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1.
Comput Biol Chem ; 85: 107229, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers are important in the study of tumor processes for early detection and precise treatment. The biomarkers that have been previously detected are not useful for clinical application for primary colorectal carcinoma (PCRC). The aim of this study was to explore clinically valuable biomarkers of PCRC based on integrated bioinformatic analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Gene expression data were acquired from the GSE41258 dataset, and the differentially expressed genes were determined between PCRC and normal colorectal samples. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses were implemented via Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. A protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. The significant modules and hub genes were screened and identified in the PPI network. RESULTS: A total of 202 DEGs were identified, including 58 upregulated and 144 downregulated genes in PCRC samples compared to those in normal colorectal samples. Enrichment analysis demonstrated that the gene sets enriched in PCRC were significantly related to bicarbonate transport, regulation of sodium ion transport, potassium ion homeostasis, regulation of telomere maintenance, and other processes. A total of 10 hub genes was identified by cytoHubba: PYY, CXCL3, CXCL11, CXCL8, CXCL12, CCL20, MMP3, P2RY14, NPY1R, and CXCL1. CONCLUSION: The hub genes, such as NPY1R, P2RY14, and CXCL12, and the electrolyte disequilibrium resulting from the differential expression of genes, especially bicarbonate imbalance, may provide novel insights and evidence for the future diagnosis and targeted therapy of PCRC.

2.
Life Sci Space Res (Amst) ; 24: 1-8, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31987473

RESUMO

In space, multiple unique environmental factors, particularly microgravity and space radiation, pose a constant threat to astronaut health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs that play critical roles in regulating multiple cellular processes. To gain insight into the role of non-coding RNAs in response to radiation and microgravity, we analyzed RNA expression profiles in human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells incubated for 24 h under static or rotating conditions to stimulate microgravity in space, after 2-Gy γ-ray irradiation. The expression of 14 lncRNAs and 17 mRNAs (differentially-expressed genes, DEGs) was found to be significantly downregulated under simulated microgravity conditions. In contrast, irradiation upregulated 55 lncRNAs and 56 DEGs, whereas only one lncRNA, but no DEGs, was downregulated. Furthermore, two miRNAs, 70 lncRNAs, and 87 DEGs showed significantly altered expression in response to simulated microgravity after irradiation, and these changes were independently induced by irradiation and simulated microgravity. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that the associated target genes showed similar patterns to the noncoding RNAs and were suggested to be involved in the immune/inflammatory response including LPS/TLR, TNF, and NF-κB signaling pathways. However, synergistic effects on RNA expression and cellular responses were also observed with a combination of simulated microgravity and irradiation based on microarray and RT-PCR analysis. Together, our results indicate that simulated microgravity and irradiation additively alter expression patterns but synergistically modulate the expression levels of RNAs and their target genes in human lymphoblastoid cells.

3.
Curr Microbiol ; 77(2): 261-272, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828380

RESUMO

Subsurface Wastewater Infiltration System (SWIS) is a sewage ecological treatment technology with low investment, energy consumption, and operating cost. SWIS soil contains a large variety of microorganisms. The metabolic process and production of microorganisms are an important basis for qualitatively describing the process of pollutant removal. In order to discover the microbial decontamination pathways in SWIS, the metabolic profiles of soil microorganisms in SWIS were analyzed by UPLC-MS. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA)and principal component analysis (PCA) pattern recognition methods were used to classify the samples. According to the model's variable importance factor (VIP value), potential biomarkers were screened and biological information contained in the metabolites was also analyzed. The correlation between metabolites and environmental factors was explored by RDA analysis. In total, 230 differential metabolites with VIP value greater than 1.5 were screened out when the influent organic load fluctuated at 250 mg L-1, 400 mg L-1, and 500 mg L-1. After identifying and screening, 35 differential metabolites were identified and used to further analyze the metabolic pathway. It turns out that microbial metabolites in SWIS were mainly glycosides, fatty acids, amino acids, pigments, diterpenoids, and some polymers under medium and high organic loading conditions. At low organic load, the microbial metabolites in SWIS were mainly ketones, alcohols, and esters.

