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2.
Chemosphere ; 287(Pt 3): 132358, 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34583294

RESUMO

Previous studies suggested immunotoxicity of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), but contradictory findings were reported for the associations of PFASs with allergies. The current study aimed to investigate the association of serum PFASs with incident chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) in adults. A nested case-control study within a longitudinal cohort of 7051 government employees in China was conducted. Participants with urticaria at the baseline were excluded. During the first follow-up, 70 incident CSU cases were included, and 70 matched healthy controls were randomly selected. In serum samples collected at the baseline, eight PFASs were determined using the UHPLC-MS/MS approach. The median serum concentrations of perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were significantly higher in participants with incident CSU. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.714 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83) based on the joint prediction by PFBA and PFHpA. The Bayesian kernel machine regression showed a nonlinear positive overall effect of the mixture of PFASs, and identified significant single effects of PFBA and PFHpA. Serum interleukin-4 was significantly higher in the case group at baseline, and was positively associated with PFHpA (r = 0.24). Causal mediation analysis indicated interleukin-4 as a partial mediator (14.8%) in the association of PFHpA with CSU. In conclusion, serum PFASs are associated with an increased risk of incident CSU, and PFBA and PFHpA might be the effective compounds.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e047768, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34548351

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overuse and misuse of antibiotics is a public health problem in low-income and middle-income countries. Although the association of antibiotics with atopic and allergic diseases has been established, most studies focused on prenatal exposure and the occurrence of disease in infants or young children. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of preschool use of antibiotics with atopic and allergic skin diseases in young adulthood. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The first-year college students (n=20 123) from five universities were investigated. The sampled universities are located in Changsha, Wuhan, Xiamen, Urumqi and Hohhot, respectively. METHODS: We conducted a dermatological field examination and a questionnaire survey inquiring the participants about the frequency of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) and the preschool antibiotics use (prior to 7 years old). The two-level probit model was used to estimate the associations, and adjusted risk ratio (aRR) and 95% CI were presented as the effect size. RESULTS: A total of 20 123 participants with complete information was included in the final analysis. The frequent antibiotics use intravenously (aRR 1.36, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.62) and orally (aRR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.38) prior to 7 years old was significantly associated with atopic dermatitis in young adulthood. Similar trends could be observed in allergic skin diseases among those who use antibiotics orally and intravenously, with RRs of 1.16 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.34) and 1.33 (95% CI 1.13 to 1.57), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Preschool URTI and antibiotics use significantly increases the risk of atopic and allergic skin diseases in young adulthood.

4.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e26025, 2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Skin and subcutaneous disease is the fourth-leading cause of the nonfatal disease burden worldwide and constitutes one of the most common burdens in primary care. However, there is a severe lack of dermatologists, particularly in rural Chinese areas. Furthermore, although artificial intelligence (AI) tools can assist in diagnosing skin disorders from images, the database for the Chinese population is limited. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to establish a database for AI based on the Chinese population and presents an initial study on six common skin diseases. METHODS: Each image was captured with either a digital camera or a smartphone, verified by at least three experienced dermatologists and corresponding pathology information, and finally added to the Xiangya-Derm database. Based on this database, we conducted AI-assisted classification research on six common skin diseases and then proposed a network called Xy-SkinNet. Xy-SkinNet applies a two-step strategy to identify skin diseases. First, given an input image, we segmented the regions of the skin lesion. Second, we introduced an information fusion block to combine the output of all segmented regions. We compared the performance with 31 dermatologists of varied experiences. RESULTS: Xiangya-Derm, as a new database that consists of over 150,000 clinical images of 571 different skin diseases in the Chinese population, is the largest and most diverse dermatological data set of the Chinese population. The AI-based six-category classification achieved a top 3 accuracy of 84.77%, which exceeded the average accuracy of dermatologists (78.15%). CONCLUSIONS: Xiangya-Derm, the largest database for the Chinese population, was created. The classification of six common skin conditions was conducted based on Xiangya-Derm to lay a foundation for product research.

