Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 34
Filtrar
1.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 130(5): 525-536, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472888

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions play an important role in alcohol use. Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence alcohol use outcomes is critical for identifying modifiable targets and developing prevention and intervention efforts. In this study, we examined the role of sensation seeking and social support from family and friends in linking genetic risk to alcohol use. We also examined the role of social support in moderating the associations between genetic risk and sensation seeking and alcohol use. Data were drawn from a sample of 2,836 European American adults from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (46% male, mean age = 35.65, standard deviation [SD] = 10.78). Results from path analysis indicated that genome-wide polygenic scores for alcohol consumption (alc-GPS) were associated with higher sensation seeking, which in turn was associated with higher levels of alcohol use. alc-GPS was also associated with higher alcohol use indirectly via lower levels of family support. In addition, high friend support attenuated the association between alc-GPS and sensation seeking and alcohol use. The pattern of associations was similar for males and females, with some differences in the associations between social support and alcohol use observed across age. Our findings highlight the important role of intermediate phenotypes and gene-environment interplay in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex alcohol use outcomes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(5): 523-535, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424030

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Racial discrimination is prevalent among Black Americans, and may increase risk for alcohol use and related problems. Understanding the mediating and moderating factors in the pathways linking racial discrimination to alcohol use outcomes is important for prevention and intervention efforts. We tested depressive symptoms as a mediator and ethnic-racial identity as a moderator in the relation between racial discrimination and alcohol use outcomes among Black American young adults. METHODS: We used data from 2 independent samples of Black American young adults recruited from different regions in the United States. The first sample included 383 Black American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female), and the second sample included 165 Black American young adults (Mage = 21.56, SD = 4.92; 75% female). RESULTS: Racial discrimination was associated with alcohol consumption and problems indirectly via depressive symptoms across the 2 independent samples. Moderation was evident for one sample such that high private regard levels buffered the association between racial discrimination and alcohol consumption, whereas high public regard levels exacerbated the association between racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Racial discrimination experiences put Black American young adults at risk for alcohol use and related problems through increased depressive symptoms. Ethnic-racial identity may buffer or exacerbate these associations depending on the specific dimension. The findings imply the need to target depressive symptoms and alcohol use simultaneously to promote health and well-being among Black Americans. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Depressão , Racismo , Identificação Social , Estudantes , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Racismo/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

4.
J Fam Psychol ; 35(1): 44-56, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463265

RESUMO

There is a call for integrative studies examining the roles of biological and psychosocial factors and their interrelations in shaping maternal postpartum psychopathology. Using longitudinal data from 198 primiparous mothers, we tested a biopsychosocial model for the etiology of maternal postpartum depressive symptoms that integrated childhood emotional maltreatment, couple relationship satisfaction, and oxytocin and dopamine D4 receptor genes (i.e., OXTR rs53576 and DRD4). Results indicate (a) two indirect effects from childhood emotional maltreatment and DRD4 to depressive symptoms at 1 year postpartum through couple relationship satisfaction at 6 months postpartum; (b) an interactive effect between DRD4 and couple relationship satisfaction at 6 months postpartum in predicting depressive symptoms at 1 year postpartum, which is in concert with the differential susceptibility hypotheses; and (c) no mediating effects or moderating effects (after adjusting for multiple testing with Bonferroni correction) involving OXTR rs53576. Notably, all associations were identified after controlling for several key covariates (e.g., maternal prenatal depressive symptoms). Last, robustness of the currently identified interactive effect involving DRD4 was demonstrated by an extensive set of additional analyses considering the effects of rGE, G × Covariates, and/or E × Covariates. Taken altogether, this study represents one of the initial efforts for a more sophisticated portrayal of how nature and nurture forces may work in conjunction with each other to shape new mothers' psychopathology. Yet given the current modest sample size and candidate gene approach, our findings are preliminary, should be cautiously interpreted, and need to be replicated with more rigorous designs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Depressão Pós-Parto/etiologia , Satisfação Pessoal , Adulto , Criança , Depressão Pós-Parto/genética , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Biopsicossociais , Relações Mãe-Filho/psicologia , Gravidez
5.
Infant Ment Health J ; 41(5): 642-650, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573019