4.
Nano Lett ; 20(1): 694-700, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865705

RESUMO

Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) heterostructure with a type II alignment hosts unique interlayer excitons with the possibility of spin-triplet and spin-singlet states. However, the associated spectroscopy signatures remain elusive, strongly hindering the understanding of the Moiré potential modulation of the interlayer exciton. In this work, we unambiguously identify the spin-singlet and spin-triplet interlayer excitons in the WSe2/MoSe2 heterobilayer with a 60° twist angle through the gate- and magnetic field-dependent photoluminescence spectroscopy. Both the singlet and triplet interlayer excitons show giant valley-Zeeman splitting between the K and K' valleys, a result of the large Landé g-factor of the singlet interlayer exciton and triplet interlayer exciton, which are experimentally determined to be ∼10.7 and ∼15.2, respectively, which is in good agreement with theoretical expectation. The photoluminescence (PL) from the singlet and triplet interlayer excitons show opposite helicities, determined by the atomic registry. Helicity-resolved photoluminescence excitation (PLE) spectroscopy study shows that both singlet and triplet interlayer excitons are highly valley-polarized at the resonant excitation with the valley polarization of the singlet interlayer exciton approaching unity at ∼20 K. The highly valley-polarized singlet and triplet interlayer excitons with giant valley-Zeeman splitting inspire future applications in spintronics and valleytronics.

5.
PeerJ ; 7: e8031, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799071

RESUMO

Background: The Mosq-ovitrap (MOT) is currently used for routine surveillance of container-breeding Aedes in China. However, the effectiveness of monitoring Aedes albopictus using the MOT and other mosquito monitoring methods, such as the Ovitrap (OT) and the CO2-light trap (CLT), have not been extensively compared. Moreover, little is known about the spatial-temporal correlations of eggs with adult Ae. albopictus abundance among these three types of traps. Methods: Comparative field evaluation of MOT, OT and CLT for Ae. albopictus monitoring was conducted simultaneously at two city parks and three residential neighborhoods in downtown Shanghai for 8 months from April 21 to December 21, 2017. Results: Significantly more Ae. albopictus eggs were collected from both MOTs and OTs when traps remained in the field for 10 d or 7 d compared with 3 d (MOT: 50.16, 34.15 vs. 12.38 per trap, P < 0.001; OT: 3.98, 2.92 vs. 0.63 per trap, P < 0.001). Egg collections of MOTs were significantly greater than OTs for all three exposure durations (Percent positive: X 2 = 72.251, 52.420 and 51.429, P value all < 0.001; egg collections: t = 8.068, 8.517 and 10.021, P value all <0.001). Significant temporal correlations were observed between yields of MOT and CLT in all sampling locations and 3 different MOT exposure durations (correlation coefficient r ranged from 0.439 to 0.850, P values all < 0.05). However, great variation was found in the spatial distributions of Ae. albopictus density between MOT and CLT. MOT considerably underestimated Ae. albopictus abundances in areas with high Ae. albopictus density (>25.56 per day ⋅ trap by CLT). Conclusion: The MOT was more efficient than the OT in percent positive scores and egg collections of Ae. albopictus. The minimum length of time that MOTs are deployed in the field should not be less than 7 d, as Ae. albopictus collections during this period were much greater than for 3 d of monitoring. MOT considerably underestimated Ae. albopictus abundance in areas with high Aedes albopictus density compared to CLT. In areas with moderate Aedes albopictus densities, MOT results were significantly correlated with CLT catches.

6.
Biochem Cell Biol ; 2019 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813231

RESUMO

Glycerol kinase (GYK) plays a critical role in hepatic metabolism by converting glycerol to glycerol 3-phosphate in an ATP-dependent reaction. GYK isoform b is the only glycerol kinase present in whole cells and has a non-enzymatic moonlighting function in the nucleus. GYK isoform b acts as a co-regulator of nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A1 (NR4A1) and participates in the regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism by protein-protein interaction with NR4A1. Herein, GYK expression was found to upregulate the expression of NR4A1-mediated lipid metabolism-related genes (SREBP1C, FASN, ACACA, and GPAM) in HEK293T and L02 cells, and in mouse in vivo studies. GYK expression increased blood cholesterol, triglyceride, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels but not low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. It enhanced the transcriptional activity of Nr4a1 target genes by negatively cooperating with NR4A1 and its enzymatic activity or by other undefined moonlighting functions. This enhancement was observed in both normal and diabetic mice. We also found a feed-forward regulation loop between GYK and NR4A1, serving as part of a GYK-NR4A1 regulatory mechanism in hepatic metabolism. Thus, GYK regulates the effect of NR4A1 on hepatic lipid metabolism in normal and diabetic mice, partially through the cooperation of GYK and NR4A1.

