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1.
Virol J ; 18(1): 14, 2021 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33430903

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To identify site-specific features of amino acid substitutions that confer enhanced H7N9 virulence in humans, we independently generated mammalian-adapted variants of A/Anhui/1/2013 (AH-H7N9) and A/Shanghai/2/2013 (SH-H7N9) by serial passaging in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. METHODS: Virus was respectively extracted from cell culture supernatant and cells, and was absolutely quantified by using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Viral RNAs were extracted and subjected to sequencing for identifying mutations. Then, site-specific mutations introduced by viral passaging were selected for further constructing HA7 or NA9 mutant plasmids, which were used to generate recombinant viruses. The interaction between the recombinant HA and receptors, H7N9-pseudotyped viruses and receptors were detected. RESULTS: Both subtypes displayed high variability in replicative capability and virulence during serial passaging. Analysis of viral genomes revealed multiple amino acid mutations in the hemagglutinin 7 (HA7) (A135T [AH-H7N9], T71I [SH-H7N9], T157I [SH-H7N9], T71I-V223I [SH-H7N9], T71I-T157I-V223I [SH-H7N9], and T71I-T157I-V223I-T40I [SH-H7N9]), and NA9 (N171S [AH-H7N9] and G335S [AH-H7N9]) proteins in various strains of the corresponding subtypes. Notably, quite a few amino acid substitutions indeed collectively strengthened the interactions between H7N9 strains and sialic acid receptors. Moreover, some of the amino acid substitutions identified were highly and specifically cytopathogenic to MDCK cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that AH-H7N9 and SH-H7N9 subtypes can acquire enhanced receptor affinity for sialic receptors through novel amino acid substitutions. Such changes in affinitive interactions are conferred by site-specific mutations of HA7 proteins that affect the virulence and pathology of the virus strain, and/or limited compatibility between the host and the virus strain.

2.
Virol Sin ; 2021 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400094

RESUMO

Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne pathogen that is transmitted to humans primarily by Aedes spp. mosquitos, causing the acute infectious disease, dengue fever (DF). Until 2019, no dengue outbreak had been reported in Hainan Province for over 20 years. However, in early September of 2019, an increasing number of infected cases appeared and the DF outbreak lasted for over one month in Haikou City, Hainan Province. In our study, we collected 97 plasma samples from DF patients at three hospitals, as well as 1585 mosquito larvae samples from puddles in different areas of Haikou. There were 49 (50.5%) plasma samples found to be strongly positive and 9 (9.3%) plasma samples were weakly positive against the NS1 antigen. We discovered DENV both in the patient's plasma samples and mosquito larvae samples, and isolated the virus from C6/36 cells inoculated with the acute phase serum of patients. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the new strains were the most closely related to the epidemic strain in the southern regions of China, belonging to lineage IV, genotype I, DENV-1. Compared to the seven closest strains from neighboring countries and provinces, a total of 18 amino acid mutations occurred in the coding sequences (CDS) of the new isolated strain, DENV1 HMU-HKU-2. Our data shows that dengue virus is re-emerged in Hainan, and pose new threats for public health. Thus regular molecular epidemiological surveillance is necessary for control and prevention of DENV transmission.

3.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 18, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33478588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As the largest group of mammalian species, which are also widely distributed all over the world, rodents are the natural reservoirs for many diverse zoonotic viruses. A comprehensive understanding of the core virome of diverse rodents should therefore assist in efforts to reduce the risk of future emergence or re-emergence of rodent-borne zoonotic pathogens. RESULTS: This study aimed to describe the viral range that could be detected in the lungs of rodents from Mainland Southeast Asia. Lung samples were collected from 3284 rodents and insectivores of the orders Rodentia, Scandentia, and Eulipotyphla in eighteen provinces of Thailand, Lao PDR, and Cambodia throughout 2006-2018. Meta-transcriptomic analysis was used to outline the unique spectral characteristics of the mammalian viruses within these lungs and the ecological and genetic imprints of the novel viruses. Many mammalian- or arthropod-related viruses from distinct evolutionary lineages were reported for the first time in these species, and viruses related to known pathogens were characterized for their genomic and evolutionary characteristics, host species, and locations. CONCLUSIONS: These results expand our understanding of the core viromes of rodents and insectivores from Mainland Southeast Asia and suggest that a high diversity of viruses remains to be found in rodent species of this area. These findings, combined with our previous virome data from China, increase our knowledge of the viral community in wildlife and arthropod vectors in emerging disease hotspots of East and Southeast Asia. Video abstract.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1552, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32754134

