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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 802: 149658, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455277

RESUMO

As a kind of novel pollutant, microplastics and nanoplastics have been commonly found in all regions of the world and have attracted widespread attention in recent years. Wastewater treatment plants are considered an important "source" and "sink" of micro-nano plastics pollution, so it is significant to study its transportation and fate in wastewater plants. This review summarizes the types and sources of micro-nano plastics in domestic wastewater and compares their removal efficiency and migration in different treatment processes in wastewater plants. The interlinkages and ecological risks among surface water, soil and atmospheric environments are also analyzed, providing a reference for future research on the impact of wastewater treatment plants on micro-nano plastics pollution.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Microplásticos , Esgotos , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(23)2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883843

RESUMO

Since the mature green tomatoes have color similar to branches and leaves, some are shaded by branches and leaves, and overlapped by other tomatoes, the accurate detection and location of these tomatoes is rather difficult. This paper proposes to use the Mask R-CNN algorithm for the detection and segmentation of mature green tomatoes. A mobile robot is designed to collect images round-the-clock and with different conditions in the whole greenhouse, thus, to make sure the captured dataset are not only objects with the interest of users. After the training process, RestNet50-FPN is selected as the backbone network. Then, the feature map is trained through the region proposal network to generate the region of interest (ROI), and the ROIAlign bilinear interpolation is used to calculate the target region, such that the corresponding region in the feature map is pooled to a fixed size based on the position coordinates of the preselection box. Finally, the detection and segmentation of mature green tomatoes is realized by the parallel actions of ROI target categories, bounding box regression and mask. When the Intersection over Union is equal to 0.5, the performance of the trained model is the best. The experimental results show that the F1-Score of bounding box and mask region all achieve 92.0%. The image acquisition processes are fully unobservable, without any user preselection, which are a highly heterogenic mix, the selected Mask R-CNN algorithm could also accurately detect mature green tomatoes. The performance of this proposed model in a real greenhouse harvesting environment is also evaluated, thus facilitating the direct application in a tomato harvesting robot.

3.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 2805576, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970415

RESUMO

In previous studies, we found that B7 homolog 3 (B7-H3) was highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of LUAD cells. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is unclear. This study is aimed at evaluating the role of Ets-like protein 1 (ELK1) as a transcriptional regulator of B7-H3 for mediating the development and progression of LUAD in vitro and in vivo. We confirmed that ELK1 is highly expressed in LUAD and is associated with poor patient prognosis. ELK1 was found to promote proliferation, invasion, migration, and EMT of LUAD cells through in vivo and in vitro experiments. In terms of mechanism, ELK1 binds to the B7-H3 promoter region and induces the upregulation of B7-H3 in LUAD. Our data suggest that ELK1 plays an important role in the development of LUAD and could be used as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for LUAD.

4.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(10): 916-927, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34719215

RESUMO

As a tool for modifying the genome, gene editing technology has developed rapidly in recent years, especially in the past two years. With the emergence of new gene editing technologies, such as transposon editing tools, numerous advancements have been made including precise editing of the genome, double base editing, and pilot editing. This report focuses on the development of gene editing tools in recent years, elaborates the progress made in classic editing tools, base editor and other new editing tools, and provides insights into challenges and opportunities.

