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1.
Singapore Med J ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680181

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We aimed to assess the attitudes and learner needs of radiology residents and faculty radiologists regarding artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in radiology. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire, designed using SurveyMonkey, was sent out to residents and faculty radiologists in all three radiology residency programmes in Singapore. The questionnaire comprised four sections and aimed to evaluate respondents' current experience, attempts at self-learning, perceptions of career prospects and expectations of AI/ML curriculum in their residency programme. Respondents' anonymity was ensured. RESULTS: A total of 125 respondents (86 male, 39 female; 70 residents, 55 faculty radiologists) completed the questionnaire. The majority agreed that AI/ML will drastically change radiology practice (88.8%) and makes radiology more exciting (76.0%), and most would still choose to specialise in radiology if given a choice (80.0%). 64.8% viewed themselves as novices in their understanding of AI/ML, 76.0% planned to further advance their AI/ML knowledge and 67.2% were keen to get involved in an AI/ML research project. An overwhelming majority (84.8%) believed that AI/ML knowledge should be taught during residency, and most opined that this was as important as imaging physics and clinical skills/knowledge curricula (80.0% and 72.8%, respectively). More than half thought that their residency programme has not adequately implemented AI/ML teaching (59.2%). In subgroup analyses, male and tech-savvy respondents were more involved in AI/ML activities, leading to better technical understanding. CONCLUSION: A growing optimism of radiology undergoing technological transformation and AI/ML implementation has led to a strong demand for AI/ML curriculum in residency education.

2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14397, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31591423

RESUMO

The issue of electronic heat dissipation has received much attention in recent times and has become one of the key factors in electronic components such as circuit boards. Therefore, designing of materials with good thermal conductivity is vital. In this work, a thermally conductive SBP/PU composite was prepared wherein the spherical h-BN@PMMA (SBP) composite powders were dispersed in the polyurethane (PU) matrix. The thermal conductivity of SBP was found to be significantly higher than that of the pure h-BN/PU composite at the same h-BN filler loading. The SBP/PU composite can reach a high thermal conductivity of 7.3 Wm-1 K-1 which is twice as high as that of pure h-BN/PU composite without surface treatment in the same condition. This enhancement in the property can be attributed to the uniform dispersion of SBP in the PU polymer matrix that leads to a three-dimensional continuous heat conduction thereby improving the heat diffusion of the entire composite. Hence, we provide a valuable method for preparing a 3-dimensional heat flow path in polyurethane composite, leading to a high thermal conductivity with a small amount of filler.

3.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 146: 111581, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629228

RESUMO

Rapid thermal cycling (RTC) in an on-chip device can perform DNA amplification in vitro through precise thermal control at each step of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This study reports a straightforward fabrication technique for patterning an on-chip graphene-based device with hole arrays, in which the mechanism of surface structures can achieve stable and uniform thermal control for the amplification of DNA fragments. A thin-film based PCR device was fabricated using picosecond laser (PS-laser) ablation of the multilayer graphene (MLG). Under the optimal fluence of 4.72 J/cm2 with a pulse overlap of 66%, the MLG can be patterned with arrays of 250 µm2 hole surface structures. A 354-bp DNA fragment of VP1, an effective marker for diagnosing the BK virus, was amplified on an on-chip device in less than 60 min. A thin-film electrode with the aforementioned MLG as the heater was demonstrated to significantly enhance temperature stability for each stage of the thermal cycle. The temperature control of the heater was performed by means of a developed programmable PCR apparatus. Our results demonstrated that the proposed integration of a graphene-based device and a laser-pulse ablation process to form a thin-film PCR device has cost benefits in a small-volume reagent and holds great promise for practical medical use of DNA amplification.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(17)2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480728