RESUMO

Respiratory virus infections are one of the major causes of acute respiratory disease or exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, next-generation sequencing has not been used for routine viral detection in clinical respiratory samples owing to its sophisticated technology. Here, several pharyngeal samples with COPD were collected to enrich viral particles using an optimized method (M3), which involved M1 with centrifugation, filtration, and concentration, M2 (magnetic beads) combined with mixed nuclease digestion, and M4 with no pretreatment as a control. Metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatics analyses showed that the M3 method for viral enrichment was superior in both viral sequencing composition and viral taxa when compared to M1, M2, and M4. M3 acquired the most viral reads and more complete sequences within 15-h performance, indicating that it might be feasible for viral detection in multiple respiratory samples in clinical practice. Based on sequence similarity analysis, 12 human viruses, including nine Anelloviruses and three coronaviruses, were characterized. Coronavirus OC43 with the largest number of viral reads accounted for nearly complete (99.8%) genome sequences, indicating that it may be a major viral pathogen involved in exacerbation of COPD.

7.
Front Microbiol ; 10: 1900, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31474969

RESUMO

Outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002, Middle East respiratory syndrome in 2012 and fatal swine acute diarrhea syndrome in 2017 caused serious infectious diseases in humans and in livestock, resulting in serious public health threats and huge economic losses. All such coronaviruses (CoVs) were confirmed to originate from bats. To continuously monitor the epidemic-related CoVs in bats, virome analysis was used to classify CoVs from 831 bats of 15 species in Yunnan, Guangxi, and Sichuan Provinces between August 2016 and May 2017. We identified 11 CoV strains from 22 individual samples of four bat species. Identification of four alpha-CoVs from Scotophilus kuhlii in Guangxi, which was closely related to a previously reported bat CoV and porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), revealed a bat-swine lineage under the genus Alphacoronavirus. A recombinant CoV showed that the PEDV probably originated from the CoV of S. kuhlii. Another alpha-CoV, α-YN2018, from Rhinolophus affinis in Yunnan, suggested that this alpha-CoV lineage had multiple host origins, and α-YN2018 had recombined with CoVs of other bat species over time. We identified five SARS-related CoVs (SARSr-CoVs) in Rhinolophus bats from Sichuan and Yunnan and confirmed that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 usable SARSr-CoVs were continuously circulating in Rhinolophus spp. in Yunnan. The other beta-CoV, strain ß-GX2018, found in Cynopterus sphinx of Guangxi, represented an independently evolved lineage different from known CoVs of Rousettus and Eonycteris bats. The identification of diverse CoVs here provides new genetic data for understanding the distribution and source of pathogenic CoVs in China.

8.
J Infect ; 78(4): 317-322, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the gut microbiota could lead to better strategies for the diagnosis, therapy and prophylaxis of tuberculosis (TB). The impact of both Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection and anti-TB treatment on the gut microbiota has rarely been studied. METHODS: We characterized the diversity and composition of the gut microbiota in pulmonary TB patients as well as the effects of anti-TB drugs on the gut microbiota. RESULTS: Pulmonary Mtb infection led to a minor decrease in the α diversity of the gut microbiota when compared to healthy controls, which mainly resulted from changes in the relative abundance of the members of genus Bacteroides. Anti-TB therapy caused a rapid, significant alteration in the community structure. The relative abundance of members of genus Clostridiales of the phylum Firmicutes significantly decreased during anti-TB treatment, while many members of genus Bacteroides, including Bacteroides OTU230 and Bacteroides fragilis, were among the taxa that increased. OTU8 and OTU2972 assigned to family Erysipelotrichaceae of the phylum Firmicutes showed a dramatic increase 1 week after the start of therapy, while the other members of this family decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary TB and anti-TB treatment caused a distinct dysbiosis of the gut microbiota. Our study contributes valuable information implying potential links between the gut microbiota and TB.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Disbiose/etiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/complicações , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Disbiose/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Tuberculose Pulmonar/microbiologia
9.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 2562, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405596

