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1.
Stem Cells ; 38(2): 218-230, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648394

RESUMO

Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) gene that results in the production of neurotoxic mutant HTT (mHTT) protein. Suppressing HTT production with antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) is a promising treatment strategy for HD; however, the difficulty of delivering ASOs to deep brain structures is a major barrier for its clinical application. The glymphatic system of astrocytes involving aquaporin 4 (AQP-4) controls the entry of macromolecules from the cerebrospinal fluid into the brain. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) target astrocytes to inhibit neuroinflammation. Here we examined the glymphatic distribution of ASO in the brain and the therapeutic potential of combining intravenously injection of mesenchymal stem cells (IV-MSC) and ASOs for the treatment of HD. Our results show that Cy3-labeled ASOs entered the brain parenchyma via the perivascular space following cisternal injection, but the brain distribution was significantly lower in AQP-4-/- as compared with wild-type mice. Downregulation of the AQP-4 M23 isoform was accompanied by decreased brain levels of ASOs in BACHD mice as well as an increase in astrogliosis and phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65. IV-MSC treatment restored AQP-4 M23 expression, attenuated astrogliosis, and decreased NF-κB p65 phosphorylation; it also increased the brain distribution of ASOs and enhanced the suppression of mHTT in BACHD mice. These results suggest that modulating glymphatic activity using IV-MSC is a novel strategy for improving the potency of ASO in the treatment of HD.

2.
Mar Drugs ; 13(9): 5593-605, 2015 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26343688

RESUMO

Micrometam C is a core of novel marine compound isolated from the mangrove associates Micromelum falcatum. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of micrometam C in inflammation models in the transgenic zebrafish line Tg (corola: eGFP) and RAW264.7 macrophages. We found that micrometam C significantly suppressed the migration of immune cells in tail-cutting-induced inflammation in transgenic zebrafish and reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both zebrafish and macrophages. In addition, micrometam C also restored LPS-induced reduction of endogenous antioxidants, such as catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The protective effects of micrometam C were in parallel to its inhibition of NADPH oxidase and nuclear factor-kappa-binding (NF-κB) activity. Thus, the present results demonstrate that micrometam C protects against LPS-induced inflammation possibly through its antioxidant property.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes , Linhagem Celular , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Macrófagos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Explosão Respiratória , Cauda , Peixe-Zebra
3.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 15: 137, 2015 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25925762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease, affecting 2% of the population aged over 65 years old. Mitochondrial defects and oxidative stress actively participate in degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in PD. Paeonolum, a main component isolated from Moutan cortex, has potent antioxidant ability. Here, we have examined the effects of paeonolum against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish and PC12 cells. METHODS: The overall viability and neurodegeneration of DA neurons was assessed in ETvmat2:green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic zebrafish, in which most monoaminergic neurons are labeled by GFP. Damage to PC12 cells was measured using a cell viability assay and assessment of nuclear morphology. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the level of total GSH were assessed. The mitochondrial cell death pathway including mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activity were also examined in PC12 cells. RESULTS: Paeonolum protected against MPP(+)-induced DA neurodegeneration and locomotor dysfunction in zebrafish in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar neuroprotection was replicated in the PC12 cellular model of MPP(+) toxicity. Paeonolum attenuated MPP(+)-induced intracellular ROS accumulation and restored the level of total GSH in PC12 cells. Furthermore, paeonolum significantly inhibited the mitochondrial cell death pathway induced by MPP(+). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the present study demonstrates that paeonolum protects zebrafish and PC12 cells against MPP(+)-induced neurotoxicity.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Paeonia/química , Doença de Parkinson/prevenção & controle , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , 1-Metil-4-Fenil-1,2,3,6-Tetra-Hidropiridina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Dopamina/metabolismo , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Humanos , Intoxicação por MPTP/metabolismo , Intoxicação por MPTP/prevenção & controle , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Neurotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células PC12 , Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
4.
Mar Drugs ; 10(6): 1307-20, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22822374

RESUMO

Cyclotripeptide X-13 is a core of novel marine compound xyloallenoide A isolated from mangrove fungus Xylaria sp. (no. 2508). We found that X-13 dose-dependently induced angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and in human endothelial cells, which was accompanied by increased phosphorylation of eNOS and Akt and NO release. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/eNOS by LY294002 or L-NAME suppressed X-13-induced angiogenesis. The present work demonstrates that X-13 promotes angiogenesis via PI3K/Akt/eNOS pathways.


Assuntos
Indutores da Angiogênese/farmacologia , Organismos Aquáticos/química , Neovascularização Fisiológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Indutores da Angiogênese/síntese química , Indutores da Angiogênese/química , Indutores da Angiogênese/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Produtos Biológicos/síntese química , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/isolamento & purificação , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromonas/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Morfolinas/farmacologia , NG-Nitroarginina Metil Éster/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/antagonistas & inibidores , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
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