RESUMO

Ceramide is a sphingolipid which regulates a variety of signaling pathways in eukaryotic cells. Exogenous ceramide has been shown to induce cellular apoptosis. In this study, we observed that exogenous ceramide induced two distinct morphologies of cell fate following C2-ceramide treatment between the two breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (wild type p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant p53) cells. The growth assessment showed that C2-ceramide caused significant growth inhibition and apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells through down-regulating the expression of mutant p53 whereas up-regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic Bad, and the proteolytic activation of caspase-3. However, senescence-associated (SA)-ß-galactosidase (ß-gal) was regulated in MCF-7 cells after C2-ceramide treatment. The results of proliferation and apoptosis assays showed that MCF-7 cells were more resistant to C2-ceramide treatment compared to MDA-MB-231 cells. Furthermore, C2-ceramide treatment induced a time-responsive increase in Rb protein, a key regulator of senescence accompanied with the upregulation of both mRNA level and protein level of SA-genes PAI-1 and TGaseII in MCF-7 but not in MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that some cancer cells escape apoptosis through modulating senescence-like phenotype. The results of our present study depicted the mechanism of C2-ceramide-resistant breast cancer cells, which might benefit the strategic development of ceramide-based chemotherapeutics against cancer in the future.

5.
Diabetologia ; 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511929

RESUMO

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) is a cytosolic sensor for double-stranded DNA and a tumour suppressor. Binding of double-stranded DNA to AIM2 forms the AIM2 inflammasome, leading to activation of caspase-1 and production of IL-1ß and IL-18. Although inflammasome-independent effects of AIM2 have been reported, its role in energy metabolism is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the effect of AIM2 in energy metabolism and glucose homeostasis. METHODS: Male and female whole body Aim2 knockout (Aim2-/-) mice were used in the current study. Body weight, food intake, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood glucose levels, GTT and body temperature were measured at indicated time points. RNA sequencing was carried out on gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) in 14-month-old female mice. mRNA and protein levels in tissues were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot. Immune cell infiltration in gWAT was examined by flow cytometry. Stromal vascular fractions isolated from gWAT were used to investigate adipocyte differentiation. RESULTS: Male and female Aim2-/- mice were obese compared with wild-type controls from 7 weeks of age until 51 weeks of age, with increased adiposity in both subcutaneous and visceral fat depots. While there were no differences in food intake, Aim2-/- mice demonstrated decreased energy expenditure and impaired brown adipose tissue function compared with wild-type controls. Fasting glucose and insulin levels were elevated, and Aim2-/- mice were glucose intolerant on intraperitoneal GTT. RNA sequencing revealed marked upregulation of the IFN-inducible gene Ifi202b, which encodes protein 202 (p202) and elevated inflammatory signalling in gWAT of Aim2-/- mice. Increased infiltration of total and Ly6Clow monocytes was noted at 8 weeks of age in gWAT, before the onset of obesity and insulin resistance. Ifi202b knockdown blocked adipogenesis in stromal vascular fractions and reduced inflammation in bone marrow-derived macrophages, demonstrating a key role of p202 in mediating the increased adipogenesis and inflammation in Aim2-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: These results demonstrate a fundamental role for AIM2 in energy metabolism, inflammation and insulin resistance. Our studies establish a novel link between the innate immunity proteins, AIM2 and p202, and metabolism.

6.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 516(2): 339-343, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31208723

RESUMO

Despite a high comorbidity between these two disorders, the physiological association between temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) and anxiety remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether TMDs contribute to anxiety through the induction of oligodendrogenesis in the hippocampus using a mouse model of TMD. Forty 8-week-old male BalB/C mice were used in the experiments. The mice were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1) control group (N group); (2) elevated occlusion group (E group); (3) restriction group (R group); and (4) elevated occlusion and restriction group (ER group). The mice were subjected to behavior tests of open field tests and elevated plus maze analysis. The serum corticosterone levels and expression of mature oligodendrocyte marker MBP and the oligodendrocyte marker RIP were analyzed. All data were statistically analyzed using by one-way analysis of variance. The TMD group showed condylar degeneration compared with the control group. Additionally, exposure to chronic restraint stress for 3 weeks after TMD significantly exacerbated anxiety-like behavior and resulted in a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels and in the expression of MBP and RIP in the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 in the hippocampus. Taken together, these data suggest that TMD lead to increased oligodendrogenesis in the hippocampus, which contributes to the development of anxiety-like behavior. TMD could contribute to anxiety by inducing oligodendrogenesis in the hippocampus.