7.
Curr Med Sci ; 39(6): 978-983, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845230

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the expression of stanniocalcin 2 (STC2) gene in breast cancer and its clinical significance. Female patients with breast cancer from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University admitted during March 2014 to October 2014 were enrolled in this study. All the tissues used in this experiment included 50 cases of breast cancer tissues and corresponding 50 cases of paracancer normal breast tissues with complete patients' information. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was applied to detect the expression of STC2 gene in 50 cases of breast cancer and paracancer normal breast tissues. The results showed that the expression level of STC2 gene in 50 cases of breast cancer tissues was significantly higher than that in paracancer normal breast tissues (P<0.001). The expression of STC2 gene was correlated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, TNM stage and histological grade (P<0.001). The expression level of STC2 gene was significantly higher in breast cancer tissues with higher expression of Ki-67 (P<0.001). The expression level of STC2 gene was significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer tissues than in ER negative ones (P<0.001). However, different groups of age, pathological type, tumor size, PR expression and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) expression did not show significant differences in STC2 expression (P>0.05). In conclusion, the abnormal overexpression of STC2 gene may play a role in the development and progression of breast cancer, and it can be used as an independent metastasis and prognostic factor of breast cancer. In addition, STC2 gene probably promotes the development and metastasis of breast cancer by interacting with estrogen and ER, and it may become a new direction for breast cancer endocrine therapy.

8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(24): 12428-12451, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852840

RESUMO

Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have multiple regulatory roles and are involved in many human diseases. A potential therapeutic strategy based on targeting lncRNAs was recently developed. To gain insight into the global relationship between small molecule drugs and their affected lncRNAs, we constructed a small molecule lncRNA network consisting of 1206 nodes (1033 drugs and 173 lncRNAs) and 4770 drug-lncRNA associations using LNCmap, which reannotated the microarray data from the Connectivity Map (CMap) database. Based on network biology, we found that the connected drug pairs tended to share the same targets, indications, and side effects. In addition, the connected drug pairs tended to have a similar structure. By inferring the functions of lncRNAs through their co-expressing mRNAs, we found that lncRNA functions related to the modular interface were associated with the mode of action or side effects of the corresponding connected drugs, suggesting that lncRNAs may directly/indirectly participate in specific biological processes after drug administration. Finally, we investigated the tissue-specificity of drug-affected lncRNAs and found that some kinds of drugs tended to have a broader influence (e.g. antineoplastic and immunomodulating drugs), whereas some tissue-specific lncRNAs (nervous system) tended to be affected by multiple types of drugs.

9.
ACS Nano ; 13(12): 14107-14113, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765125

RESUMO

Inversion symmetry breaking and 3-fold rotation symmetry grant the valley degree of freedom to the robust exciton in monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides, which can be exploited for valleytronics applications. However, the short lifetime of the exciton significantly constrains the possible applications. In contrast, the dark exciton could be long-lived but does not necessarily possess the valley degree of freedom. In this work, we report the identification of the momentum-dark, intervalley exciton in monolayer WSe2 through low-temperature magneto-photoluminescence spectra. Interestingly, the intervalley exciton is brightened through the emission of a chiral phonon at the corners of the Brillouin zone (K point), and the pseudoangular momentum of the phonon is transferred to the emitted photon to preserve the valley information. The chiral phonon energy is determined to be ∼23 meV, based on the experimentally extracted exchange interaction (∼7 meV), in excellent agreement with the theoretical expectation of 24.6 meV. The long-lived intervalley exciton with valley degree of freedom adds an exciting quasiparticle for valleytronics, and the coupling between the chiral phonon and intervalley exciton furnishes a venue for valley spin manipulation.