RESUMO

In the current study, we evaluated the extent to which mothers reported emotion dysregulation on the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (DERS) (a) converged with physiological indices of emotion dysregulation while parenting, (b) correlated with maternal sensitivity, and (c) predicted infant attachment disorganization and behavior problems in a sample of 259 mothers and their infants. When infants were 6 months old, mothers' physiological arousal and regulation were measured during parenting tasks and mothers completed the DERS. Maternal sensitivity was observed during distress-eliciting tasks when infants were 6 and 14 months old. Infant attachment disorganization was assessed during the Strange Situation when infants were 14 months old and mothers reported on infants' behavior problems when infants were 27 months old. Mothers who reported greater emotion regulation difficulties were more physiologically dysregulated during stressful parenting tasks and also showed lower levels of maternal sensitivity at 6 months. Mother-reported dysregulation predicted higher likelihood of infant attachment disorganization and more behavior problems. Results suggest that the DERS is a valid measure of maternal emotional dysregulation and may be a useful tool for future research and intervention efforts aimed toward promoting positive parenting and early child adjustment.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento Materno/fisiologia , Mães , Poder Familiar , Comportamento Problema , Autorrelato/normas , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mães/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
6.
Transl Psychiatry ; 10(1): 196, 2020 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555147

RESUMO

Genome-wide, polygenic risk scores (PRS) have emerged as a useful way to characterize genetic liability. There is growing evidence that PRS may prove useful for early identification of those at increased risk for certain diseases. The current potential of PRS for alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an open question. Using data from both a population-based sample [the FinnTwin12 (FT12) study] and a high-risk sample [the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA)], we examined the association between PRSs derived from genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of (1) alcohol dependence/alcohol problems, (2) alcohol consumption, and (3) risky behaviors with AUD and other substance use disorder (SUD) criteria. These PRSs explain ~2.5-3.5% of the variance in AUD (across FT12 and COGA) when all PRSs are included in the same model. Calculations of area under the curve (AUC) show PRS provide only a slight improvement over a model with age, sex, and ancestral principal components as covariates. While individuals in the top 20, 10, and 5% of the PRS distribution had greater odds of having an AUD compared to the lower end of the continuum in both COGA and FT12, the point estimates at each threshold were statistically indistinguishable. Those in the top 5% reported greater levels of licit (alcohol and nicotine) and illicit (cannabis and opioid) SUD criteria. PRSs are associated with risk for SUD in independent samples. However, usefulness for identifying those at increased risk in their current form is modest, at best. Improvement in predictive ability will likely be dependent on increasing the size of well-phenotyped discovery samples.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética
7.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 51(6): 855-867, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212023

RESUMO

Parents of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) experience greater stress in parenting and more parental depressive symptoms. The study examined the longitudinal and bidirectional associations between three dimensions of parenting stress (i.e., parental distress, parent-child dysfunctional interaction, and difficult child) and parental depressive symptoms from a sample of Chinese parents of children with or without ODD. The sample included 256 parents of children with ODD and 265 parents of children without ODD, along with children's teachers. Using a three wave, cross-lagged design, results showed that parents of children with ODD suffered higher levels of parenting stress across three dimensions. For both groups, the links between parental depressive symptoms and subsequent parental distress and difficult child were unidirectional, whereas the relation between parental depressive symptoms and parent-child dysfunctional interaction was bidirectional. Multi-group analysis found that there was no significant difference in the relations between parenting stress and depressive symptoms between the ODD and non-ODD groups. The findings indicated that children with ODD require comprehensive services to address the stress of their parents. The study also provided support for the dynamic and longitudinal relations between specific dimensions of parenting stress and depressive symptoms among parents of children with or without ODD.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/complicações , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Deficit da Atenção e do Comportamento Disruptivo/etnologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China , Correlação de Dados , Comparação Transcultural , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/etnologia
8.
Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol ; 26(2): 260-270, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328948