7.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217171, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31167227

RESUMO

Archaeological evidence emerging over the past decade clearly illustrates that agro-pastoralists living along the foothills of major mountain chains in Central Asia (the so-called "Inner Asian Mountain Corridor" or IAMC) facilitated the spread of domesticated grains through their direct involvement in farming. While the environmental conditions across the northwestern slopes of the IAMC provided adequate resources for incipient farming and herding as early as the mid-3rd mill. BCE, the development of local agricultural strategies on the extremely arid and eroded foothills on the southeastern, leeward side of the mountains remain comparatively less studied. Our study tackles this problem by combining geoarchaeological analysis with conventional macrobotanical identification in the investigation of a 1st-mill. CE agro-pastoralist farming site, Mohuchahangoukou (MGK), located on the arid foothills of the Tianshan range. Our results illustrate how ancient agro-pastoralists at MGK innovated irrigation systems both to combat water shortage and, importantly, to trap sediments carried by flood-water for crop cultivation. By synthesizing currently available data, we estimate that they managed to trap about 40 cm of fine-grained sediment within a span of 200 years or even less. These stone-built field systems helped water a diverse stand of crops and create deeper soils in an otherwise deflated landscape with thin desert soils. Since we detected high levels of salt concentration (>2 dSm-1) in the lower portions of all three test trenches we analyzed, we conclude that soil salinization might have affected the long-term sustainability of this form of irrigated field management. We also infer that, besides engineering efforts, the ancient agro-pastoralists at MGK had to resolve the scheduling conflicts between irrigated farming and animal herding through labor specialization.

8.
Tob Control ; 2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is substantially attributable to smoking, but detailed related estimates on smoking-attributable expenditure (SAE) in China are not available yet, which could inform tobacco control and cancer prevention initiatives. METHODS: A prevalence-based approach was adopted to estimate the total SAE, including direct expenditure (medical and non-medical) and indirect cost (disability and premature death). Detailed per-patient data on direct expenditure and work-loss days were acquired from a unique multicentre survey in China. Other parameters were from literatures and official reports. RESULTS: The total estimated SAE of lung cancer was US$5249 million in China in 2015 (0.05 % of gross domestic product for China). The estimated direct SAE was US$1937 million (36.9 % of the total SAE), accounting for 0.29 % of total healthcare expenditure for China. The medical and non-medical direct expenditures were US$1749 million and US$188 million, respectively. The estimated indirect cost was US$3312 million (63.1 % of the total SAE), including US$377 million due to disability and US$2935 million due to premature death. The SAE increased with age, peaking at 60-64 years (US$1004 million), and was higher among men, in urban areas and in eastern China. If smoking prevalence was reduced to 20%, as is the goal of Healthy China 2030, the total SAE would be decreased by 4.9 %. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking-attributable economic burden caused by lung cancer was substantial in China in 2015, and will continue increasing given current trends in lung cancer. However, future economic burden can be prevented with implementation of effective tobacco control and other interventions.