5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(9): e0009730, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492012

RESUMO

In recent years, the human gut microbiome has been recognised to play a pivotal role in the health of the host. Intestinal homeostasis relies on this intricate and complex relationship between the gut microbiota and the human host. While much effort and attention has been placed on the characterization of the organisms that inhabit the gut microbiome, the complex molecular cross-talk between the microbiota could also exert an effect on gastrointestinal conditions. Blastocystis is a single-cell eukaryotic parasite of emerging interest, as its beneficial or pathogenic role in the microbiota has been a subject of contention even to-date. In this study, we assessed the function of the Blastocystis tryptophanase gene (BhTnaA), which was acquired by horizontal gene transfer and likely to be of bacterial origin within Blastocystis. Bioinformatic analysis and phylogenetic reconstruction revealed distinct divergence of BhTnaA versus known bacterial homologs. Despite sharing high homology with the E. coli tryptophanase gene, we show that Blastocystis does not readily convert tryptophan into indole. Instead, BhTnaA preferentially catalyzes the conversion of indole to tryptophan. We also show a direct link between E. coli and Blastocystis tryptophan metabolism: In the presence of E. coli, Blastocystis ST7 is less able to metabolise indole to tryptophan. This study examines the potential for functional variation in horizontally-acquired genes relative to their canonical counterparts, and identifies Blastocystis as a possible producer of tryptophan within the gut.

6.
J Cell Mol Med ; 25(19): 9228-9240, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469054

RESUMO

Melanoma is a highly aggressive type of skin cancer. The development of diverse resistance mechanisms and severe adverse effects significantly limit the efficiency of current therapeutic approaches. Identification of the new therapeutic targets involved in the pathogenesis will benefit the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease-7, a potential target for cancer treatment, is deregulated in types of cancer, but its role in melanoma is still unclear. We investigated the role and the inhibitor P22077 of ubiquitin-specific protease-7 in melanoma treatment. We found that ubiquitin-specific protease-7 was overexpressed and correlated with poor prognosis in melanoma. Further, pharmacological inhibition of ubiquitin-specific protease-7 by P22077 can effectively inhibit proliferation, and induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via ROS accumulation-induced DNA damage in melanoma cells. Inhibition of ubiquitin-specific protease-7 by P22077 also inhibits melanoma tumour growth in vivo. Moreover, inhibition of ubiquitin-specific protease-7 prevented migration and invasion of melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo by decreasing the Wnt/ß-catenin signalling pathway. Taken together, our study revealed that ubiquitin-specific protease-7 acted as an oncogene involved in melanoma cell proliferation and metastasis. Therefore, ubiquitin-specific protease-7 may serve as potential candidates for the treatment of melanoma.

7.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 1-7, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465424

RESUMO

The distribution and chemical speciation of arsenic (As) in different sized atmospheric particulate matters (PMs), including total suspended particles (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5, collected from Baoding, China were analyzed. The average total mass concentrations of As in TSP, PM10, and PM2.5 were 31.5, 35.3, and 54.1 µg/g, respectively, with an order of PM2.5 >PM 10 > TSP, revealing that As is prone to accumulate on fine particles. Due to the divergent toxicities of different As species, speciation analysis of As in PMs is further conducted. Most of previous studies mainly focused on inorganic arsenite (iAsIII), inorganic arsenate (iAsV), monomethylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA) in PMs, while the identification and sensitive quantification of trimethylarsine oxide (TMAO) were rarely reported. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry system was optimized for As speciation including TMAO in PMs. An anion exchange column was used to separate MMA, DMA and iAsV, while a cation exchange column to separate TMAO and iAsIII. Results showed that iAsV was the dominate component in all the samples, corresponding to a portion of 79.2% ± 9.3% of the total extractable species, while iAsIII, TMAO and DMA made up the remaining 21%. Our study demonstrated that iAsIII accounted for about 14.4% ± 11.4% of the total extracted species, with an average concentration of 1.7 ± 1.6 ng/m3. It is worth noting that TMAO was widely present in the samples (84 out of 97 samples), which supported the assumption that TMAO was ubiquitous in atmospheric particles.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Arsenicais , Arsênio/análise , Arsenicais/análise , Ácido Cacodílico , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Material Particulado/análise
8.
Melanoma Res ; 31(5): 413-420, 2021 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406985

