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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468630

RESUMO

Precise, quantitative measurements of the hydration status of skin can yield important insights into dermatological health and skin structure and function, with additional relevance to essential processes of thermoregulation and other features of basic physiology. Existing tools for determining skin water content exploit surrogate electrical assessments performed with bulky, rigid, and expensive instruments that are difficult to use in a repeatable manner. Recent alternatives exploit thermal measurements using soft wireless devices that adhere gently and noninvasively to the surface of the skin, but with limited operating range (∼1 cm) and high sensitivity to subtle environmental fluctuations. This paper introduces a set of ideas and technologies that overcome these drawbacks to enable high-speed, robust, long-range automated measurements of thermal transport properties via a miniaturized, multisensor module controlled by a long-range (∼10 m) Bluetooth Low Energy system on a chip, with a graphical user interface to standard smartphones. Soft contact to the surface of the skin, with almost zero user burden, yields recordings that can be quantitatively connected to hydration levels of both the epidermis and dermis, using computational modeling techniques, with high levels of repeatability and insensitivity to ambient fluctuations in temperature. Systematic studies of polymers in layered configurations similar to those of human skin, of porcine skin with known levels of hydration, and of human subjects with benchmarks against clinical devices validate the measurement approach and associated sensor hardware. The results support capabilities in characterizing skin barrier function, assessing severity of skin diseases, and evaluating cosmetic and medication efficacy, for use in the clinic or in the home.


Assuntos
Eletrônica , Pele/patologia , Água , Tecnologia sem Fio , Adolescente , Adulto , Pré-Escolar , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Humanos , Temperatura
2.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3: 29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32195364

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus is a common disorder caused by the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Treatment typically involves the surgical implantation of a pressure-regulated silicone tube assembly, known as a shunt. Unfortunately, shunts have extremely high failure rates and diagnosing shunt malfunction is challenging due to a combination of vague symptoms and a lack of a convenient means to monitor flow. Here, we introduce a wireless, wearable device that enables precise measurements of CSF flow, continuously or intermittently, in hospitals, laboratories or even in home settings. The technology exploits measurements of thermal transport through near-surface layers of skin to assess flow, with a soft, flexible, and skin-conformal device that can be constructed using commercially available components. Systematic benchtop studies and numerical simulations highlight all of the key considerations. Measurements on 7 patients establish high levels of functionality, with data that reveal time dependent changes in flow associated with positional and inertial effects on the body. Taken together, the results suggest a significant advance in monitoring capabilities for patients with shunted hydrocephalus, with potential for practical use across a range of settings and circumstances, and additional utility for research purposes in studies of CSF hydrodynamics.

3.
NPJ Digit Med ; 3(1): 29, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33594221

RESUMO

Hydrocephalus is a common disorder caused by the buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain. Treatment typically involves the surgical implantation of a pressure-regulated silicone tube assembly, known as a shunt. Unfortunately, shunts have extremely high failure rates and diagnosing shunt malfunction is challenging due to a combination of vague symptoms and a lack of a convenient means to monitor flow. Here, we introduce a wireless, wearable device that enables precise measurements of CSF flow, continuously or intermittently, in hospitals, laboratories or even in home settings. The technology exploits measurements of thermal transport through near-surface layers of skin to assess flow, with a soft, flexible, and skin-conformal device that can be constructed using commercially available components. Systematic benchtop studies and numerical simulations highlight all of the key considerations. Measurements on 7 patients establish high levels of functionality, with data that reveal time dependent changes in flow associated with positional and inertial effects on the body. Taken together, the results suggest a significant advance in monitoring capabilities for patients with shunted hydrocephalus, with potential for practical use across a range of settings and circumstances, and additional utility for research purposes in studies of CSF hydrodynamics.

4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(43): 21427-21437, 2019 10 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601737

RESUMO

Pharmacology and optogenetics are widely used in neuroscience research to study the central and peripheral nervous systems. While both approaches allow for sophisticated studies of neural circuitry, continued advances are, in part, hampered by technology limitations associated with requirements for physical tethers that connect external equipment to rigid probes inserted into delicate regions of the brain. The results can lead to tissue damage and alterations in behavioral tasks and natural movements, with additional difficulties in use for studies that involve social interactions and/or motions in complex 3-dimensional environments. These disadvantages are particularly pronounced in research that demands combined optogenetic and pharmacological functions in a single experiment. Here, we present a lightweight, wireless, battery-free injectable microsystem that combines soft microfluidic and microscale inorganic light-emitting diode probes for programmable pharmacology and optogenetics, designed to offer the features of drug refillability and adjustable flow rates, together with programmable control over the temporal profiles. The technology has potential for large-scale manufacturing and broad distribution to the neuroscience community, with capabilities in targeting specific neuronal populations in freely moving animals. In addition, the same platform can easily be adapted for a wide range of other types of passive or active electronic functions, including electrical stimulation.