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Racial discrimination is a stressor that may put African Americans at risk for alcohol use and related problems. We examined whether experiences of blatant (racist events) and subtle (racial microaggressions) forms of racial discrimination were associated with alcohol consumption and alcohol problems among African American young adults, and whether childhood/adolescence racial socialization by parents and friends moderated these associations. METHOD: The sample included 383 African American young adults (Mage = 20.65, SD = 2.28; 81% female) who completed an electronic survey in Fall, 2017. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were conducted in Mplus. RESULTS: Experiences of racist events and racial microaggressions were associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption and more alcohol problems. Racial socialization by friends, but not parents, moderated these associations. Specifically, cultural socialization by friends buffered the effect of racist events on alcohol consumption and alcohol problems, whereas promotion of mistrust by friends exacerbated the effect of racial microaggressions on alcohol problems. CONCLUSIONS: Both blatant and subtle forms of racial discrimination were associated with higher risk for alcohol use or problems among African American young adults. Racial socialization by friends while growing up may play an important role in alcohol use outcomes during young adulthood. Findings highlight the importance of considering different forms of racial discrimination and emphasize the unique roles of racial socialization across different social contexts (i.e., parent and peers or friends) in relation to psychosocial outcomes among African American individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Racismo/psicologia , Identificação Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Grupo Associado , Socialização , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
9.
Addiction ; 115(2): 337-346, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The associations between low educational attainment and substance use disorders (SUDs) may be related to a common genetic vulnerability. We aimed to elucidate the associations between polygenic scores for educational attainment and clinical criterion counts for three SUDs (alcohol, nicotine and cannabis). DESIGN: Polygenic association and sibling comparison methods. The latter strengthens inferences in observational research by controlling for confounding factors that differ between families. SETTING: Six sites in the United States. PARTICIPANTS: European ancestry participants aged 25 years and older from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Polygenic association analyses included 5582 (54% female) participants. Sibling comparisons included 3098 (52% female) participants from 1226 sibling groups nested within the overall sample. MEASUREMENTS: Outcomes included criterion counts for DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUDSX), Fagerström nicotine dependence (NDSX) and DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUDSX). We derived polygenic scores for educational attainment (EduYears-GPS) using summary statistics from a large (> 1 million) genome-wide association study of educational attainment. FINDINGS: In polygenic association analyses, higher EduYears-GPS predicted lower AUDSX, NDSX and CUDSX [P < 0.01, effect sizes (R2 ) ranging from 0.30 to 1.84%]. These effects were robust in sibling comparisons, where sibling differences in EduYears-GPS predicted all three SUDs (P < 0.05, R2 0.13-0.20%). CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who carry more alleles associated with educational attainment tend to meet fewer clinical criteria for alcohol, nicotine and cannabis use disorders, and these effects are robust to rigorous controls for potentially confounding factors that differ between families (e.g. socio-economic status, urban-rural residency and parental education).


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Escolaridade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Abuso de Maconha/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Irmãos , Tabagismo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Fam Process ; 59(4): 1755-1772, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647575

RESUMO

Three-generation households that include parents and grandparents raising children together have become increasingly common in China. This study examined the relations among depressive symptoms, parenting stress, and caregiver-child relationships in the mother-grandmother dyadic context. Participants were mothers and grandmothers from 136 three-generation households. Results from Actor-Partner Interdependence Mediation Modeling indicated that mothers' depressive symptoms were indirectly related to mother-child conflict/closeness through own parenting stress; grandmothers' depressive symptoms were indirectly related to grandmother-child conflict through own parenting stress. Mothers' depressive symptoms were indirectly related to grandmothers' conflict with children through grandmothers' parenting stress, and grandmothers' depressive symptoms were indirectly related to mothers' conflict/closeness with children through mothers' parenting stress. The relation between mothers' parenting stress and mother-child closeness was stronger than the relation between grandmothers' parenting stress and grandmother-child closeness. Findings highlight the implications of using a family system perspective and the dyadic approach in understanding and improving family functioning in Chinese three-generation households.

