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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797879

RESUMO

Lightweight electromagnetic (EM) wave absorbers made of ceramics have sparked tremendous interest for applications in EM wave interference protection at high temperatures. However, EM wave absorption by pure ceramics still faces huge challenges due to the lack of efficient EM wave attenuation modes. Inspired by the energy dissipation mechanism during fracture of lobster shells with a soft and stiff multilayered structure, we fabricate a high-performance EM wave absorption ceramic aerogel composed of an alternating multilayered wave transparent Si3N4 (N) layer and wave absorption SiC (C) layer by a simple restack method. The obtained N/C aerogel shows ultralow density (∼8 mg/cm3), broad effective absorption bandwidth (8.4 GHz), strong reflection loss (-45 dB) at room temperature, and excellent EM wave absorption performance at high temperatures up to 1000 °C. The attenuation of EM wave mainly results from a "reflection-absorption-zigzag reflection" process caused by the alternating multilayered structure. The superior absorption performance, especially at high temperatures, makes the N/C aerogel promising for next-generation wave absorption devices served in high-temperature environments.

2.
Org Lett ; 23(7): 2493-2497, 2021 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33733789

RESUMO

This work emphasizes facile construction of C-3a vinyl substituted hexahydropyrrolidinoindolines based upon Ni-catalyzed reductive coupling of chloro-hexahydropyrroloindoline derivatives with a wide range of alkyl-decorated vinyl triflates. The remarkable compatibility of sterically hindered branched vinyl groups is highlighted.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(12)2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33723035

RESUMO

GTPase high frequency of lysogenization X (HflX) is highly conserved in prokaryotes and acts as a ribosome-splitting factor as part of the heat shock response in Escherichia coli. Here we report that HflX produced by slow-growing Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a GTPase that plays a critical role in the pathogen's transition to a nonreplicating, drug-tolerant state in response to hypoxia. Indeed, HflX-deficient M. bovis BCG (KO) replicated markedly faster in the microaerophilic phase of a hypoxia model that resulted in premature entry into dormancy. The KO mutant displayed hallmarks of nonreplicating mycobacteria, including phenotypic drug resistance, altered morphology, low intracellular ATP levels, and overexpression of Dormancy (Dos) regulon proteins. Mice nasally infected with HflX KO mutant displayed increased bacterial burden in the lungs, spleen, and lymph nodes during the chronic phase of infection, consistent with the higher replication rate observed in vitro in microaerophilic conditions. Unlike fast growing mycobacteria, M. bovis BCG HlfX was not involved in antibiotic resistance under aerobic growth. Proteomics, pull-down, and ribo-sequencing approaches supported that mycobacterial HflX is a ribosome-binding protein that controls translational activity of the cell. With HflX fully conserved between M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis, our work provides further insights into the molecular mechanisms deployed by pathogenic mycobacteria to adapt to their hypoxic microenvironment.

4.
J Surg Res ; 262: 1-5, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to characterize postoperative myasthenic crisis (POMC), after extended thymectomy and discuss the treatment options for this condition. METHODS: Clinical data from patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) who underwent extended thymectomy at Xuanwu Hospital of the Capital Medical University from 2016 to 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two groups-POMC and non-POMC. Variables that could potentially predict POMC were analyzed. In the POMC group, the aforementioned variables were compared between patients with and without pneumonia. RESULTS: Ninety-seven patients were enrolled. Thirty-eight (39.2%) patients developed POMC. The mean duration of mechanical ventilation (MV), length of intensive care unit stay, and duration of hospital stay were significantly longer in the POMC group (P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that disease severity, symptom duration longer than 12 mo, and transsternal thymectomy were independent risk factors for POMC. Postoperative pneumonia significantly prolonged the MV period (P = 0.012) and weaning from MV after intravenous immunoglobin (IVIg) treatment (P = 0.005) in POMC patients. Twenty-four (24.7%) POMC patients who received IVIg were successfully weaned from MV and were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: Disease severity, symptom duration longer than 12 mo, and transsternal thymectomy were independent risk factors for POMC. Postoperative pneumonia worsens the prognosis of POMC.