Assuntos
Optogenética/métodos , Farmacologia/métodos , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Química Encefálica , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Optogenética/instrumentação , Farmacologia/instrumentação , Próteses e Implantes , Tecnologia sem Fio/instrumentação
5.
Sci Adv ; 5(7): eaaw5296, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281895

RESUMO

Studies of the peripheral nervous system rely on controlled manipulation of neuronal function with pharmacologic and/or optogenetic techniques. Traditional hardware for these purposes can cause notable damage to fragile nerve tissues, create irritation at the biotic/abiotic interface, and alter the natural behaviors of animals. Here, we present a wireless, battery-free device that integrates a microscale inorganic light-emitting diode and an ultralow-power microfluidic system with an electrochemical pumping mechanism in a soft platform that can be mounted onto target peripheral nerves for programmed delivery of light and/or pharmacological agents in freely moving animals. Biocompliant designs lead to minimal effects on overall nerve health and function, even with chronic use in vivo. The small size and light weight construction allow for deployment as fully implantable devices in mice. These features create opportunities for studies of the peripheral nervous system outside of the scope of those possible with existing technologies.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Optogenética/métodos , Nervos Periféricos , Tecnologia sem Fio , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Neurotransmissores/farmacologia , Próteses e Implantes
6.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol ; 19(12): 7645-7653, 2019 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196271

RESUMO

This study synthesizes iron(III) oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using a facile and eco-friendly microwave-assisted solvothermal method. The highly porous particles become stable after a 60-min reaction when the temperature is fixed at 200 °C, in which the particle size is kept at 100-150 nm. The magnetic properties, crystal structure, surface morphology, and microstructures of the prepared MNPs are then analyzed. The microstructure analysis suggests that a MNP consists of numerous small Fe3O4 particles with a size smaller than 10 nm; therefore, a large amount of microcracks is observed between grains. Moreover, the orientations in these particles are very close, implying that they grow toward the same direction that may be provided by the nuclei. The prepared MNPs thus possess a highly porous structure and have a 3-times larger specific surface area than the commercially-available MNPs. Finally, the growth mechanism of iron(III) oxide MNPs by the present process is proposed.

7.
Sci Adv ; 5(1): eaav3294, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30746477

RESUMO

Wearable sweat sensors rely either on electronics for electrochemical detection or on colorimetry for visual readout. Non-ideal form factors represent disadvantages of the former, while semiquantitative operation and narrow scope of measurable biomarkers characterize the latter. Here, we introduce a battery-free, wireless electronic sensing platform inspired by biofuel cells that integrates chronometric microfluidic platforms with embedded colorimetric assays. The resulting sensors combine advantages of electronic and microfluidic functionality in a platform that is significantly lighter, cheaper, and smaller than alternatives. A demonstration device simultaneously monitors sweat rate/loss, pH, lactate, glucose, and chloride. Systematic studies of the electronics, microfluidics, and integration schemes establish the key design considerations and performance attributes. Two-day human trials that compare concentrations of glucose and lactate in sweat and blood suggest a potential basis for noninvasive, semi-quantitative tracking of physiological status.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Colorimetria/métodos , Dispositivos Lab-On-A-Chip , Microfluídica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Suor/química , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Fontes de Energia Bioelétrica , Cloretos/análise , Glucose/análise , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Ácido Láctico/análise , Masculino
8.
Small ; 14(47): e1803192, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30369049

RESUMO

Precise, quantitative measurements of the thermal properties of human skin can yield insights into thermoregulatory function, hydration, blood perfusion, wound healing, and other parameters of clinical interest. The need for wired power supply systems and data communication hardware limits, however, practical applicability of existing devices designed for measurements of this type. Here, a set of advanced materials, mechanics designs, integration schemes, and wireless circuits is reported as the basis for wireless, battery-free sensors that softly interface to the skin to enable precise measurements of its temperature and thermal transport properties. Calibration processes connect these parameters to the hydration state of the skin, the dynamics of near-surface flow through blood vessels and implanted catheters, and to recovery processes following trauma. Systematic engineering studies yield quantitative metrics in precision and reliability in real-world conditions. Evaluations on five human subjects demonstrate the capabilities in measurements of skin hydration and injury, including examples of continuous wear and monitoring over a period of 1 week, without disrupting natural daily activities.


Assuntos
Eletrônica/métodos , Pele/metabolismo , Tecnologia sem Fio , Humanos
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