11.
Cell ; 179(3): 589-603, 2019 10 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607513

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have focused primarily on populations of European descent, but it is essential that diverse populations become better represented. Increasing diversity among study participants will advance our understanding of genetic architecture in all populations and ensure that genetic research is broadly applicable. To facilitate and promote research in multi-ancestry and admixed cohorts, we outline key methodological considerations and highlight opportunities, challenges, solutions, and areas in need of development. Despite the perception that analyzing genetic data from diverse populations is difficult, it is scientifically and ethically imperative, and there is an expanding analytical toolbox to do it well.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Genética Humana/métodos , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Genética Populacional/normas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Técnicas de Genotipagem/normas , Genética Humana/normas , Humanos , Linhagem
12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 269, 2019 10 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636251

RESUMO

Cannabis use and disorders (CUD) are influenced by multiple genetic variants of small effect and by the psychosocial environment. However, this information has not been effectively incorporated into studies of gene-environment interaction (GxE). Polygenic risk scores (PRS) that aggregate the effects of genetic variants can aid in identifying the links between genetic risk and psychosocial factors. Using data from the Pasman et al. GWAS of cannabis use (meta-analysis of data from the International Cannabis Consortium and UK Biobank), we constructed PRS in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) participants of European (N: 7591) and African (N: 3359) ancestry. The primary analyses included only individuals of European ancestry, reflecting the ancestral composition of the discovery GWAS from which the PRS was derived. Secondary analyses included the African ancestry sample. Associations of PRS with cannabis use and DSM-5 CUD symptom count (CUDsx) and interactions with trauma exposure and frequency of religious service attendance were examined. Models were adjusted for sex, birth cohort, genotype array, and ancestry. Robustness models were adjusted for cross-term interactions. Higher PRS were associated with a greater likelihood of cannabis use and with CUDsx among participants of European ancestry (p < 0.05 and p < 0.1 thresholds, respectively). PRS only influenced cannabis use among those exposed to trauma (R2: 0.011 among the trauma exposed vs. R2: 0.002 in unexposed). PRS less consistently influenced cannabis use among those who attend religious services less frequently; PRS × religious service attendance effects were attenuated when cross-term interactions with ancestry and sex were included in the model. Polygenic liability to cannabis use was related to cannabis use and, less robustly, progression to symptoms of CUD. This study provides the first evidence of PRS × trauma for cannabis use and demonstrates that ignoring important aspects of the psychosocial environment may mask genetic influences on polygenic traits.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Uso da Maconha/genética , Herança Multifatorial , Infuência dos Pares , Espiritualidade , Violência , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(10): 2100-2110, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The period of college represents a particularly risky developmental stage with regard to alcohol use, as college students engage in more risky drinking behaviors than their noncollege peers, and such problematic alcohol use is associated with far-reaching negative consequences. Existing findings from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that alcohol consumption has a complex polygenic etiology. Currently, there is a lack of studies examining genetic risk for alcohol consumption using polygenic risk scores (PRS) in college samples. In this study, we examined whether alcohol-specific and risky behavior-related PRS were longitudinally associated with alcohol consumption among college students and whether this effect might be partially mediated by impulsivity domains. METHODS: The sample included n = 2,385 European ancestry (EA) and n = 1,153 African ancestry (AA) college students assessed over the course of 4 years. To indicate genetic risk, 2 PRS were created based on recent large-scale GWAS: alcohol consumption (Liu et al., 2019) -drinks per week (DPW)-PRS and risky behaviors (Linnér et al., 2019) -RISK-PRS. The main outcome was alcohol consumption, measured across 4 waves of follow-up data. The UPPS-P impulsivity subscales were examined as mediators of the genetic effect on alcohol consumption. RESULTS: The results from structural equation modeling showed that among EA students, both DPW-PRS and RISK-PRS had significant positive effects on alcohol consumption above and beyond UPPS dimensions and control variables. RISK-PRS explained larger portion of variance in alcohol consumption than DPW-PRS. RISK-PRS showed a significant indirect effect on alcohol consumption through sensation seeking and lack of perseverance; no significant indirect effect of DPW-PRS was found. No significant association of either PRS or alcohol consumption was found for AA participants. CONCLUSIONS: The current results found that PRS related to more broadly defined risky behaviors predicted alcohol consumption across college years and that this association was partially mediated via dimensions of impulsivity.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Estudantes , Adolescente , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Medição de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
14.
Behav Genet ; 49(5): 484, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263991

RESUMO

The article "Genetics of Perceived Family Interaction From 12 to 17 Years of Age", written by Karri Silventoinen, Jinni Su, Lea Pulkkinen, Peter Barr, Richard J. Rose, Danielle M. Dick, Jaakko Kaprio, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 24 May 2019 without open access.