5.
Cell Rep ; 34(5): 108709, 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535048

RESUMO

A thorough neuroanatomical study of the brain architecture is crucial for understanding its cellular compositions, connections, and working mechanisms. However, the fine- and multiscale features of neuron structures make it challenging for microscopic imaging, as it requires high contrast and high throughput simultaneously. Here, we propose chemical sectioning fluorescence tomography (CSFT) to solve this problem. By chemically switching OFF/ON the fluorescent state of the labeled proteins (FPs), we light only the top layer as thin as submicron for imaging without background interference. Combined with the wide-field fluorescence micro-optical sectioning tomography (fMOST) system, we have shown multicolor CSFT imaging. We also demonstrate mouse whole-brain imaging at the subcellular resolution, as well as the power for quantitative acquisition of synaptic-connection-related pyramidal dendritic spines and axon boutons on the brain-wide scale at the complete single-neuron level. We believe that the CSFT method would greatly facilitate our understanding of the brain-wide neuron networks.

6.
Future Oncol ; 17(6): 745-754, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401983

RESUMO

Aim: We performed an updated meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib in cancer patients. Materials & methods: Databases were searched to identify relevant trials. Data were extracted to evaluate overall survival, progression-free survival, overall response rate and grade ≥3 adverse events. Results: The pooled analysis demonstrated that lenvatinib significantly improved progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.43; 95% CI: 0.23-0.80; p = 0.008), overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.75-0.97; p = 0.013) and overall response rate (relative risk: 6.89; 95% CI: 2.22-21.36; p = 0.001) compared with control therapy. However, the use of lenvatinib can increase the risk of severe infection. Conclusion: Lenvatinib-containing regimens are associated with better progression-free survival, overall survival and overall response rate, but can induce severe infection.

7.
Shock ; 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443364

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Rhabdomyolysis (RM) has been associated with many viral infectious diseases, and associated with poor outcomes. We aim to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of rhabdomyolysis (RM) in patients with COVID-19. METHOD: This was a single-center, retrospective, cohort study of 1,014 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 at the Huoshenshan Hospital in Wuhan, China, between February 17 and April 12, 2020. RESULTS: The overall incidence of RM was 2.2%. Compared with patients without RM, those with RM tended to have a higher risk of deterioration. Patients with RM also constituted a greater percentage of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (90.9% vs 5.3%, P < 0.001) and a greater percentage of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation (86.4% vs 2.7% P < 0.001). Moreover, patients with RM had laboratory test abnormalities, including the presence of markers of inflammation, activation of coagulation, and kidney injury. Patients with RM also had a higher risk of in-hospital death (P < 0.001). Cox's proportional hazard regression model analysis confirmed that RM indicators, including peak creatine kinase (CK) levels > 1000 IU/L (HR = 6.46, 95% CI: 3.02-13.86) and peak serum myoglobin (MYO) concentrations > 1000 ng/mL (HR = 9.85, 95% CI: 5.04-19.28), were independent risk factors for in-hospital death. Additionally, patients with COVID-19 that developed RM tended to have delayed viral clearance. CONCLUSION: RM might be an important contributing factor to adverse outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The early detection and effective intervention of RM may help reduce mortality among COVID-19 patients.