RESUMO

Bats and rodents are widely distributed worldwide and can be native or intermediate reservoirs of many important zoonotic viruses. Pestiviruses are a group of virus species of the genus Pestivirus under the family Flaviviridae that can infect a wide variety of artiodactylous hosts, including swine and ruminants. Two classic types of pestiviruses, bovine viral diarrhea virus and classical swine fever virus, are important causative agents of mild-to-severe disease in bovine and swine hosts, respectively, and cause tremendous economic losses in these industries. Recent reports revealed that bats and rodents could also act as natural hosts of pestiviruses and an atypical porcine pestivirus, which cause disease in piglets, showed a close genetic relationship with a specific bat pestivirus, RaPestV-1. This study aimed to describe the detection and characterization of novel pestiviruses from bats and rodents in different locations by analyzing the available bat and rodent virome data from throughout China. Two bat pestivirus species and four rodent pestivirus species that are distinct from other known viruses were identified and sequenced. These viruses were identified from two bat species and four rodent species in different Chinese provinces. There were two distinct lineages present in these viruses, that differ from artiodactylous pestivirus. These findings expand our understanding of the genetic diversity of pestiviruses in bats and rodents and suggest the presence of a diverse set of pestiviruses in non-artiodactylous hosts. This study may provide new insight for the prevention of future viral disease outbreaks originating from bats and rodents.

10.
Microbiome ; 6(1): 178, 2018 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30285857

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rodents represent around 43% of all mammalian species, are widely distributed, and are the natural reservoirs of a diverse group of zoonotic viruses, including hantaviruses, Lassa viruses, and tick-borne encephalitis viruses. Thus, analyzing the viral diversity harbored by rodents could assist efforts to predict and reduce the risk of future emergence of zoonotic viral diseases. RESULTS: We used next-generation sequencing metagenomic analysis to survey for a range of mammalian viral families in rodents and other small animals of the orders Rodentia, Lagomorpha, and Soricomorpha in China. We sampled 3,055 small animals from 20 provinces and then outlined the spectra of mammalian viruses within these individuals and the basic ecological and genetic characteristics of novel rodent and shrew viruses among the viral spectra. Further analysis revealed that host taxonomy plays a primary role and geographical location plays a secondary role in determining viral diversity. Many viruses were reported for the first time with distinct evolutionary lineages, and viruses related to known human or animal pathogens were identified. Phylogram comparison between viruses and hosts indicated that host shifts commonly happened in many different species during viral evolutionary history. CONCLUSIONS: These results expand our understanding of the viromes of rodents and insectivores in China and suggest that there is high diversity of viruses awaiting discovery in these species in Asia. These findings, combined with our previous bat virome data, greatly increase our knowledge of the viral community in wildlife in a densely populated country in an emerging disease hotspot.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Lagomorpha/virologia , Roedores/virologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus , Animais , China , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Metagenoma/genética , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
11.
Front Pharmacol ; 9: 884, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30186161

RESUMO

Aims: This study aimed to identify potential, non-invasive biomarkers for diagnosis and monitoring of the progress in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. Methods: MM patients and age-matched healthy controls (HC) were recruited in Discovery phase and Validation phase, respectively. MM patients were segregated into active group (AG) and responding group (RG). Serum samples were collected were conducted to non-targeted metabolomics analyses. Metabolites which were significantly changed (SCMs) among groups were identified in Discovery phase and was validated in Validation phase. The signaling pathways of these SCMs were enriched. The ability of SCMs to discriminate among groups in Validation phase was analyzed through receiver operating characteristic curve. The correlations between SCMs and clinical features, between SCMs and survival period of MM patients were analyzed. Results: Total of 23 SCMs were identified in AG compared with HC both in Discovery phase and Validation phase. Those SCMs were significantly enriched in arginine and proline metabolism and glycerophospholipid metabolism. 4 SCMs had the discriminatory ability between MM patients and healthy controls in Validation phase. Moreover, 12 SCMs had the ability to discriminate between the AG patients and RG patients in Validation phase. 10 out of 12 SCMs correlated with advanced features of MM. Moreover, 8 out of 12 SCMs had the negative impact on the survival of MM. 5'-Methylthioadenosine may be the only independent prognostic factor in survival period of MM. Conclusion: 10 SCMs identified in our study, which correlated with advanced features of MM, could be potential, novel, non-invasive biomarkers for active disease in MM.