9.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 70: 174-179, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30807930

RESUMO

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an excessive and uncontrolled inflammatory response in lung, of which remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in worldwide. Chikusetsusaponin V (CsV), a bioactive compounds derived from Panacis Japonica, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, it is still unclear whether CsV can protect mice against ALI. This study aimed to investigate the protective roles and potential mechanisms of CsV on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI in mice. The mice were pretreated with CsV (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) four days before LPS treatment. 24 h later LPS administration, the histopathological changes, wet/dry ratio, and MPO activity in lung tissues were detected. The inflammatory cells, including total cells, neutrophils, and macrophages in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected under a light microscope. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the BALF were assessed by ELISA. In addition, the expressions of NF-κB and LXRα in lung tissues were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that pretreatment of CsV attenuated the lung histopathological damages, lung wet/dry ratio, and MPO activity induced by LPS. In addition, CsV also reduced the LPS-induced increases in the number of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in the BALF. Furthermore, western blot analysis showed that CsV significantly inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. CsV dose-dependently increased the expression of LXRα. In vitro, the anti-inflammatory effects of CsV can be reversed by LXRα inhibitor, GGPP. In conclusion, the results showed that CsV protected against LPS-induced ALI due to its ability to activate LXRα.


Assuntos
Lesão Pulmonar Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Receptores X do Fígado/metabolismo , Pulmão/imunologia , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Saponinas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transdução de Sinais
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 16(3): e1800609, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605248

RESUMO

Tuber indicum, an endemic truffle species in eastern Asian, is an edible mushroom that is both an important export and widely distributed across China. Many existing studies on truffles focus on analyzing their taxonomy, population genetics, volatile organic compounds and artificial cultivation of the truffles, while little information is available about their nutrient composition and pharmacological activity, especially the relationship between chemical composition in ascocarps and their geographic distributions. This study presents a comprehensive investigation of the chemical composition of T. indicum, including free sugars, fatty acids, organic acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides, and tracks the antioxidant activity of T. indicum ascocarps collected from five geographical regions of four provinces in P. R. China: Hebei, Tibet, Yunnan, and Liaoning province. Our results showed that T. indicum collected from Qujing, Yunnan province, possessed the highest amount of free sugars (23.67 mg/g dw), total flavonoids (2.31 mg/g dw), total phenolics (4.46 mg/g dw) and the highest DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities. The amount of water-soluble polysaccharides was the highest (115.24 mg/g dw) in ascocarps from Tibet, the total organic acids was the highest (22.073 mg/g dw) in ascocarps from Gongshan, and polyunsaturated fatty acids were most abundant in those from Hebei province. This study reveals that the quantity of chemical compounds in T. indicum varies by geographical origin. Detecting differences in chemical composition may provide important data for understanding the relationship between environmental factors and truffle formation, as well as quality evaluation of the commercial species T. indicum throughout China.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ascomicetos/química , Benzotiazóis/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Açúcares/farmacologia , Ácidos Sulfônicos/antagonistas & inibidores , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , China , Flavonoides/síntese química , Flavonoides/química , Fenóis/síntese química , Fenóis/química , Açúcares/síntese química , Açúcares/química
11.
World Neurosurg ; 2019 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660874

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) with open posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) on sagittal lumbar-pelvic radiographic parameters for degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). METHODS: Of 48 patients with L4 single segmental DS, 25 underwent MIS-TLIF with Quadrant system and 23 underwent conventional open PLIF. Comparisons of data from the preoperative and final follow-up standing lateral lumbar x-rays, with the bilateral femoral heads, of the 2 groups were conducted using the following parameters: slip percentage (SP), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence, pelvic tilt (PT), sacral slope, lumbosacral angle, slip angle (SA), and the L1 axis and S1 distance (LASD). RESULTS: The slip reduction rate (ΔSP) in the OPEN group was significantly higher than in the MIS group (67 ± 34% vs. 37 ± 51%, P = 0.018). The change of SA (ΔSA) in the OPEN group was significantly higher than in the MIS group (3 ± 7° vs. -3 ± 5°, P = 0.003). The change of LASD (ΔLASD) in the OPEN group was significantly lower than in the MIS group (-4 ± 15 mm vs. 4 ± 9 mm, P = 0.033). There were positive correlations between the preoperative SP and LASD, and ΔSA and the change of LL (ΔLL), and a negative correlation between ΔLL and the change of PT (ΔPT). CONCLUSIONS: For low-grade DS, open PLIF has a higher rate of slip reduction compared to MIS-TLIF, and significantly reduces LASD, therefore, it is more conducive to improving lumbar sagittal balance.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 144(12): 2972-2984, 2019 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536993