10.
Oncol Rep ; 42(6): 2788-2796, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31578588

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is closely associated with constitutive transactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway. After treatment with androgen­deprivation therapy (ADT), the majority of patients develop castration­resistant prostate cancer within months or years. In order to investigate potential novel therapeutic targets in addition to ADT, the present study examined the regulatory mechanisms of the AR signaling pathway. In the present study, LNCaP cells were metabolically­labeled with Alk­C16, a palmitate probe. In addition, cells were treated with R1881, an androgen, or DMSO. Subsequently, click­chemistry­based palmitoylome profiling was performed in LNCaP cells and palmitoylated proteins were compared between cells treated with androgen and untreated cells. Androgen treatment was revealed to significantly increase the palmitoylation level of α­tubulin. In addition, the palmitoylation level of Ras­related protein Rab­7a (Rab7a) was enhanced by androgen treatment. Palmitoylation of α­tubulin and Rab7a were essential for cell proliferation. Notably, in the supernatant of LNCaP cells, the palmitoylation level of α­tubulin was also increased following androgen treatment. Palmitoylation of α­tubulin may provide a new potential target for the treatment of prostate cancer. In addition, the high level of α­tubulin palmitoylation in the supernatant may represent a biomarker for early­stage prostate cancer.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4649, 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604933

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Cancer Biomark ; 26(4): 451-460, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It has been documented that transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7) plays a pivotal role in the development of multiple cancers. However, the role of TRPM7 in human colorectal cancer (CRC) is poorly understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression and significance of TRPM7 in CRC. METHODS: In this study, TRPM7 expression was first investigated in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), and then validated it with the data from our medical center. CCK-8, colony survival, transwell, and flow cytometry assays were employed to evaluate the effects of TRPM7 knockdown on the CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as cell cycle and apoptosis. RESULTS: We observed markedly increased TRPM7 expression in CRC tissues. CRC patients with high expression of TRPM7 suggested deeper tumor infiltration, positive lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and advanced clinical stage. In addition, TRPM7 was also overexpressed in CRC cell lines. Downregulated TRPM7 in vitro suppressed CRC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as triggered cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase, reduced the S phase, and promoted apoptosis. Importantly, decreased TRPM7 in CRC cells reversed the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) status, accompanied by downregulation of N-cadherin and upregulation of E-cadherin. CONCLUSION: Our study indicated that the expression of TRPM7 was positively correlated with tumor infiltration, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis and clinical stage of CRC. Besides, decreased TRPM7 in vitro inhibited CRC cell proliferation, migration and invasion by modulating EMT.

13.
Front Neurosci ; 13: 956, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551704

RESUMO

High-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is effective in suppressing the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Current clinically-deployed DBS technology operates in an open-loop fashion, i.e., fixed parameter high-frequency stimulation is delivered continuously, invariant to the needs or status of the patient. This poses two major challenges: (1) depletion of the stimulator battery due to the energy demands of continuous high-frequency stimulation, (2) high-frequency stimulation-induced side-effects. Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (CL DBS) may be effective in suppressing parkinsonian symptoms with stimulation parameters that require less energy and evoke fewer side effects than open loop DBS. However, the design of CL DBS comes with several challenges including the selection of an appropriate biomarker reflecting the symptoms of PD, setting a suitable reference signal, and implementing a controller to adapt to dynamic changes in the reference signal. Dynamic changes in beta oscillatory activity occur during the course of voluntary movement, and thus there may be a performance advantage to tracking such dynamic activity. We addressed these challenges by studying the performance of a closed-loop controller using a biophysically-based network model of the basal ganglia. The model-based evaluation consisted of two parts: (1) we implemented a Proportional-Integral (PI) controller to compute optimal DBS frequencies based on the magnitude of a dynamic reference signal, the oscillatory power in the beta band (13-35 Hz) recorded from model globus pallidus internus (GPi) neurons. (2) We coupled a linear auto-regressive model based mapping function with the Routh-Hurwitz stability analysis method to compute the parameters of the PI controller to track dynamic changes in the reference signal. The simulation results demonstrated successful tracking of both constant and dynamic beta oscillatory activity by the PI controller, and the PI controller followed dynamic changes in the reference signal, something that cannot be accomplished by constant open-loop DBS.