12.
Future Microbiol ; 13: 985-996, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29932349

RESUMO

AIM: To identify potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 progression. METHODS: 19 subjects, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in the follow-up, prospective, clinical cohort more than 6000 subjects from 2006, were incorporated into our study. The subjects included ten non-progressors and nine rapid progressors. The plasmas of subjects before HIV-1 seroconversion and after seroconversion were collected and analyzed with nontargeted metabolomics. RESULTS: 20:0-Glc-Campesterol and A-norgorgostanol could significantly distinguished after HIV-1 seroconversion from before HIV-1 seroconversion. PG(O-18:0/18:0) could totally distinguish the plasma of rapid progressor before seroconversion from that of nonprogressor before seroconversion. CONCLUSION: 20:0-Glc-Campesterol, A-norgorgostanol and  PG(O-18:0/18:0) could be potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Lipídeos/sangue , Metaboloma , Plasma/química , Adulto , China , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
14.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 17(10): 1053-1061, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28716677

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The management of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a new priority action for the WHO End Tuberculosis (TB) Strategy. However, national guidelines on latent tuberculosis infection testing and treatment have not yet been developed in China. Here, we present the results from the 2-year follow-up of a study that aimed to track the development of active disease in individuals with latent tuberculosis infection, identify priority populations for latent infection management, and explore the most suitable latent infection diagnostic approach. METHODS: A population-based multicentre prospective study was done in four sites in rural China, between 2013 and 2015. The baseline survey in 2013 measured the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection using QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in eligible participants. During the follow-up phase between 2014-15, we assessed individuals who had tuberculosis infection at baseline (QFT-positivity or TST tuberculin reaction size [induration] of ≥10 mm) for the development of active disease through active case finding. Eligible participants included in follow-up survey had a birth date before June 1, 2008 (5 years or older in 2013), and continuous residence at the study site for 6 months or longer in the past year. Participants with current active tuberculosis at baseline survey were excluded. FINDINGS: Between Sept 1, 2013, and Aug 31, 2015, 7505 eligible participants (aged 5 years or older) were included in tuberculosis infection test positive cohorts (4455 were QFT positive, 6404 had TST induration ≥10 mm, and 3354 were positive for both tests) after baseline examination. During the 2-year follow-up period, 84 incident cases of active tuberculosis were diagnosed. Of participants who developed active tuberculosis, 75 were diagnosed with latent infection by QFT, 62 were diagnosed by TST, and 53 were diagnosed by both tests. An incidence rate of 0·87 (95% CI 0·68-1·07) per 100 person-years was observed for individuals who tested positive with QFT, 0·50 (0·38-0·63) per 100 person-years for those who tested positive with TST (p<0·0001), and 0·82 (0·60-1·04) per 100 person-years for those who tested positive with both tests. Male sex and a history of tuberculosis were significantly associated with increased risk of disease development with adjusted hazard ratios of 2·36 (95% CI 1·30-4·30) for male sex and 5·40 (3·34-8·71) for a history of tuberculosis. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest that high-risk populations in communities in rural China, such as individuals at a high risk of disease reactivation from previous tuberculosis, should be targeted for latent infection screening and treatment with an interferon-γ releasing assay rather than a TST. FUNDING: National Science and Technology Major Project of China, Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University of China, CAMS Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, and Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Latente/patologia , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teste Tuberculínico , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 11(5): e0005622, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28505171