RESUMO

To investigate the independent and joint associations of blood lipids and lipoproteins with lung cancer risk in Chinese males, a prospective cohort study was conducted. A total of 109,798 males with baseline information on total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and non-HDL were prospectively observed from 2006 to 2015 for cancer incidence. Cox proportional hazards models and restricted cubic spline (RCS) analysis were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). During a 9-year follow-up, a total of 986 lung cancer cases were identified. Multivariable analyses showed that both males with low TC (HRQ1vs.Q2 = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.02-1.60) and males with high TC (HRQ5vs.Q2 = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.04-1.63) had an increased lung cancer risk, and the U-shaped association was also revealed in the RCS analysis (poverall = 0.013, pnonlinear = 0.006). Furthermore, both low TG (HRQ1vs.Q2 = 1.24, 95%CI: 0.99-1.54) and high TG (HRQ5vs.Q2 = 1.27, 95%CI: 1.01-1.59) were associated with increased lung cancer risk, while low LDL-C (HRQ1vs.Q2 = 1.38, 95%CI: 1.11-1.72) was associated with increased lung cancer risk. When TC, TG and LDL-C were considered jointly, the number of abnormal indicators was linearly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer (ptrend < 0.001), as subjects with three abnormal indicators had a twofold higher risk of developing lung cancer (HR = 2.02, 95%CI: 1.62-2.54). Notably, these associations were statistically significant among never smokers, never drinkers and overweight/obese males. These findings suggest that dyslipidemia may potentially be a modifiable risk factor that has key scientific and clinical significance for lung cancer prevention.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipoproteínas/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Indicadores Básicos de Saúde , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Risco
13.
J Cell Physiol ; 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30515817

RESUMO

Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are important in chronic inflammation, and inflammatory responses affect synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cell (SMSC) function in temporomandibular joint repair. However, the effect of HDACs on SMSC inflammatory activation remains unclear. In this study, temporomandibular joint fibroblast-like synoviocytes obtained from osteoarthritis patients met the minimal mesenchymal stem cell criteria. Interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) upregulated IL-6 and IL-8 expression in SMSCs through nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway activation. IL-6 and IL-8 upregulation were blocked by broad-acting HDAC inhibitors SAHA and LBH589. MC1568 alleviated IL-1ß activation of SMSCs, whereas CI994 and FK228 produced a minimal or opposite effect in vitro. We also found HDAC10 was highly associated with localized IL-1ß expression in vivo and in vitro. HDAC10 knockdown alleviated IL-1ß-mediated SMSC activation and blocked NF-κB pathway activation. Conversely, HDAC10 overexpression promoted IL-6 and IL-8 expression and IL-1ß-mediated NF-κB pathway activation. In conclusion, HDAC10 upregulation contributed to IL-1ß-mediated inflammatory activation of SMSCs, indicating that HDAC10 may be a novel therapeutic target.

14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 18(1): 347, 2018 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High-saturate molecular linkage maps are an important tool in studies on plant molecular biology and assisted breeding. Development of a large set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) via next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based methods, restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), and the generation of a highly saturated genetic map help improve fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). RESULTS: We generated a highly saturated genetic map to identify significant traits in two elite grape cultivars and 176 F1 plants. In total, 1,426,967 high-quality restriction site-associated DNA tags were detected; 51,365, 23,683, and 70,061 markers were assessed in 19 linkage groups (LGs) for the maternal, paternal, and integrated maps, respectively. Our map was highly saturated in terms of marker density and average "Gap ≤ 5 cM" percentage. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, RAD-seq of 176 F1 plants and their parents yielded 8,481,484 SNPs and 1,646,131 InDel markers, of which 65,229 and 4832, respectively, were used to construct a highly saturated genetic map for grapevine. This map is expected to facilitate genetic studies on grapevine, including an evaluation of grapevine and deciphering the genetic basis of economically and agronomically important traits. Our findings provide basic essential genetic data the grapevine genetic research community, which will lead to improvements in grapevine breeding.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição/métodos , Vitis/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Metagenômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479322