14.
J Vet Med Sci ; 81(10): 1475-1484, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527353

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is one of the major swine diseases responsible for a significant challenge in the global swine industry. The current PRRS inactivated vaccine only confers limited protection against PRRSV. Thus, using an appropriate adjuvant via a suitable administration route may help improve vaccine efficacy. In this study, the recombinant B subunit of the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin rLTB, was highly expressed in Pichia pastoris, through high-density fermentation. rLTB intranasal adjuvant properties were evaluated on an inactivated PRRS antigen in mice. Compared to the group immunized with solely PRRS antigen, a dose of 50 µg rLTB remarkably raised antigen-specific IgA antibodies at mucosal sites, and increased serum IgG antibodies, preferentially the IgG2a and IgG2b subclasses. Further, rLTB induced increases in Th1- (IFN-γ and IL-12) and Th17 (IL-6) cytokine profiles, but had little effect on Th2 cytokine profiles (IL-4 and IL-10). Moreover, there were no overt toxicities associated with intranasal rLTB administration. Our data provide evidence that the rLTB produced by P. pastoris fermentation portrays low toxicity, and its intranasal adjuvant effect involves immune system modulation to a Th1 profile.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Toxinas Bacterianas/administração & dosagem , Toxinas Bacterianas/imunologia , Enterotoxinas/administração & dosagem , Enterotoxinas/imunologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/imunologia , Camundongos , Síndrome Respiratória e Reprodutiva Suína/virologia , Proteínas Recombinantes/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Suínos
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480745

RESUMO

Recent developments in laser scanning systems have inspired substantial interest in indoor modeling. Semantically rich indoor models are required in many fields. Despite the rapid development of 3D indoor reconstruction methods for building interiors from point clouds, the indoor reconstruction of multi-room environments with curved walls is still not resolved. This study proposed a novel straight and curved line tracking method followed by a straight line test. Robust parameters are used, and a novel straight line regularization method is achieved using constrained least squares. The method constructs a cell complex with both straight lines and curved lines, and the indoor reconstruction is transformed into a labeling problem that is solved based on a novel Markov Random Field formulation. The optimal labeling is found by minimizing an energy function by applying a minimum graph cut approach. Detailed experiments were conducted, and the results indicate that the proposed method is well suited for 3D indoor modeling in multi-room indoor environments with curved walls.

16.
Cancer Chemother Pharmacol ; 84(5): 1039-1049, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482230

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression of ser-miRNAs at different periods during treatment and analyze their relationship with therapeutic response and prognosis in HER2-positive breast cancer patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with trastuzumab (NCCT). METHODS: Venous blood was drawn from patients at different periods during NCCT. The expression of ser-miRNAs was assessed by qRT-PCR and their relation to treatment response and survival was analyzed. RESULTS: The results showed the expression of miR-10b, -21, -34a, -125b, -145, -155, and -373 in patients before the start of treatment was significantly higher, ser-miR-210 was lower, and ser-miR-122 was comparable to the levels in healthy controls. Changes in ser-miR-21 levels during NCCT were significantly correlated to clinical response and survival and, however, were not associated with pathology response. The expression levels of ser-miR-21 were decreased from the start of NCCT to the end of the second cycle and from the start to the end of NCCT in clinical responders; however, there was no significant difference in non-responders. The patients with decreased ser-miR-21 expression from the start to the end of the second cycle and from the start to the end of NCCT had better overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) than those with elevated ser-miR-21 expression. CONCLUSION: These results showed that changes in ser-miR-21 levels were significantly related to NCCT clinical response and prognosis. Ser-miR-21 may serve as a non-invasive biomarker to predict NCCT response in HER2-positive breast cancer.