RESUMO

Radiotherapy is a mainstay of efficient treatment of brain metastases from solid tumors. Immunotherapy has improved the survival of metastatic cancer patients across many tumor types. However, targeted therapy is a feasible alternative for patients unable to continue immunotherapy or with poor outcomes of immunotherapy. The combination of radiotherapy and targeted therapy for the treatment of brain metastases has a strong theoretical underpinning, but data on the efficacy and safety of this combination is still limited. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane library database was conducted. Eleven studies were included for a total of 316 patients. Median OS was about 6.2-17.8 months from radiotherapy. Weighted survival and local control at 1 and 2 years were correlated (50.1 and 17.8%, 90.7 and 14.7% at 1 and 2 year, respectively). Radiotherapy given before or concurrently to targeted therapy provided the best effect on the outcome. For patients with brain metastases from cutaneous melanoma, the addition of concurrent targeted therapy to brain radiotherapy can increase survival and provide long-term control.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34438468

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with atrial conduction disturbances caused by electrical and/or structural remodelling. In the present study, we hypothesized that connexin might interact with the calcium channel through forming a protein complex and, then, participates in the pathogenesis of AF. Western blot and whole-cell patch clamp showed that protein levels of Cav1.2 and connexin 43 (Cx43) and basal ICa , L were decreased in AF subjects compared to sinus rhythm (SR) controls. In cultured atrium-derived myocytes (HL-1 cells), knocking-down of Cx43 or incubation with 30 mmol/L glycyrrhetinic acid significantly inhibited protein levels of Cav1.2 and Cav3.1 and the current density of ICa , L and ICa , T . Incubation with nifedipine or mibefradil decreased the protein level of Cx43 in HL-1 cells. Moreover, Cx43 was colocalized with Cav1.2 and Cav3.1 in atrial myocytes. Therefore, Cx43 might regulate the ICa , L and ICa , T through colocalization with calcium channel subunits in atrial myocytes, representing a potential pathogenic mechanism in AF.

10.
Lasers Med Sci ; 2021 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365550

RESUMO

Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for the treatment of certain NMSCs. However, the clinical response rates of some NMSCs to single PDT are still far from ideal. The reason may be that PDT has shown limited efficacy in managing thicker NMSCs. To explore the efficacy and safety of dermabrasion combined with PDT (D-PDT) for the treatment of NMSCs. This was a retrospective, single-arm, multi-centre study. In total, 172 tumours from 40 patients were treated with D-PDT during the study period. The mean follow-up period was 40 months (range 15-110 months). D-PDT was performed with 633-nm red light at 80 m W/cm2 after lesion dermabrasion and 4 h of photosensitizer exposure. Six nodular basal cell carcinomas (nBCCs) from 6 patients, 9 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from 9 patients, 17 Bowen diseases (BDs) from 10 patients and 140 actinic keratoses (AKs) from 15 patients treated with D-PDT were examined in this study. Only two patients with three AKs experienced recurrence over 12 months. The mean final follow-up periods of patients with AKs, BDs, nBCCs and SCCs were 30, 33, 45 and 60 months, respectively. Thirty-four of the 40 patients treated with D-PDT reported excellent or good cosmetic results. The mean Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores of the patients improved significantly after treatment (estimated MD 9.72 [95% CI 8.69 to 10.75]; p < 0.001). D-PDT is a safe, cosmetic and effective treatment that could be a new candidate therapeutic for NMSC.