RESUMO

Background/Aims: Approximately 20-30% of small bowel capsule endoscopies (SBCEs) do not reach the cecum at the completion of the examination. We aimed to determine whether hypokalemia influences the completion rate and small bowel transit time (SBTT) of SBCE. Patients and Methods: From January to December 2017, 112 patients (18-75 years old) who underwent SBCE were assessed consecutively for enrolment in our study. On the day of the procedure, a blood test was performed prior to capsule ingestion. The completion rate, gastric transit time (GTT), SBTT, and diagnostic yield were recorded for each SBCE. Results: The SBCE completion rate was lower in the hypokalemia group than that in the normal potassium group (55.6% (15/27) vs. 76.5% (65/85), P = 0.036). The median GTT was 55.5 ± 47.1 min in the hypokalemia group and 46.7 ± 44.5 min in the normal potassium group (P > 0.05). The median SBTT was 412.8 ± 123.3 min in the hypokalemia group and 367.3 ± 172.5 min in the normal potassium group (P > 0.05). The diagnostic yields of the hypokalemia and normal potassium groups were 74.1% and 78.8%, respectively (P = 1.00). Conclusion: Hypokalemia may decrease the SBCE completion rate. Physicians should consider the possibility of hypokalemia after bowel preparation because this condition is not rare. Potassium deficiencies should be rectified prior to performing SBCE procedures to increase the SBCE completion rate.

16.
Microb Pathog ; 125: 443-447, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30321590

RESUMO

Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus), a Gram-positive organism, is a frequent cause of subclinical mastitis. Geniposide, an iridoid glucoside isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides, has been reported to exhibit antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. The ability of S. aureus internalizing into bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) has been responsible for the establishment of the bovine mastitis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of geniposide on S. aureus internalization into bMEC and investigated the possible mechanism of action. The results revealed that geniposide (25-100 µg/ml) reduced S. aureus internalization by 17%-67% and down-regulated the mRNA expressions of TAP and BNBD5. Furthermore, geniposide inhibited S.aureus-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. In summary, the potential mechanism of geniposide reducing S. aureus internalization may be by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

17.
Int Forum Allergy Rhinol ; 8(11): 1334-1341, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30216703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) has not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore the role and mechanism of transient receptor potential canonical channel 6 (TRPC6) in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was employed to evaluate TRPC6 immunolabeling. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to assay TRPC6, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), and calcium release-activated calcium channel protein 1 (Orai1) messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 70 patients with CRSwNP, including eosinophilic CRSwNP (ECRSwNP) or non-eosinophilic CRSwNP (nECRSwNP), and 28 control subjects. The concentrations of inflammatory mediators, including interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-5, and IL-25, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In experiments on human nasal epithelial cell (HNEC) culture and stimulation, the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) of intracellular Ca2+ was assayed by flow cytometry. Western blotting, real-time PCR, and ELISA were also conducted to assess the effects and mechanisms of TRPC6 activator 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol (OAG) and TRPC6 inhibitor 1-[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl) propoxy]ethyl-1H-imidazole (SKF-96365) on HNECs. RESULTS: Upregulation of TRPC6, STIM1, and Orai1 levels was found in CRSwNP patients, particularly in those with ECRSwNP. TRPC6-positive cells correlated positively with the numbers of eosinophils and neutrophils, respectively. Moreover, TRPC6 mRNA was positively correlated with STIM1 and Orai1 mRNA levels. The concentrations of inflammatory mediators, including IL-1ß, IL-5, and IL-25, were elevated in CRSwNP, especially in ECRSwNP. In cultured HNECs, TRPC6, STIM1, Orai1, Ca2+ MFI levels, and inflammatory mediators were upregulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and OAG but were inhibited by SKF-96365. CONCLUSION: TRPC6 plays a pro-inflammatory role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP via regulating Ca2+ flow.