15.
Behav Genet ; 49(4): 366-375, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127448

RESUMO

We analyzed how the effects of genetic and environmental factors on the perceptions of family interaction change from early to late adolescence. The data were collected by postal surveys on Finnish twins (N = 4808) at 12, 14 and 17 years of age and analyzed using genetic twin modeling. Additive genetic factors explained a modest share of the variation in perceived relational support (a2 = 0.30 in boys and 0.18 in girls) and relational tensions (a2 = 0.13 and 0.14, respectively) at 12 years of age, with the proportions becoming larger through 17 years of age (a2 = 0.53 in boys and 0.49 in girls for relational support; a2 = 0.35 in boys and 0.33 in girls for relational tensions). Simultaneously, the role of environment shared by co-twins decreased. These findings suggest that the associations between perceived family interaction and other factors in adulthood should be interpreted with caution, because they partly reflect genetic background, whereas in childhood, they may provide more reliable information on parental characteristics.


Assuntos
Relações Familiares/psicologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/genética , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/genética , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Meio Ambiente , Família , Feminino , Finlândia , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Percepção , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Gêmeos Dizigóticos/psicologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos/psicologia
16.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(1): 58-68, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667237

RESUMO

A multistage model of drug addiction in which individuals' motivations for use change as they develop problems is widely accepted; however, the evidence for this model comes mostly from animal work and cross-sectional studies. We used longitudinal data to test whether positive and negative reinforcement associated with alcohol consumption differed as a function of alcohol dependence (AD). Specifically, we tested whether (a) positive reinforcement is more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than is negative reinforcement among individuals without AD, (b) negative reinforcement is more strongly associated with AD than is positive reinforcement, and (c) in the presence of AD, the association between positive reinforcement and alcohol consumption becomes weaker, whereas the association with negative reinforcement becomes stronger. We included assessments between Ages 18 and 30 years from participants who indicated they ever had a drink (N = 2,556; 51.6% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism Prospective Study. Results from generalized estimating equations indicated that positive, but not negative, reinforcement was associated with alcohol consumption among individuals without AD. Both positive and negative reinforcement were associated with AD, but the association was stronger with negative reinforcement. Results from the multilevel growth model indicated that the association between negative reinforcement and alcohol consumption became stronger with the presence of AD, whereas the association between positive reinforcement and alcohol consumption did not differ as a function of AD. We provide empirical evidence that positive and negative reinforcement are differentially associated with alcohol consumption as a function of AD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Reforço Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Dev Psychopathol ; 31(2): 457-469, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895335

RESUMO

Using a large and nationally representative sample, we examined how adolescents' 5-HTTLPR genotype and perceived parenting quality independently and interactively associated with trajectories of alcohol use from early adolescence to young adulthood and whether/how gender may moderate these associations. The sample for this study included 13,749 adolescents (53.3% female; 56.3% non-Hispanic White, 21.5% Black, 16.0% Hispanic, and 6.1% Asian) followed prospectively from adolescence to young adulthood. Using growth mixture modeling, we identified four distinct trajectories of alcohol use (i.e., persistent heavy alcohol use, developmentally limited alcohol use, late-onset heavy alcohol use, and non/light alcohol use). Results indicated that the short allele of 5-HTTLPR was associated with higher risk of membership in the persistent and the late-onset heavy alcohol use trajectories. Parenting quality was associated with lower likelihoods of following the persistent heavy and the developmentally limited alcohol use trajectories but was not associated with risk of membership for the late-onset heavy drinking trajectory. 5-HTTLPR interacted with parenting quality to predict membership in the persistent heavy alcohol use trajectory for males but not for females. Findings highlighted the importance of considering the heterogeneity in trajectories of alcohol use across development and gender in the study of Gene Environment interactions in alcohol use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Meio Social , Adulto Jovem
18.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(5): 1749-1761, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30173676