17.
Nano Lett ; 19(10): 6886-6893, 2019 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31487988

RESUMO

Spin-forbidden intravalley dark excitons in tungsten-based transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), because of their unique spin texture and long lifetime, have attracted intense research interest. Here, we show that we can control the dark exciton electrostatically by dressing it with one free electron or free hole, forming the dark trions. The existence of the dark trions is suggested by the unique magneto-photoluminescence spectroscopy pattern of the boron nitride (BN)-encapsulated monolayer WSe2 device at low temperature. The unambiguous evidence of the dark trions is further obtained by directly resolving the radiation pattern of the dark trions through back focal plane imaging. The dark trions possess a binding energy of ∼15 meV, and they inherit the long lifetime and large g-factor from the dark exciton. Interestingly, under the out-of-plane magnetic field, dressing the dark exciton with one free electron or hole results in distinctively different valley polarization of the emitted photon, as a result of the different intervalley scattering mechanism for the electron and hole. Finally, the lifetime of the positive dark trion can be further tuned from ∼50 ps to ∼215 ps by controlling the gate voltage. The gate-tunable dark trions usher in new opportunities for excitonic optoelectronics and valleytronics.

18.
Mikrochim Acta ; 186(8): 588, 2019 07 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367797

RESUMO

A method is described for non-invasive glucose monitoring of diabetics by means of breath analysis. The metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) ZIF-7, UiO-66 and MOF-5 were chosen as sorbents in packed tubes for sampling and preconcentration of acetone and isopropanol which are established diabetes biomarkers. The MOF UiO-66 was found to be the most appropriate sorbent. Following thermal desorption, acetone and isopropanol where quantified by GC. The method has low limits of detection (0.79-0.84 µg·L-1) and wide linear ranges (5-2000 µg·L-1). It is assumed that the good performance of UiO-66 as a sorbent results from its large surface area and unique porous structure, and from van der Waals interactions. The relative standard deviation for six replicate cycles of sampling and preconcentration using one 50 mg UiO-66 packed tube ranged between 2.3 and 6.7% for intra-day assays, and from 2.7 to 4.3% for inter-day assays. A tube packed with 50 mg of UiO-66 packed tube can be used in over 120 cycles of adsorption/desorption without significant loss of collection efficiency. The GC method has been applied for the analysis of diabetic breath samples, and the recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 89.1 to 107.6%. Graphical abstract Schematic presentation of metal-organic frameworks as sorbents combined with thermal desorption-gas chromatography for the determination of acetone and isopropanol in exhaled breath of diabetics.

19.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1824, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428103

RESUMO

Macrophages play a critical role in the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock by producing excessive amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. A pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD, can be used to induce necroptosis under certain stimuli. The role of zVAD in both regulating the survival and activation of macrophages, and the pathogenesis of endotoxin shock remains not entirely clear. Here, we found that treatment of mice with zVAD could significantly reduce mortality and alleviate disease after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Notably, in LPS-challenged mice, treatment with zVAD could also reduce the percentage of peritoneal macrophages by promoting necroptosis and inhibiting pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. In vitro studies showed that pretreatment with zVAD promoted LPS-induced nitric oxide-mediated necroptosis of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs), leading to reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Interestingly, zVAD treatment promoted the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in a mouse model of endotoxin shock, and this process inhibited LPS-induced pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages. Based on these findings, we conclude that treatment with zVAD alleviates LPS-induced endotoxic shock by inducing macrophage necroptosis and promoting MDSC-mediated inhibition of macrophage activation. Thus, this study provides insights into the effects of zVAD treatment in inflammatory diseases, especially endotoxic shock.

20.
Rev Sci Instrum ; 90(6): 063108, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254996

RESUMO

In this paper, a special microscope to evaluate stress in a silicon chip was developed based on the principle of photoelasticity. To facilitate stress measurements and to improve their precision, two methods were adopted. First, a six-step phase shifting technique was realized with the aid of two motorized rotation stages. During the implementation of this phase shifting technique, six digital images were captured at different rotation angles of the two stages and employed to automatically calculate the birefringence. Second, an algorithm was developed to correct deviations in the position of the specimen in the six images caused by mechanical vibration; thus, the most significant source of error was addressed. The precision of the system in terms of measuring the stress-birefringence phase difference was verified with a standard quarter wave plate; the results demonstrate that the system is precise to within at least 2°. With the developed system, we evaluated the stress distribution and its variations with thermal cycling around through-silicon vias on a silicon chip at room temperature; we found that stress initially increased with the number of thermal cycles before decreasing with further thermal cycles.

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