8.
J Phys Chem B ; 125(4): 1214-1226, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496172

RESUMO

There is a huge demand for the highly selective separation of HNO3 and HCl in many industries, and solvent extraction is considered a feasible method. In this article, DFT calculations were performed to investigate the interactions between acids and extractants including alcohols, ketones, phosphorus, and amines. One of the significant findings to emerge from this study is that amines bind to acids through ion association. Nevertheless, the interaction between acids and alcohols, ketones, and phosphorus with a (RO)3P═O structure is mainly dominated by hydrogen bonds. The change of Gibbs free energy in the extraction process shows that the phosphorus ((RO)3P═O) is superior to other types of extractants in the selective separation of HNO3 and HCl. Furthermore, after the alkoxyl group (RO-) in phosphorus ((RO)3P═O) is replaced by RN- or R- with less electronegativity, the interaction between HCl and the substituted extractants transitions from a hydrogen bond to ion association, but there are still strong hydrogen bonds between them and HNO3. That will lead to a decrease in the selectivity of phosphorus due to the change in interaction types. This new understanding should help the design and screening of efficient extractants for the separation of mineral acids.

9.
Mil Med Res ; 8(1): 5, 2021 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472705

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heat stroke (HS) is an acute physical disorder that is associated with a high risk of organ dysfunction and even death. HS patients are usually treated symptomatically and conservatively; however, there remains a lack of specific and effective drugs in clinical practice. An analysis of publication contributions from institutions, journals and authors in different countries/regions was used to study research progress and trends regarding HS. METHODS: We extracted all relevant publications on HS between 1989 and 2019 from Web of Science. Using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 24) and the software GraphPad Prism 8, graphs were generated and statistical analyses were performed, while VOSviewer software was employed to visualize the research trends in HS from the perspectives of co-occurring keywords. RESULTS: As of April 14, 2020, we identified 1443 publications with a citation frequency of 5216. The United States accounted for the largest number of publications (36.2%) and the highest number of citations (14,410), as well as the highest H-index at 74. Although the sum of publications from China ranked second, there was a contradiction between the quantity and quality of publications. Furthermore, Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise published the most papers related to HS, with Lin MT publishing the most papers in this field (112), while the review by Knochel JP received the highest citation frequency at 969. The keyword heat-stress appeared most recently, with an average appearing year of 2015.5. In the clinical research cluster, exertional heat-stroke was determined to be the hotspot, while ambient-temperature and heat waves were the new trends in the epidemiological research cluster. CONCLUSIONS: Corresponding to this important field, while the contributions of the publications from the United States were significant, the mismatch between the quantity and quality of publications from China must be examined. Moreover, it is hypothesized that clinical and epidemiological studies may become hotspots in the near future.


Assuntos
Golpe de Calor/terapia , Bibliometria , Golpe de Calor/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
10.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 163: 153-162, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347987

RESUMO

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical playing an important pathophysiological role in cardiovascular and immune systems. Recent studies reported that NO levels were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19, which was suggested to be closely related to vascular dysfunction and immune inflammation among them. In this review, we examine the potential role of NO during SARS-CoV-2 infection from the perspective of the unique physical, chemical and biological properties and potential mechanisms of NO in COVID-19, as well as possible therapeutic strategies using inhaled NO. We also discuss the limits of NO treatment, and the future application of this approach in prevention and therapy of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Óxido Nítrico/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Anti-Inflamatórios/sangue , Anticoagulantes/sangue , Antivirais/sangue , /patologia , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Células Endoteliais/virologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Pulmão/irrigação sanguínea , Pulmão/virologia , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/virologia , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , /patogenicidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Vasodilatação/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Nano Lett ; 2020 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263408

RESUMO

Ferroelectric Rashba semiconductors (FERSCs) have recently attracted intensive attention due to their giant bulk Rashba parameter, αR, which results in a locking between the spin degrees of freedom and the switchable electric polarization. However, the integration of FERSCs into microelectronic devices has provoked questions concerning whether the Rashba effect can persist when the material thickness is reduced to several nanometers. Here we find that αR can keep a large value of 2.12 eV Å in the 5.0 nm thick GeTe film. The behavior of αR with thickness can be expressed by the scaling law and provides a 3D thickness limit of the bulk Rashba effect, dc = 2.1 ± 0.5 nm. Finally, we find that the thickness can modify the Berry curvature as well, which influences the polarization and consequently alters the αR. Our results give insight into understanding the factors influencing αR in FERSCs and pave a novel route for designing Rashba-type quantum materials.

