zero. The results suggest that industrial activities lead to possible Pb and Cd contamination in milk. Drinking water could be the main source of As contamination in cows. No clear relationship was found between milk composition and heavy metals contents in milk. Water and soil on the farm had a partial contribution to heavy metal contamination in milk.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Leite/química , Silagem/análise , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo/química , Água/química , Animais , Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Bovinos , China , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Feminino , Chumbo/análise , Espectrofotometria Atômica
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 2): 3054-3061, 2019 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30373082

RESUMO

This large scale study investigated the spatial variability of Pb, As, and Cd contents in raw milk within and between the 10 main milk producing areas in China. A total of 997 raw milk samples were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Mean values of Pb, As, and Cd in milk were 1.75 µg/L, 0.31 µg/L, and 0.05 µg/L, respectively. The highest level of Pb and As was present in area C, and Cd was highest in area J. The standard deviation suggested a higher heterogeneity of milk heavy metal contamination within area than between areas. Levels of Pb, As, and Cd showed significant differences between studied areas. The estimated root mean squared standardised error obtained by the cross-validation suggested a differentiated quality of Pb, As, and Cd modelling between areas: the predictions obtained were sometimes overestimated or underestimated. These results can be used to define a more appropriate sampling procedure for heavy metal contaminate distribution in raw milk for improved future control of milk contamination by heavy metals in the studied areas. The significant positive correlations between concentrations of Pb-Cd, As-Cd, and Pb-As were observed in nine, six and five areas, respectively. No significant negative correlations were observed. The observed variability of correlation values suggested a different pollution source for Pb, As, and Cd in milk between areas. Further studies are required to clarify the relationships between the contamination of raw milk by heavy metals and the herd environment.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Cádmio/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Chumbo/análise , Leite/química , Animais , Bovinos , China , Geografia , Análise Espacial
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278385

RESUMO

In recent years, high levels of hormone residue in food, capable of damaging the health of consumers, have been recorded frequently. In this study, 195 raw milk samples were obtained from Tangshan City, China, and the concentrations of 22 steroid hormones were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Cortisol was detected in 12.5% of raw milk samples (mean 0.61 µg/kg; range:

Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Leite/química , Esteroides/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Lactente , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
J Anal Toxicol ; 41(1): 65-70, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681342

RESUMO

This study measured the concentrations of salbutamol residues in red and white hair of cattle during and after salbutamol administration. Three Chinese Simmental beef cattle received an oral administration of 150 µg/kg body weight/d salbutamol for 21 consecutive days. Salbutamol concentrations were determined on Days 1, 7, 14, and 21 of administration and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, and 70 following the last administration dose using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from hair were determined. The results revealed that salbutamol concentrations were higher in red hair than in white hair on the same sampling day (P < 0.01). In red hair, salbutamol concentrations increased from 29.82 ± 1.8 ng/g on Day 1 of administration to 442.55 ± 250.29 ng/g on Day 21 of administration, and decreased to 33.36 ± 19.22 ng/g on Day 70 after the last administration. In white hair, salbutamol concentrations changed from 4.25 ± 0.32 ng/g on Day 1 of administration to 33.81 ± 6.44 ng/g and 12.25 ± 2.51 ng/g on Days 14 and 70, respectively, after the last administration. The concentrations of salbutamol that eluted from white hair on Days 1 and 7 were 22.94 ± 2.00 ng/g and 92.94 ± 22.49 ng/g, respectively. Our findings revealed that hair is an appropriate biological matrix for assessing the illegal use of salbutamol in animal husbandry.


Assuntos
Albuterol/análise , Bovinos , Cabelo/química , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Administração Oral , Albuterol/administração & dosagem , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/veterinária , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Limite de Detecção , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Drogas Veterinárias/administração & dosagem
6.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 175(1): 122-128, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27216021

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the accumulation and depletion of cadmium in the blood, milk, hair, feces, and urine of Holstein cows during and after treatment. Three Holstein cows received daily oral cadmium administrations (as cadmium chloride) of 0.182 mg/kg body weight/day for 21 days followed by a 63-day withdrawal period. Blood, milk, hair, feces, and urine were collected during treatment and withdrawal periods. Cadmium concentrations were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Cadmium concentrations in blood (0.61-1.12 µg/L), milk (0.39-1.04 µg/L), and urine (0.41-2.05 µg/L) were low. Comparatively, cadmium concentrations in feces were higher, especially on treatment day 14 (20.11 mg/kg dry matter). Fecal cadmium concentrations decreased to baseline levels (0.12 mg/kg dry matter) on withdrawal day 21. Hair cadmium concentrations increased with treatment, reaching the highest levels on withdrawal day 7 (24.33 µg/kg). Most of the cadmium was excreted via the feces and very little was present in urine or milk. Cadmium residues were detected in blood and milk more than 63 days after cadmium withdrawal. Hair cadmium concentrations may reflect exposure to the metal.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Bovinos/metabolismo , Fezes , Cabelo/metabolismo , Leite/metabolismo , Animais , Cádmio/farmacocinética , Cádmio/farmacologia , Feminino
7.
J Anal Toxicol ; 40(6): 454-9, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27165803

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the salbutamol residues in the plasma, urine and hair of heifers after a single dose. Three heifers were given a single oral dose of salbutamol hydrochloride (150 µg/kg bodyweight). The salbutamol concentrations were measured in the plasma, urine (before and after hydrolysis with ß-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase) and hair samples with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In the unhydrolyzed samples, the peak concentrations of salbutamol occurred in the plasma and urine at 12 and 8 h after drug administration, respectively, but were below the limit of quantification (LOQ = 0.2 ng/mL) at 48 and 120 h after administration, respectively. However, in the hydrolyzed samples, the salbutamol concentration was 1.1 ng/mL in the plasma 72 h after its administration and 0.7 ng/mL in the urine 168 h after its administration. Thus, the concentrations of salbutamol were significantly higher in the hydrolyzed samples than that in the unhydrolyzed samples (P < 0.01). The concentrations of salbutamol in the black and white hair 24 h after its administration were 1.7 and 1.0 ng/g, respectively. These results indicate that hair may be a target tissue for detecting the misuse of salbutamol after a single dose and that the primary forms of salbutamol in the plasma and urine samples from heifers are its sulfate and glucuronide conjugates.


Assuntos
Albuterol/metabolismo , Broncodilatadores/metabolismo , Albuterol/sangue , Albuterol/urina , Animais , Broncodilatadores/sangue , Broncodilatadores/urina , Bovinos , Feminino , Cabelo/metabolismo , Plasma/metabolismo , Urina
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