5.
Kidney Int ; 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34757124

RESUMO

Interstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and inflammation are major contributors to kidney allograft failure. Here we sought an objective, quantitative pathological assessment of these lesions to improve predictive utility and constructed a deep-learning-based pipeline recognizing normal vs. abnormal kidney tissue compartments and mononuclear leukocyte infiltrates. Periodic acid- Schiff stained slides of transplant biopsies (60 training and 33 testing) were used to quantify pathological lesions specific for interstitium, tubules and mononuclear leukocyte infiltration. The pipeline was applied to the whole slide images from 789 transplant biopsies (478 baseline [pre-implantation] and 311 post-transplant 12-month protocol biopsies) in two independent cohorts (GoCAR: 404 patients, AUSCAD: 212 patients) of transplant recipients to correlate composite lesion features with graft loss. Our model accurately recognized kidney tissue compartments and mononuclear leukocytes. The digital features significantly correlated with revised Banff 2007 scores but were more sensitive to subtle pathological changes below the thresholds in the Banff scores. The Interstitial and Tubular Abnormality Score (ITAS) in baseline samples was highly predictive of one-year graft loss, while a Composite Damage Score in 12-month post-transplant protocol biopsies predicted later graft loss. ITASs and Composite Damage Scores outperformed Banff scores or clinical predictors with superior graft loss prediction accuracy. High/intermediate risk groups stratified by ITASs or Composite Damage Scores also demonstrated significantly higher incidence of estimated glomerular filtration rate decline and subsequent graft damage. Thus, our deep-learning approach accurately detected and quantified pathological lesions from baseline or post-transplant biopsies and demonstrated superior ability for prediction of post-transplant graft loss with potential application as a prevention, risk stratification or monitoring tool.

6.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 25(11): 727-732, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788144

RESUMO

Purpose: Prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is recognized as an advanced stage cancer and is often observed in conjunction with acinar adenocarcinoma, with abundant cytoplasm arranged in a papillary pattern. When compared with acinar adenocarcinoma, it is characterized by an increased biochemical recurrence rate and unusual metastasis sites. The purpose of the present study was to further elucidate the genomic alterations associated with PDA. Methods: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and linkage analyses were performed on genomic DNA isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples obtained from eleven PDA tumors and paired benign tissues. The profiles of somatic mutations, indels as well as copy-number alterations were confirmed in PDA patients. The clonal evolution patterns of the eleven PDA cases were compared with the data obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) for eight primary prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma patients. Results: The same somatic changes were observed in PDA as in advanced and/or metastatic acinar adenocarcinomas. For example, the mutations of a known prostate cancer driver gene CDKN1A, were the most significant events among 17% of tumors. In addition to the known amplification of chromosomes 1q, 4p, 8q, and 14q, the copy number of several large regions also increased significantly. The origin of PDA was heterogeneous: some patients (e.g. P5) were consistent with the monoclonal model, while others (e.g. P7) were polyclonal. Conclusions: PDA and acinar adenocarcinomas of prostate with high Gleason score have similar mutational profiles. The somatic mutations in PDA may be the reason for its invasive biological behavior.

7.
NPJ Genom Med ; 6(1): 84, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642322

RESUMO

The integration of HBV DNA into the human genome can disrupt its structure in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the complexity of HBV genomic integration remains elusive. Here we applied long-read sequencing to precisely elucidate the HBV integration pattern in the human hepatocellular genome. The DNA library was sequenced using the long-read sequencing on GridION and PacBio Sequel II, respectively. The DNA and mRNA were sequenced using next-generation sequencing on Illumina NextSeq. BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) and local scripts were used to analyze HBV integration patterns. We established an analytical strategy based on the long-read sequences, and analyzed the complexity of HBV DNA integration into the hepatocellular genome. A total of 88 integrated breakpoints were identified. HBV DNA integration into human genomic DNA was mainly fragmented with different orientations, rarely with a complete genome. The same HBV integration breakpoints were identified among the three platforms. Most breakpoints were observed at P, X, and S genes in the HBV genome, and observed at introns, intergenic sequences, and exons in the human genome. Tumor tissue harbored a much higher integrated number than the adjacent tissue, and the distribution of HBV integrated into human chromosomes was more concentrated. HBV integration shows different patterns between cancer cells and adjacent normal cells. We for the first time obtained the entire HBV integration pattern through long-read sequencing and demonstrated the value of long-read sequencing in detecting the genomic integration structures of viruses in host cells.