12.
Front Physiol ; 11: 1087, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33192536

RESUMO

Objective: To study the role of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) in endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by heat stress, to further explore the signal pathway by which RAGE contributes to heat-induced endothelia response, and thereby find a novel target for the clinical treatment of ALI (acute lung injury) induced by heatstroke. Methods: This study established the animal model of heatstroke using RAGE knockout mice. We observed the role of RAGE in acute lung injury induced by heatstroke in mice by evaluating the leukocytes, neutrophils, and protein concentration in BALF (Bronchoalveolar lavage fluids), lung wet/dry ratio, histopathological changes, and the morphological ultrastructure of lung tissue and arterial blood gas analysis. To further study the mechanism, we established a heat stress model of HUVEC and concentrated on the role of RAGE and its signal pathway in the endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by heat stress, measuring Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and western blot. Results: RAGE played a key role in acute lung injury induced by heatstroke in mice. The mechanism C-Jun is located in the promoter region of the RAGE gene. C-Jun increased the RAGE protein expression while HSF1 suppressed RAGE protein expression. The overexpressed RAGE protein then increased HUVEC monolayer permeability by activating ERK and P38 MAPK under heat stress. Conclusion: This study indicates the critical role of RAGE in heat stress-induced endothelial hyperpermeability in acute lung injury and suggests that RAGE could be a potential therapeutic target in protecting patients against acute lung injury induced by heatstroke.

13.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 15(1): 316, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ameloblastic carcinoma (AC) is an odontogenic malignant tumor which is closely related to benign ameloblastoma. Because of its rarity, diagnosis and treatment are difficult. In this study, we summarized and analyzed the clinical and biological characteristics of AC. RESULTS: Fifteen patients with AC and a median age of 53 years were identified. Among of them, five patients who were tested carried a BRAF-V600E mutation. Two patients presented with cervical lymph nodes and lung metastases. Primary AC was more invasive, and the bone destruction ability of the primary type was more radical than that of the secondary type. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the BRAF-V600E mutation was related to the aggressive behavior of AC, and early radical resection is crucial. Moreover, targeted therapy may be a new direction in the future.

14.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(19): 1225, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33178757

RESUMO

Background: Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) serves as a biomarker in multiple malignant diseases. However, controversy still surrounds the role of cfDNA detection in the diagnosis and monitoring of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). This study set out to identify the role of cfDNA detection in distinguishing between benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Methods: Tissue, blood cell, and plasma samples were collected from 10 patients with benign nodules and 10 patients with malignant nodules. The DNA isolated from these samples was subject to PCR-based amplification using primers designed for 50 proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. PCR products were sequenced using Illumina technology, and the mutations were detected with varScan among sequencing data for each sample and comparative analysis was carried out. Results: Through amplicon sequencing, we found one non-synonymous somatic mutation in the benign nodules and three in the malignant nodules. Among these four mutations, BRAFV600E mutation was detected in the tissue samples of 8 out of the 10 PTC patients, but it was not detected in the benign nodules. However, no BRAFV600E mutation was detected in cfDNA. Further differential analysis of cfDNA indicated that some genes had more mutations in benign patients than in malignant patients, such as MET and IDH, and some genes had more mutations in malignant patients, such as PIK3CA and EZH2. Conclusions: We found that BRAFV600E mutation was a credible disease-related mutation in PTC; however, it could not be detected in cfDNA. Moreover, there was a large difference in mutation gene distribution between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.