RESUMO

Numerous studies have demonstrated that genetic and environmental factors interact to influence alcohol problems. Yet prior research has primarily focused on samples of European descent and little is known about gene-environment interactions in relation to alcohol problems in non-European populations. In this study, we examined whether and how genetic risk for alcohol problems and peer deviance and interpersonal traumatic events independently and interactively influence trajectories of alcohol use disorder symptoms in a sample of African American students across the college years (N = 1,119; Mage = 18.44 years). Data were drawn from the Spit for Science study where participants completed multiple online surveys throughout college and provided a saliva sample for genotyping. Multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that alcohol dependence genome-wide polygenic risk scores did not predict trajectory of alcohol use disorder symptoms, while family history of alcohol problems was associated with alcohol use disorder symptoms at the start of college but not with the rate of change in symptoms over time. Peer deviance and interpersonal traumatic events were associated with more alcohol use disorder symptoms across college years. Neither alcohol dependence genome-wide polygenic risk scores nor family history of alcohol problems moderated the effects of these environmental risk factors on alcohol use disorder symptoms. Our findings indicated that peer deviance and experience of interpersonal traumatic events are salient risk factors that elevate risk for alcohol problems among African American college students. Family history of alcohol problems could be a useful indicator of genetic risk for alcohol problems. Gene identification efforts with much larger samples of African descent are needed to better characterize genetic risk for alcohol use disorders, in order to better understand gene-environment interaction processes in this understudied population.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Alcoolismo , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Grupo Associado , Trauma Psicológico/complicações , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/etnologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Alcoolismo/etnologia , Alcoolismo/etiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(9): 1783-1794, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29969154

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parental alcohol problems are associated with adverse adolescent outcomes such as risky drinking and conduct problems. Important questions remain about the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems and differences and/or similarities in pathways of risk across ethnicity and gender. In this study, we used a family systems approach to consider spillover and crossover effects of fathers' and mothers' alcohol problems (number of alcohol dependence symptoms [ADS]) and parenting behaviors in relation to adolescents' risky drinking and conduct problems. METHODS: The sample included 1,282 adolescents (aged 12 to 17) and their parents from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Parents completed the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA), and adolescents completed an adolescent version of SSAGA. Data were analyzed using multivariate structural equation modeling. RESULTS: Fathers' ADS count was associated with higher adolescent risky drinking and conduct problems indirectly via disruption to fathers' and mothers' positive parenting behaviors, whereas mothers' ADS count was not associated with adolescents' risky drinking and conduct problems directly or indirectly via positive parenting behaviors. No differences in these associations were found across ethnic background and offspring gender. CONCLUSIONS: Findings highlight the importance of considering the unique roles of fathers' and mothers' ADS in influencing family processes and adolescent outcomes.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Filho de Pais Incapacitados/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Adolescente , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Poder Familiar/tendências , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/tendências
20.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 21(4): 310-321, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027866

RESUMO

Genetic predispositions play an important role in the development of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Understanding the mechanisms through which genetic risk unfolds to influence these developmental outcomes is critical for developing prevention and intervention efforts, capturing key elements of Irv's research agenda and scientific legacy. In this study, we examined the role of parenting and personality in mediating the effect of genetic risk on adolescents' major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Longitudinal data were drawn from a sample of 709 European American adolescents and their mothers from the Collaborative Studies on Genetics of Alcoholism. Results from multivariate path analysis indicated that adolescents' depressive symptoms genome-wide polygenic scores (DS_GPS) predicted lower parental knowledge, which in turn was associated with more subsequent major depressive disorder and conduct disorder symptoms. Adolescents' DS_GPS also had indirect effects on these outcomes via personality, with a mediating effect via agreeableness but not via other dimensions of personality. Findings revealed that the pattern of associations was similar across adolescent gender. Our findings emphasize the important role of evocative gene-environment correlation processes and intermediate phenotypes in the pathways of risk from genetic predispositions to complex adolescent outcomes.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Conduta , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial , Poder Familiar , Personalidade/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno da Conduta/genética , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...