11.
Med Phys ; 48(9): 5142-5151, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aims to develop and evaluate multi-parametric MRI-based radiomics for preoperative identification of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation, which is important in treatment planning for patients with thoracic spinal metastases from primary lung adenocarcinoma. METHODS: A total of 110 patients were enrolled between January 2016 and March 2019 as a primary cohort. A time-independent validation cohort was conducted containing 52 patients consecutively enrolled from July 2019 to April 2021. The patients were pathologically diagnosed with thoracic spinal metastases from primary lung adenocarcinoma; all underwent T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), and T2-weighted fat-suppressed (T2FS) MRI scans of the thoracic spinal. Handcrafted and deep learning-based features were extracted and selected from each MRI modality, and used to build the radiomics signature. Various machine learning classifiers were developed and compared. A clinical-radiomics nomogram integrating the combined rad signature and the most important clinical factor was constructed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC), calibration, and decision curves analysis (DCA) to evaluate the prediction performance. RESULTS: The combined radiomics signature derived from the joint of three modalities can effectively classify EGFR mutation and EGFR wild-type patients, with an area under the ROC curve (AUC) of 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.826-0.947, SEN =0.935, SPE =0.688) in the training group and 0.803 (95% CI: 0.682-0.924, SEN = 0.700, SPE = 0.818) in the time-independent validation group. The nomogram incorporating the combined radiomics signature and smoking status achieved the best prediction performance in the training (AUC = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.849-0.958, SEN = 0.839, SPE = 0.792) and time-independent validation (AUC = 0.821, 95% CI: 0.692-0.929, SEN = 0.667, SPE = 0.909) cohorts. The DCA confirmed potential clinical usefulness of our nomogram. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated the potential of multi-parametric MRI-based radiomics on preoperatively predicting the EGFR mutation. The proposed nomogram model can be considered as a new biomarker to guide the selection of individual treatment strategies for patients with thoracic spinal metastases from primary lung adenocarcinoma.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias da Coluna Vertebral , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/genética , Receptores ErbB/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Mutação , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Mol Med Rep ; 24(3)2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278466

RESUMO

Studies have found that C­C motif chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20)/C­C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)/notch receptor 1 (Notch1) signaling serves an important role in various diseases, but its role and mechanism in ovarian cancer remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the underlying mechanism of CCL20/CCR6/Notch1 signaling in paclitaxel (PTX) resistance of a CD44+CD117+ subgroup of cells in ovarian cancer. The CD44+CD117+ cells were isolated from SKOV3 cells, followed by determination of the PTX resistance and the CCR6/Notch1 axis. Notch1 was silenced in the CD44+CD117+ subgroup and these cells were treated with CCL20, followed by examination of PTX resistance and the CCR6/Notch1 axis. Furthermore, in nude mice, CD44+CD117+ and CD44­CD117­ cells were used to establish the xenograft model and cells were treated with PTX and/or CCL20, followed by proliferation, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mechanism analyses. Higher expression levels of Oct4, CCR6, Notch1 and ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 1 (ABCG1), increased sphere formation ability, IC50 and proliferative ability, as well as lower ROS levels and apoptosis were observed in CD44+CD117+ cells compared with the CD44­CD117­ cells. It was found that CCL20 could significantly increase the expression levels of Oct4, CCR6, Notch1 and ABCG1, enhance the IC50, sphere formation ability and proliferation, as well as decrease the ROS and apoptosis levels in the CD44+CD117+ cells. However, Notch1 knockdown could markedly reverse these changes. Moreover, CCL20 could significantly increase the proliferation and expression levels of Oct4, CCR6, Notch1 and ABCG1 in the CD44+CD117+ groups compared with the CD44­CD117­ groups. After treatment with PTX, apoptosis and ROS levels were decreased in the CD44+CD117+ groups compared with the CD44­CD117­ groups. Collectively, the present results demonstrated that, via the Notch1 pathway, CCL20/CCR6 may promote the stemness and PTX resistance of CD44+CD117+ cells in ovarian cancer.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062998

RESUMO

(1) Backgrounds: Several studies have shown that the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) could affect urticaria. The association of Vitamin D (VitD) with urticaria has not been well established. (2) Methods: The up-to-date meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the new findings. We performed a systematic search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database. We included the observational studies with the comparisons of 25(OH)D between urticarial populations and controls and clinical studies with the clinical severity of urticaria records. (3) Results: A meta-analysis of seventeen studies of urticaria group vs. controls revealed a mean difference of -9.35 ng/mL (95% CI -12.27 to -6.44). There was also an association of urticaria with VitD deficiency. In the subgroup analysis of age and disease type, significant effects of 25(OH)D were found among adult and chronic urticarial populations. Six VitD supplementation trials showed a significant reduction in clinical urticarial score on intervention with VitD with the standard mean difference of -3.63 and -1.54 among randomized control studies and repeated measure trials, respectively. (4) Conclusions: The urticarial population, especially the adult chronic urticarial patients, may be associated with a high risk for lower serum 25(OH)D. VitD supplementations could result in a reduction of urticarial clinical symptoms.