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ebola virus emerged in West Africa in December 2013. The high population mobility and poor public health infrastructure in this region led to the development of the largest Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak to date. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: On September 26, 2014, China dispatched a Mobile Biosafety Level-3 Laboratory (MBSL-3 Lab) and a well-trained diagnostic team to Sierra Leone to assist in EVD diagnosis using quantitative real-time PCR, which allowed the diagnosis of suspected EVD cases in less than 4 hours from the time of sample receiving. This laboratory was composed of three container vehicles equipped with advanced ventilation system, communication system, electricity and gas supply system. We strictly applied multiple safety precautions to reduce exposure risks. Personnel, materials, water and air flow management were the key elements of the biosafety measures in the MBSL-3 Lab. Air samples were regularly collected from the MBSL-3 Lab, but no evidence of Ebola virus infectious aerosols was detected. Potentially contaminated objects were also tested by collecting swabs. On one occasion, a pipette tested positive for EVD. A total of 1,635 suspected EVD cases (824 positive [50.4%]) were tested from September 28 to November 11, 2014, and no member of the diagnostic team was infected with Ebola virus or other pathogens, including Lassa fever. The specimens tested included blood (69.2%) and oral swabs (30.8%) with positivity rates of 54.2% and 41.9%, respectively. The China mobile laboratory was thus instrumental in the EVD outbreak response by providing timely and reliable diagnostics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The MBSL-3 Lab significantly contributed to establishing a suitable laboratory response capacity during the emergence of EVD in Sierra Leone.


Assuntos
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde/normas , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/diagnóstico , Laboratórios/normas , Segurança/normas , Ebolavirus , Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Humanos , Laboratórios/organização & administração , RNA Viral/análise , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Fluxo de Trabalho
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 34381, 2016 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27682620

RESUMO

Rodents are important reservoir hosts of many important zoonotic viruses. The family Picornaviridae contains clinically important pathogens that infect humans and animals, and increasing numbers of rodent picornaviruses have recently been associated with zoonoses. We collected 574 pharyngeal and anal swab specimens from 287 rodents of 10 different species from eight representative regions of China from October 2013 to July 2015. Seven representative sequences identified from six rodent species were amplified as full genomes and classified into four lineages. Three lineage 1 viruses belonged to a novel genus of picornaviruses and was more closely related to Hepatovirus than to others genera of picornaviruses based on aa homology. Lineage 2, lineage 3, and lineage 4 viruses belonged to the genera Rosavirus, Hunnivirus, and Enterovirus, respectively, representing new species. According to both phylogenetic and identity analyses, Lineage 2 viruses had a close relationship with rosavirus 2 which was recovered from the feces of a child in Gambia and Lineage 3 viruses had a close relationship with domestic animal Hunnivirus. Lineage 4 viruses provide the first evidence of these enteroviruses and their evolution in rodent hosts in China.

17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 63(10): 1288-1294, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27553371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During 2014-2015, an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) swept across parts of West Africa. No approved antiviral drugs are available for Ebola treatment currently. METHODS: A retrospective clinical case series was performed for EVD patients in Sierra Leone-China Friendship Hospital. Patients with confirmed EVD were sequentially enrolled and treated with either World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended supportive therapy (control group) from 10 to 30 October, or treated with WHO-recommended therapy plus favipiravir (T-705) from 1 to 10 November 2014. Survival and virological characteristics were observed for 85 patients in the control group and 39 in the T-705 treatment group. RESULTS: The overall survival rate in the T-705 treatment group was higher than that of the control group (56.4% [22/39] vs 35.3% [30/85]; P = .027). Among the 35 patients who finished all designed endpoint observations, the survival rate in the T-705 treatment group (64.8% [11/17]) was higher than that of the control group (27.8% [5/18]). Furthermore, the average survival time of the treatment group (46.9 ± 5.6 days) was longer than that of the control group (28.9 ± 4.7 days). Most symptoms of patients in the treatment group improved significantly. Additionally, 52.9% of patients who received T-705 had a >100-fold viral load reduction, compared with only 16.7% of patients in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of EVD with T-705 was associated with prolonged survival and markedly reduced viral load, which makes a compelling case for further randomized controlled trials of T-705 for treating EVD.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Ebolavirus , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/tratamento farmacológico , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/mortalidade , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/virologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Carga Viral , Adulto Jovem
18.
Eur Respir J ; 48(1): 168-78, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27230438