15.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 16628, 2020 10 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33024229

RESUMO

Experimental animals including the ferret, marmoset, woodchuck, mini pig, and tree shrew have been used in biomedical research. However, their gut microbiota have not been fully investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of these five experimental animals were analyzed with 16S rRNA sequencing. The phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria were present in the gut microbiota of all the species. Specific phyla were present in different animals: Proteobacteria in the ferret, Tenericutes in the marmoset, and Spirochaetes in the mini pig. Fusobacterium and unidentified Clostridiales were the dominant genera in the ferret, whereas Libanicoccus, Lactobacillus, Porphyromonas, and Peptoclostridium were specific to marmoset, mini pig, woodchuck, and tree shrew, respectively. A clustering analysis showed that the overall distribution of microbial species in the guts of these species mirrored their mammalian phylogeny, and the microbiota of the marmoset and tree shrew showed the closest bray_curtis distances to that of humans. PICRUSt functional prediction separated the woodchuck from the other species, which may reflect its herbivorous diet. In conclusion, both the evolutionary phylogeny and daily diet affect the gut microbiota of these experimental animals, which should not be neglected for their usage in biomedical research.

16.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 9(10): e1192, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082954

RESUMO

Objective: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak is a major challenge all over the world, without acknowledged treatment. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been recommended to treat critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients in a few reviews, but the clinical study evidence on its efficacy in COVID-19 patients was lacking. Methods: 325 patients with laboratory-confirmed critical COVID-19 were enrolled from 4 government-designated COVID-19 treatment centres in southern China from December 2019 to March 2020. The primary outcomes were 28- and 60-day mortality, and the secondary outcomes were the total length of in-hospital and the total duration of the disease. Subgroup analysis was carried out according to clinical classification of COVID-19, IVIG dosage and timing. Results: In the enrolled 325 patients, 174 cases used IVIG and 151 cases did not. The 28-day mortality was improved with IVIG after adjusting confounding in overall cohort (P = 0.0014), and the in-hospital and the total duration of disease were longer in the IVIG group (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that only in patients with critical type, IVIG could significantly reduce the 28-day mortality, decrease the inflammatory response and improve some organ functions (all P < 0.05); the application of IVIG in the early stage (admission ≤ 7 days) with a high dose (> 15 g per day) exhibited significant reduction in 60-day mortality in the critical-type patients. Conclusion: Early administration of IVIG with high dose improves the prognosis of critical-type patients with COVID-19. This study provides important information on clinical application of IVIG in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection, including patient selection and administration dosage and timing.

17.
Respir Med Case Rep ; 31: 101244, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33083221

RESUMO

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. As the incidence of lung cancer increases in recent years, the number of patients diagnosed with synchronous multiple primary lung cancers (SMPLC) is also rising. SMPLC diagnosis is often made based on the clinical course, imaging findings, and histologic and molecular features. Standard lobectomy is the main therapeutic modality for SMPLC. Because maximum retention of lung function is essential, sublobectomy is also a commonly used surgical strategy when appropriate. The question is how to optimize the sequence of lobectomy and sublobectomy for patients with SMPLC. Thoracoscope lobectomy for the primary lesion plus sublobectomy for the secondary lesions is the most commonly used approach. Here we present a case of SMPLC with sublobectomy followed by lobectomy.

18.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 3525-3534, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33116671

RESUMO

Introduction: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is a potentially lethal opportunistic infection. Old age is one of the important risk factors of IPA. However, data regarding the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors of elderly patients with IPA are limited, with data regarding co-infection of other bacteria or fungi even scarcer. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of elderly patients (aged≥60) with IPA diagnosed in the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2000 to December 2019. Data collection included demographic characteristics, premorbid conditions, underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, therapeutic procedures, and pathogenic detection. Associated factors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 97 elderly patients (75 males, 22 females) with IPA were included. The all-cause mortality rate was 36.1% (35/97). Body mass index (BMI) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.50, P=0.01), solid organ malignancy (adjusted OR 5.37, 95% CI 1.35-21.33, P=0.02), and co-infections (adjusted OR 5.73, 95% CI 1.40-23.51, P=0.02) were associated with mortality in the elderly patients with IPA. Nearly, 76.3% (74/97) of the patients developed co-infections. Most of the infections (55/74, 74.3%) involved the lung. A total of 77 strains of bacteria were isolated, and Gram-negative bacteria (63/77, 81.3%) were predominant. Patients with co-infections are older (72.3±7.6 vs 67.4±7.4, P=0.04), prone to admit to the intensive care unit (ICU) (59.5% vs 26.1%, P=0.01), and present lymphopenia (60.8% vs 26.1%, P=0.004). In multivariate analysis, ICU admission (adjusted OR 4.57, 95% CI 1.53-13.67, P=0.01), and lymphopenia (adjusted OR 4.82, 95% CI 1.62-14.38, P=0.01) were significantly associated with co-infection in the elderly patients with IPA. Conclusion: IPA is a fatal disease in the elderly population. Co-infection is closely associated with mortality. Lymphopenia could be an indicator for co-infection in the elderly patients with IPA.