Assuntos
Urticária , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Adulto , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Urticária/tratamento farmacológico , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitaminas
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097822

RESUMO

Acral melanoma is the major subtype of melanoma in Chinese patients. However, a majority of current studies focused on non-acral melanoma. Most immortalized melanoma cell lines and primary cells were not from acral melanoma. Besides, there are rarely reports about methods for establishing primary acral melanoma cell cultures and related animal models. Here, we present four new human primary acral melanoma cell lines. To determine the mutational profile of the established primary melanoma cells for future targeted use, we performed exome sequencing. We next examined cell proliferation of the primary acral melanoma cells by colony-formation assays and CCK8 assay. We also evaluated the proliferative and metastatic potential of XYAM-4 in vivo. We report a detailed protocol for establishing cultured primary acral melanoma cells for Chinese patients and related animal models. We also summarize the features in our acral melanoma cell lines and the existing acral melanoma cell lines. This will provide an effective research tool for research on drug responses and individualized treatment for Chinese patients and comparative studies of melanomas between western and Chinese populations.

16.
J Asian Nat Prod Res ; : 1-7, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34190010

RESUMO

Two new furoquinoline alkaloids, named 1'-oxo-isoplatydesmine (1) and demethoxyacrophylline (2), as well as 11 known alkaloids (3-13) were isolated from the root bark of Dictamnus dasycarpus Turcz. The structures of 1 and 2 were established by detailed spectroscopic elucidation, such as 1 D & 2 D NMR and HRMS, etc. The unexpected autoracemization of 1 was discussed based on the stereochemistry of reported dihydrofuroquinolines. Compounds 3-5 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with MICs 32-64 µg/ml, revealing the active principles of D. dasycarpus for treating skin diseases in its traditional usage.

17.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 46(4): 333-344, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês, Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33967078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the expressions and distributions of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), CD147, and glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) in epidermis from psoriasis vulgaris and normal people, and to explore the associations among these proteins and their roles in hypoxic HaCaT cell line. METHODS: The expression levels of HIF-1α, CD147, and GLUT1 were determined by immunohistochemistry staining in skin biopsies from 48 psoriasis vularis patients and 33 healthy subjects. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was added into the culture media of HaCaT cells to mimic hypoxia while RNA interference and transfection technologies were used to explore the association among these proteins by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. Glycolytic capacity was detected by ATP and lactate measurements. RESULTS: HIF-1α, CD147, and GLUT1 were highly expressed and the glycolytic capacity was increased in lesions of psoriasis vulgaris; HIF-1α upregulated the expression of CD147 and GLUT1, increased the lactate production and decreased the ATP level in CoCl2-treated HaCaT cells, while CD147 and GLUT1 directly or indirectly bound to each other. CONCLUSIONS: Glycolytic capacity increases in the injured keratinocytes of psoriasis vulgaris, suggesting that HIF-1α, CD147, and GLUT1 are associated with glycolysis, which can be considered as the promising targets for psoriasis therapy.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Psoríase , Basigina , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1 , Glicólise , Humanos , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Psoríase/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 784: 147190, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33895519