RESUMO

Prospective population data on the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) infection has been sparsely reported in the global literature.A population-based prospective study was conducted in rural China to investigate the annual risk of TB infection, and its persistence using serial tuberculin skin tests (TSTs) and an interferon-γ release assay. In total, 13 580 eligible participants from four rural sites, identified as TST negative (<10 mm) or QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) (an interferon-γ release assay) negative from a baseline survey, were included in the first year's follow-up examination.The annual conversion rate of QFT among the study sites ranged between 2.1% and 4.9% (average 3.1%), and the incidence of TST conversion ranged between 6.0% and 31.1% (average 14.5%). During the second year's follow-up, infection persistence was investigated using 390 subjects with QFT conversions. Among them, 49.7% (164 out of 330) were found to be consistently QFT positive. Both the conversion and the persistence of QFT positivity were found to be significantly increased with increasing age.In conclusion, the annual TB infection rate was suggested to be ∼1.5% based on persistent positive results after QFT conversion in rural China. Therefore, infection control among those high-risk populations, including the elderly, should be prioritised for TB control in China.


Assuntos
Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , População Rural , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Teste Tuberculínico , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Clin Virol ; 76: 45-50, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26826577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bacterial pneumonia is a well-recognized sequela of patient suffering from influenza, and a key factor, with cytokine dysregulation, that contribute to severe disease and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To obtain a comprehensive assessment of lung microbial community dynamics in a fatal influenza H7N9 case during the whole clinical course, we undertook a longitudinal study. STUDY DESIGN: Serial bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected from a H7N9 patient after illness onset, and the microbiome was characterized by using next-generation sequencing and microbiological approaches. Furthermore, the kinetics of circulating cytokine storms related to viral and secondary bacterial infection were analyzed. RESULTS: Within complex and dynamic communities, the lung microbiome with H7N9 infection were dominated by gram-negative bacteria, Acinetobacter baumannii after the viral invasion and during the whole clinical course. Sputum and blood culture confirmed the secondary bacterial infection with multidrug-resistant A. baumannii 9 days later. The dynamics of the bacterial infection with carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii correlated with antibiotic therapy. Our observations also indicated that sustained high levels of host inflammatory factors, consisting of a set of distinct cytokines associated with disease stage, may contribute to disease progression and death. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates an initial attempt to explore the dynamic microbiome involved inH7N9 infection and its response to antimicrobial therapy, as well as host cytokine response to infection by using next-generation sequencing. These type of investigations with longitudinal follow-up to understand dynamics of microbial community and cytokines involved in lung infection may provide opportunities for development and optimization of targeted antimicrobial therapy and even new therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Humana/virologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Microbiota , Infecções por Acinetobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Acinetobacter/virologia , Acinetobacter baumannii/genética , Acinetobacter baumannii/isolamento & purificação , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Coinfecção/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Humanos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Humana/complicações , Influenza Humana/diagnóstico , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escarro/virologia
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 21(11): 1921-7, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26485317

RESUMO

During 2014-2015, an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) swept across parts of West Africa. The China Mobile Laboratory Testing Team was dispatched to support response efforts; during September 28-November 11, 2014, they conducted PCR testing on samples from 1,635 suspected EVD patients. Of those patients, 50.4% were positive, of whom 84.6% lived within a 3-km zone along main roads connecting rural towns and densely populated cities. The median time from symptom onset to testing was 5 days. At testing, 75.7% of the confirmed patients had fever, and 94.1% reported at least 1 gastrointestinal symptom; all symptoms, except rash and hemorrhage, were more frequent in confirmed than nonconfirmed patients. Virus loads were significantly higher in EVD patients with fever, diarrhea, fatigue, or headache. The case-fatality rate was lower among patients 15-44 years of age and with virus loads of <100,000 RNA copies/mL. These findings are key for optimizing EVD control and treatment measures.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Ebolavirus/patogenicidade , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , África Ocidental/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ebolavirus/genética , Feminino , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/complicações , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serra Leoa/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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