19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 872, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32973658

RESUMO

Background: In neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs), inflammation is not the sole driver of accumulation of disability; neurodegeneration is another important pathological process. We aim to explore different patterns of cortical atrophy and ventricular enlargement in NMOSD. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 230 subjects, comprising 55 healthy controls (HCs), 85 multiple sclerosis (MS), and 90 NMOSD patients from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital and Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Different compartments of the brain (total gray, cortex, subcortex gray, and ventricle volume) were evaluated with the FreeSurfer. Multiple linear regressions were adopted to explore associations between cortex volume and predict factors. Results: Compared with HCs, NMOSD, and MS displayed an enlarged lateral and third ventricle (p < 0.001), whereas expansion of the fourth ventricle was observed in MS rather than NMOSD (p = 0.321). MS and NMOSD patients exhibited cortical thinning in comparison with HCs. However, pronounced cortical atrophy were only significant in pre-cuneus, parahippocampal, and lateral occipital lobe between MS and NMOSD. Patients with NMOSD had decreased local gyrification index in orbitofrontal and pre-cuneus lobe, and reduced pial surface area. Linear regression analysis revealed cortex volume were predicated by advanced age (standardized ß = -0.404, p = 0.001) as well as prolonged disease history (standardized ß = -0.311, p = 0.006). Conclusion: NMOSD exhibited global cortex atrophy with enlarged lateral and third ventricles. Moreover, cortex volume is associated with age and disease duration.

20.
J Fungi (Basel) ; 6(4)2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987844

RESUMO

Rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are nonlichenized fungi that naturally colonize rock surfaces and subsurfaces. The extremely slow growth rate and lack of distinguishing morphological characteristics of RIF resulted in a poor understanding on their biodiversity. In this study, we surveyed RIF colonizing historical stone monuments and natural rock formations from throughout China. Among over 1000 isolates, after preliminary delimitation using the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) sequences, representative isolates belonging to Trichomeriaceae and Herpotrichiellaceae were selected for a combined analysis of ITS and the nuclear ribosomal large subunit (nucLSU) to determine the generic placements. Eight clades representing seven known genera and one new genus herein named as Anthracina were placed in Trichomeriaceae. While, for Herpotrichiellaceae, two clades corresponded to two genera: Cladophialophora and Exophiala. Fine-scale phylogenetic analyses using combined sequences of the partial actin gene (ACT), ITS, mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal DNA (mtSSU), nucLSU, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB1), small subunit of nuclear ribosomal RNA gene (SSU), translation elongation factor (TEF), and ß-tubulin gene (TUB) revealed that these strains represented 11 and 6 new species, respectively, in Trichomeriaceae and Herpotrichiellaceae. The 17 new species were described, illustrated for their morphologies and compared with similar taxa. Our study demonstrated that the diversity of RIF is surprisingly high and still poorly understood. In addition, a rapid strategy for classifying RIF was proposed to determine the generic and familial placements through preliminary ITS and nucLSU analyses, followed by combined analyses of five loci selected from ACT, ITS, mtSSU, nucLSU, RPB1, and/or the second subunit of RNA polymerase II gene (RPB2), SSU, TEF, and TUB regions to classify RIF to the species level.

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