8.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 8793-8808, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34565283

RESUMO

Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are RNA molecules that do not encode proteins but are known to regulate tumor progression. This study was designed to explore the underlying mechanism driving circRNA-mediated modulation of gastric cancer (GC). Bioinformatics analysis of gene chip GSE83521 was used to identify multiple circRNAs that were differentially regulated in matched GC and adjacent normal tissues. The circRNA with the largest variation in expression (hsa_circ_0000751) was selected for further examination. The expression profile of hsa_circ_0000751 and its target-specific interactions with microRNAs (miRNAs) and downstream gene transcripts were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, luciferase reporter assays, and rescue assays in human tissues and cells. The relationship between hsa_circ_0000751 expression and the clinicopathological parameters of 25 GC patients was analyzed. Furthermore, ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein 2 (UQCRC2), a GC suppressor, was detected via western blot analysis. The results showed that hsa_circ_0000751 levels were markedly downregulated in GC tissues and cell lines, which were also inversely proportional to the stage of tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification, tumor volume, and lymph node metastasis in GC patients. Conversely, hsa_circ_0000751 overexpression suppressed tumor progression, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo. From our results, we showed that hsa_circ_0000751 may serve as a miRNA sponge to suppress the activity of miR-488, thereby increasing the expression of the miR-488-target gene, UQCRC2, and limiting GC progression. Given its negative regulation of oncogenic miRNAs, the hsa_circ_0000751/miR-488/UQCRC2 axis may be crucial in the development of novel GC therapies.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34504990

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This analysis evaluated the genomic landscape of premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer and the association of genetic alterations with response to ribociclib in the phase III MONALEESA-7 trial. METHODS: Premenopausal patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive endocrine therapy plus ribociclib or placebo. Plasma collected at baseline was sequenced using targeted next-generation sequencing for approximately 600 relevant cancer genes. The association of circulating tumor DNA alterations with progression-free survival (PFS) was evaluated to identify biomarkers of response and resistance to ribociclib. RESULTS: Baseline circulating tumor DNA was sequenced in 565 patients; 489 had evidence of ≥ 1 alteration. The most frequent alterations included PIK3CA (28%), TP53 (19%), CCND1 (10%), MYC (8%), GATA3 (8%), receptor tyrosine kinases (17%), and the Chr8p11.23 locus (12%). A treatment benefit of ribociclib was seen with wild-type (hazard ratio [HR] 0.45 [95% CI, 0.33 to 0.62]) and altered (HR 0.57 [95% CI, 0.36 to 0.9]) PIK3CA. Overall, patients with altered CCND1 had shorter PFS regardless of treatment, suggesting CCND1 as a potential prognostic biomarker. Benefit with ribociclib was seen in patients with altered (HR 0.21 [95% CI, 0.08 to 0.54]) or wild-type (HR 0.52 [95% CI, 0.39 to 0.68]) CCND1, but greater benefit was observed with altered, suggesting predictive potential of CCND1. Alterations in TP53, MYC, Chr8p11.23 locus, and receptor tyrosine kinases were associated with worse PFS, but ribociclib benefit was independent of alteration status. CONCLUSION: In this study-to our knowledge, the first large study of premenopausal patients with hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer-multiple genomic alterations were associated with poor outcome. A PFS benefit of ribociclib was observed regardless of gene alteration status, although in this exploratory analysis, a magnitude of benefits varied by alteration.

10.
Curr Med Sci ; 41(5): 1012-1022, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34542829

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study was aimed to identify novel key genes, prognostic biomarkers and molecular pathways implicated in tumorigenesis of colon cancer. METHODS: The microarray data GSE41328 containing 10 colon cancer samples and 10 adjacent normal tissues was analyzed to identify 4763 differentially expressed genes. Meanwhile, another microarray data GSE17536 was performed for weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). RESULTS: In present study, 12 co-expressed gene modules associated with tumor progression were identified for further studies. The red module showed the highest association with pathological stage by Pearson's correlation analysis. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that genes in red module focused on cell division, cell proliferation, cell cycle and metabolic related pathway. Then, a total of 26 key hub genes were identified, and GEPIA database was subsequently selected for validation. Holliday junction-recognizing protein (HJURP) and cell division cycle 25 homolog C (CDC25C) were identified as effective prognosis biomarkers, which were all detrimental to prognosis. Gene set enrichment analyses (GSEA) found the two hub genes were enriched in "oocyte meiosis", "oocyte maturation that are progesterone-mediated", "p53 signaling pathway", and "cell cycle". Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry and western blotting showed that HJURP was highly expressed in colon cancer tissue. CONCLUSION: HJURP was identified as a key gene associated with colon cancer progression and prognosis by WGCNA, which might influence the prognosis by regulating cell cycle pathways.