18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9045, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29899426

RESUMO

Bismuth + proton pump inhibitor (PPI) + amoxicillin + levofloxacin is one of the bismuth quadruple therapy regimens widely used for the eradication of H. pylori infection. The recommended dosage of levofloxacin is 500 mg once daily or 200 mg twice daily to eradicate H. pylori infection. The aim of the present open-label, randomized control trial was to compare the effectiveness, safety, and compliance of different dosages of levofloxacin used to cure Helicobacter pylori infection. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive esomeprazole, amoxicillin, colloidal bismuth pectin and levofloxacin 500 mg once/day (group A) or levofloxacin 200 mg twice/day (group B) for 14 days. The primary outcome was the eradication rates in the intention-to-treat (ITT) and per protocol (PP) analyses. Overall, 400 patients were enrolled. The eradication rates in group A and group B were 77.5% and 79.5% respectively, in the ITT analysis, and 82.9% and 86.4%, respectively, in the PP analysis. No significant differences were found between two groups in terms of eradication rate, adverse effects or compliance. Oral levofloxacin 200 mg twice daily was similar in efficacy for eradicating H. pylori infection to oral levofloxacin 500 mg once daily but with lower mean total costs.

19.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 20(2): 177-189, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29773009

RESUMO

Ganoderma mushrooms for medicinal use contain various bioactive compounds, but the genetic elements available for these medicinal mushrooms are still limited. In this study we cloned and analyzed the promoters of fungal immunomodulatory protein (FIP) genes from G. lucidum and G. atrum. FIP gene expression was induced by different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salicylic acid (SA), and messenger RNA expression was detected by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The results provided 5' upstream sequences of FIP genes from G. lucidum and G. atrum. Sequence analysis showed that the FIP-glu promoter sequence contained 11 CAAT boxes, 3 TATA boxes, 3 MeJA-responsive elements, 3 MYB binding site (MBS) motifs, 1 abscisic acid responsive element, 1 TGA, 1 anaerobic inducible element, 2 circadian elements, 1 fungal elicitor, 1 meristem-specific activation element, 3 Skn-1 motifs, and several light-responsive elements. The 5' flanking region of FIP-gat included 9 CAAT boxes, 4 TATA boxes, 3 MeJA-responsive elements, 1 AuxRR core, 1 GC motif, 1 MBS, 1 fungal elicitor, 1 meristem-specific activation element, 3 Skn-1 motifs, and several light-responsive elements. On the transcriptional level, both FIP-glu and FIP-gat reached their highest expression after treatment with MeJA at 500 µmol/L. FIP-glu expression depended on the concentration of SA (0-1000 mg/L); the expression of the FIP-gat gene was highest at a concentration of 100 mg MeJA/L. This research lays the foundation to use Ganoderma mycelia as bioreactors for producing FIPs.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Ganoderma/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica , Fatores Imunológicos/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Acetatos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Clonagem Molecular/métodos , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Genes Fúngicos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
20.
Inflammation ; 41(5): 1640-1647, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29748730

RESUMO

Corynoline, a bioactive compound isolated from Corydalis bungeana Turcz., has been known to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, its effects on the inflammation of the cardiovascular system have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of corynoline on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that LPS significantly increased the expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. The production of cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 was also up-regulated by LPS. However, these increases were concentration-dependently suppressed by the treatment of corynoline. To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of corynoline, we checked the activation of NF-κB and the expression of Nrf2. The results showed that LPS-induced NF-κB activation was suppressed by corynoline. The expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 was up-regulated by the treatment of corynoline. Knockdown of Nrf2 could reverse the anti-inflammatory effects of corynoline. In conclusion, the results indicated that corynoline exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by activating Nrf2.

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