RESUMO

This study investigated heteroaggregation of three surface-functionalized polystyrene nanoparticles (PSNPs), i.e. negatively charged unfunctionalized nanoparticles (Bare-PS) and carboxylated nanoparticles (COOH-PS), and positively charged amino-functionalized nanoparticles (NH2-PS), with two model natural colloids, positively charged hematite and negatively charged kaolin, respectively. Heteroaggregation was conducted at a constant natural colloid concentration and variable NP/colloid concentration ratios. Electrostatic interaction was the main mechanism driving the formation of heteroaggregates. In binary systems containing hematite and Bare-PS/COOH-PS, a charge neutralization - charge inverse mechanism was observed with the increase of PSNP concentration. At NP/hemetite concentration ratios much smaller or larger than the full charge neutralization point, the primary heteroaggregates were stable, while full charge neutralization induced the formation of large secondary heteroaggregates. Large aggregates were not observed in suspensions containing kaolin and NH2-PS, as highly positively charged NH2-PS reversed surface charges of kaolin at extremely low concentrations. Heteroaggregation between PSNPs and natural colloids with the same charge is unfavorable due to strong electrostatic repulsion. In the presence of electrolytes, homoaggregation and heteroaggregation both occurred, and homoaggregation of hematite played a key role when the concentration of PSNPs was low. The presence of Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) could modify surface charges of nanoparticles, and thus affect heteroaggregation behaviors of the binary suspension. When SRNOM and electrolytes were both present, whether SRNOM inducing or hindering the stability of the binary system was a combined effect of NP/colloid concentration ratios, SRNOM concentrations, electrolyte types and ionic strength. Mechanisms extensively reported in homoaggregation such as steric hindrance and cation bridging effects between SRNOM and Ca2+ also stand for heteroaggregation. These results highlight the critical role of surface modification on the environmental behaviors of NPs, and will underpin our understanding of the fate and transport of NPs in the aquatic environment.

19.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(7): 2841-2854, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763710

RESUMO

The genus Citrobacter is commonly found in environmental and industrial settings, some members of which have been used for bioremediation of heavy metals owing to the absorption ability of their biofilms. Although our previous studies have found that the outer membrane protein A (OmpA) contributes to the process of Citrobacter werkmanii biofilm formation, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Therefore, we deleted ompA from the genome of C. werkmanii and investigated its phenotypes in comparison to the wild type strain (WT) and the complementary strain using biochemical and molecular techniques including RNA-Seq. Our results demonstrated that the deletion of ompA led to an increase in biofilm formation on both polystyrene and glass surfaces due to upregulation of some biofilm formation related genes. Meanwhile, swimming ability, which is mediated by activation of flagellar assembly genes, was increased on semi-solid plates in the ∆ompA strain when compared with WT. Additionally, inactivation of ompA also caused increased 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (BIT) resistance, differential responses to Ca2+ stress, curli protein expression and cellulose production. Finally, ∆ompA caused differential expression of a total of 1470 genes when compared with WT, of which 146 were upregulated and 1324 were downregulated. These genes were classified into different Gene Ontology (GO) and KEGG pathways. In summary, ompA in C. werkmanii contributes to a variety of biological functions and may act as a target site to modulate biofilm formation. KEY POINTS: • ompA is a negative regulator for biofilm formation by C. werkmanii. • ompA inhibits swimming motility of C. werkmanii. • ompA deletion causes different expression profiles in C. werkmanii.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes , Citrobacter/genética , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Natação
20.
Anal Chem ; 93(10): 4559-4566, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646744

RESUMO

Respective detection of microplastics (MPs) and nanoplastics (NPs) is of great importance for their different environmental behaviors and toxicities. Using spherical polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plastics as models, the efficiency for sequential isolation of MPs and NPs by membrane filtration and cloud-point extraction was evaluated. After filtering through a glass membrane (1 µm pore size), over 90.7% of MPs were trapped on the membrane, whereas above 93.0% of NPs remained in the filtrate. The collected MPs together with the glass membrane were frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground, and suspended in water (1 mL) and subjected to pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) determination. The NPs in the filtrate were concentrated by cloud-point extraction, heated at 190 °C to degrade the extractant, and then determined by Py-GC/MS. For MPs and NPs spiked in pure water, the method detection limits are in the range of 0.05-1.9 µg/L. The proposed method is applied to analyze four real water samples, with the detection of 1.6-7.6 µg/L PS MPs and 0.6 µg/L PMMA MPs in three samples, and spiked recoveries of 75.0-102% for MPs and 67.8-87.2% for NPs. Our method offers a novel sample pretreatment approach for the respective determination of MPs and NPs.


Assuntos
Microplásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Plásticos , Poliestirenos/análise , Pirólise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
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