11.
Int J Oncol ; 59(4)2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34476497

RESUMO

Pyroptosis is mediated by gasdermins and serves a critical role in ionizing radiation (IR)­induced damage in normal tissues, but its role in cancer radiotherapy and underlying mechanisms remains unclear. Long non­coding (lnc) RNAs serve important roles in regulating the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanistic involvement of lncRNAs in IR­induced pyroptosis in human colorectal cancer HCT116 cells. LncRNA, microRNA (miR)­448 and gasdermin E (GSDME) levels were evaluated using reverse transcription­quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression and activation of gasdermins were measured using western blotting. The binding association between miR­448 and GSDME was assessed using the dual­luciferase reporter assay. Pyroptosis was examined using phase­contrast microscopy, flow cytometry, Cell Counting Kit­8 assay and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. IR dose­dependently induced GSDME­mediated pyroptosis in HCT116 cells. GSDME was identified as a downstream target of miR­448. LncRNA nuclear paraspeckle assembly transcript 1 (NEAT1) was upregulated in response to IR and enhanced GSDME expression by negatively regulating miR­448 expression. Notably, NEAT1 knockdown suppressed IR­induced pyroptosis, full­length GSDME expression and GSDME cleavage compared with that in irradiated cells. In addition, NEAT1 knockdown rescued the IR­induced decrease in cell viability in HCT116 cells. The findings of the present study indicated that lncRNA NEAT1 modulates IR­induced pyroptosis and viability in HCT116 cells via miR­448 by regulating the expression, but not activation of GSDME. The present study provides crucial mechanistic insight into the potential role of lncRNA NEAT1 in IR­induced pyroptosis.

12.
Cancer Biomark ; 2021 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366326

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly malignant breast cancer subtype with a poor prognosis. The cell cycle regulator cyclin A2 (CCNA2) plays a role in tumor development. Herein, we explored the role of CCNA2 in TNBC. METHODS: We analyzed CCNA2 expression in 15 pairs of TNBC and adjacent tissues and assessed the relationship between CCNA2 expression using the tissue microarray cohort. Furthermore, we used two TNBC cohort datasets to analyze the correlation between CCNA2 and E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and a luciferase reporter to explore their association. Through rescue experiments, we analyzed the effects of E2F1 knockdown on CCNA2 expression and cellular behavior. RESULTS: We found that CCNA2 expression in TNBC was significantly higher than that in adjacent tissues with similar observations in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells. E2F1 was highly correlated with CCNA2 as observed through bioinformatics analysis (R= 0.80, P< 0.001) and through TNBC tissue verification analysis (R= 0.53, P< 0.001). We determined that E2F1 binds the +677 position within the CCNA2 promoter. Moreover, CCNA2 overexpression increased cell proliferation, invasion, and migration owing to E2F1 upregulation in TNBC. CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that E2F1 promotes TNBC proliferation and invasion by upregulating CCNA2 expression. E2F1 and CCNA2 are potential candidates that may be targeted for effective TNBC treatment.

13.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(27): 32450-32460, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196518

RESUMO

Lead iodide (PbI2) as a layered material has emerged as an excellent candidate for optoelectronics in the visible and ultraviolet regime. Micrometer-sized flakes synthesized by mechanical exfoliation from bulk crystals or by physical vapor deposition have shown a plethora of applications from low-threshold lasing at room temperature to high-performance photodetectors with large responsivity and faster response. However, large-area centimeter-sized growth of epitaxial thin films of PbI2 with well-controlled orientation has been challenging. Additionally, the nature of grain boundaries in epitaxial thin films of PbI2 remains elusive. Here, we use mica as a model substrate to unravel the growth mechanism of large-area epitaxial PbI2 thin films. The partial growth leading to uncoalesced domains reveals the existence of inversion domain boundaries in epitaxial PbI2 thin films on mica. Combining the experimental results with first-principles calculations, we also develop an understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic factors that govern the growth mechanism, which paves the way for the synthesis of high-quality large-area PbI2 on other substrates and heterostructures of PbI2 on single-crystalline graphene. The ability to reproducibly synthesize high-quality large-area thin films with precise control over orientation and tunable optical properties could open up unique and hitherto unavailable opportunities for the use of PbI2 and its heterostructures in optoelectronics, twistronics, substrate engineering, and strain engineering.

14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3608, 2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34127668

RESUMO

Heterobilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) can form a moiré superlattice with flat minibands, which enables strong electron interaction and leads to various fascinating correlated states. These heterobilayers also host interlayer excitons in a type-II band alignment, in which optically excited electrons and holes reside on different layers but remain bound by the Coulomb interaction. Here we explore the unique setting of interlayer excitons interacting with strongly correlated electrons, and we show that the photoluminescence (PL) of interlayer excitons sensitively signals the onset of various correlated insulating states as the band filling is varied. When the system is in one of such states, the PL of interlayer excitons is relatively amplified at increased optical excitation power due to reduced mobility, and the valley polarization of interlayer excitons is enhanced. The moiré superlattice of the TMDC heterobilayer presents an exciting platform to engineer interlayer excitons through the periodic correlated electron states.

15.
Vessel Plus ; 52021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017939

RESUMO

Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of vision loss in adults over 60 years old globally. There are two forms of advanced AMD: "dry" and "wet". Dry AMD is characterized by geographic atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and overlying photoreceptors in the macular region; whereas wet AMD is characterized by vascular penetrance from the choroid into the retina, known as choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Both phenotypes eventually lead to loss of central vision. The pathogenesis of AMD involves the interplay of genetic polymorphisms and environmental risk factors, many of which elevate retinal oxidative stress. Excess reactive oxygen species react with cellular macromolecules, forming oxidation-modified byproducts that elicit chronic inflammation and promote CNV. Additionally, genome-wide association studies have identified several genetic variants in the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2/high-temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (ARMS2-HTRA1) locus associated with the progression of late-stage AMD, especially the wet subtype. In this review, we will focus on the interplay of oxidative stress and HTRA1 in drusen deposition, chronic inflammation, and chronic angiogenesis. We aim to present a multifactorial model of wet AMD progression, supporting HTRA1 as a novel therapeutic target upstream of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), the conventional target in AMD therapeutics. By inhibiting HTRA1's proteolytic activity, we can reduce pro-angiogenic signaling and prevent proteolytic breakdown of the blood-retina barrier. The anti-HTRA1 approach offers a promising alternative treatment option to wet AMD, complementary to anti-VEGF therapy.

16.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol ; 44(11): 1817-1823, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973650

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It remains uncertain whether low-level electrical stimulation (LL-ES) of the ventricular ganglionated plexi (GP) improves heart function. This study investigated the anti-arrhythmic and anti-heart failure effects of LL-ES of the aortic root ventricular GP (ARVGP). METHODS: Thirty dogs were divided randomly into control, drug, and LL-ES groups after performing rapid right ventricular pacing to establish a heart failure (HF) model. The inducing rate of arrhythmia; levels of bioactive factors influencing HF, including angiotensin II type I receptor (AT-1R), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2); left ventricular stroke volume (LVSV), and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)were measured after treatment with placebo, drugs, and LL-ES. RESULTS: The inducing rate of atrial arrhythmia decreased from 60% in the control group to 50% in the drug group and 10% in the LL-ES group (p = .033 vs. drug group) after 1 week of treatment. The ventricular effective refractory period was prolonged from 139 ± 8 ms in the drug group to 166 ± 13 ms in the LL-ES group (p = .001). Compared to the drug group, the expressions of AT-1R, TGF-ß, and MMP proteins were down-regulated in the LL-ES group, whereas that of p-ERK1/2 was significantly increased (all p = .001). Moreover, in the LL-ES group, LVSV increased markedly from 13.16 ± 0.22 to 16.86 ± 0.27 mL, relative to that in the drug group (p = .001), and LVEF increased significantly from 38.48% ± 0.53% to 48.94% ± 0.57% during the same time frame (p = .001). CONCLUSION: Short-term LL-ES of ARVGP had both anti-arrhythmic and anti-inflammatory effects and contributed to the treatment of tachycardia-induced HF and its associated arrhythmia.

17.
Dose Response ; 19(2): 15593258211016257, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994891

RESUMO

Long-term exposures to low-dose radiation (LDR) may trigger several specific biological responses, including dysregulation of the immune and inflammatory systems. Here, we examined whether biodosimetry of LDR can be used to protect tissues from radiation or assess cancer risk. Mice were subjected to gamma-irradiation with repeated or single-dose LDR, and then the organ indices, peripheral hemogram, and blood biochemistry were analyzed. An antibody array was applied followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to evaluate the utility of multiple plasma proteins as biomarkers of repeated LDR in a murine model. LDR induced inapparent symptoms but slight variations in peripheral blood cell counts and alterations in blood biochemical indicator levels. Specific plasma proteins in the LDR groups were altered in response to a higher dose of irradiation at the same time points or a single-dose equivalent to the same total dose. Plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-12p40, P-selectin, and serum amyloid A1 were associated with the LDR dose and thus may be useful as dosimetric predictors of LDR in mice. Estimating the levels of certain plasma proteins may yield promising biodosimetry parameters to accurately identify individuals exposed to LDR, facilitating risk assessment of long-term LDR exposure in individuals.

19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809809

RESUMO

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen that has threatened the global swine industry for almost 30 years. Because current vaccines do not provide complete protection, exploration of new preventive strategies is urgently needed. Here, we combined a heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit of Escherichia coli (LTB) and ginsenoside Rg1 to form an intranasal adjuvant and evaluated its enhancement of immune responses in mice when added to an inactivated-PRRSV vaccine. The combination adjuvant synergistically elicited higher neutralizing and non-neutralizing (immunoglobulin G and A) antibody responses in the circulatory system and respiratory tract, and enhanced T and B lymphocyte proliferation, CD4+ T-cell priming, and cytotoxic CD4+ T cell activities in mononuclear cells from spleen and lung tissues when compared to the PRRSV vaccine alone, and it resulted in balanced Th1/Th2/Th17 responses. More importantly, we observed that the combination adjuvant also up-regulated type I interferon signaling, which may contribute to improvement in adaptive immune responses. These results highlight the potential value of a combined adjuvant approach for improving the efficacy of vaccination against PRRSV. Further study is required to evaluate the efficacy of this combined adjuvant in swine.

20.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 250, 2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33827426

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trichophyton mentagrophyte (TM), a zoonotic pathogen, has been endangering public health due to emerging drug resistance. Although increased attention is paid to this issue, there is very limited research available on drug resistance in TM. In this study, we studied the gene and proteomic changes, morphological changes, cellular fat localization, fat content changes, and biofilm of TM treated with different substances. RESULTS: The TM growth curve showed a positive correlation with the concentration of Fenarimol (FE), genistein (GE), clotrimazole (KM), and Miconazole nitrate salt (MK). The morphology of TM cells changed in different degrees after treatment with different substances as observed by TEM and SEM. The results showed that under KM and berberine hydrochloride (BB) treatment, a total of 3305 differentially expressed genes were detected, with the highest number in the KM-treated group (578 up-regulated and 615 down-regulated). A total of 847 proteins and 1850 peptides were identified in TM proteomics. Nile red staining showed that the fat content of TM was significantly higher in the BB-, ethidium bromide- (EB), FE-, KM-, Adriamycin hydrochloride- (YA), and MK-treated group compared to the control group. Results of the biofilm thickness showed that it gradually increased under treatment with specific concentrations of KM or BB, which may be related to the up-regulation of ERG25 and CYP related gene proteins. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that in order to effectively deal with dermatomycosis caused by TM, it is necessary to inhibit the expression of ERG25 and CYP related genes and fat metabolism, which can result in the inhibition of the production of biofilm by the fungus and solve the problem of fungal drug resistance in clinical settings.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Trichophyton , Arthrodermataceae , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/genética , Miconazol , Trichophyton/genética
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