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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166334

RESUMO

Plastics are ubiquitous in the environment and have become a hot topic in academic circles. Extensive studies have focused on analytical methods, source, abundance, transport, fate, degradation of plastics in the environment and threats to natural surroundings, wildlife or even human health. However, characteristics of plastic pollution, which are critical to understand this emerging problem, remain unknown up to now. Here, this paper reviews the major characteristics of plastic pollution in the environment to enhance present understanding of this issue. These characteristics, including diversity, persistence, global issues, combined pollution and threats to organisms and human health, are critically summarized in this work. Further, "plastic cycle" in the environment, namely, aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial system, is also discussed in this review. Finally, we highlight current challenges of plastic pollution posed to the public and also recommend the research trends in future work.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32149634

RESUMO

A two-dimensional (2D) array with a small pitch (approximately 0.5λ in medium) can achieve a complete three-dimensional control of ultrasound beams without grating lobes and enable the generation of multiple focal spots simultaneously, which is a desired tool for noninvasive therapy. However, the large electrical impedance of 2D array elements owing to their small size results in a low energy transfer efficiency between a 2D array and an electrical system, thereby limiting their practical applications. This paper presents the development of a 1-MHz 256-element 2D array ultrasonic transducer of low electrical impedance based on a new Sm-doped Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (Sm-PMN-PT) piezoceramic with ultrahigh dielectric permittivity. The electrical impedance of the array element is decreased by 3.4 times as the Sm-PMN-PT replacing commercial PZT-5H. Consequently, the output acoustic pressure of the 2D array made of Sm-PMN-PT ceramic is approximately twice that of the 2D array made of PZT-5H ceramic under the same excitation conditions. Array elements are spaced at a 1.1 mm pitch (0.71λ in water), enabling a large steering range of the ultrasound beam. A multiple-target blood-brain barrier opening in vivo is demonstrated using the proposed 2D array with electronic focusing and steering. The obtained results indicate that the 2D array made of Sm-PMN-PT ceramic is promising for practical use in low-intensity ultrasound therapy applications.

3.
Immun Inflamm Dis ; 2020 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32162849

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, and AD patients are commonly sensitized to house dust mite (HDM). Of the several treatment options available, allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has been recognized as an effective treatment modality that is directed toward the immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated nature of AD, and subcutaneous administration using HDM is most commonly used for AIT in AD. For patients sensitized to animal (dog or cat) dander, the treatment may not be easy, especially when avoiding the allergen is not possible. METHODS: This study enrolled patients with AD who were sensitized to cat and/or dog dander and underwent AIT (n = 19). Patients' medical information was obtained, including past treatment history, treatment duration of AIT, and the progress of treatment. Also, the specific IgE levels and IgG4 levels were measured before and after AIT. RESULTS: A total of 19 patients with AD underwent AIT using cat and/or dog dander. The patients consisted of 4 males and 15 females with an average age of 31.74 ± 9.71. Only two patients had AD only, and the other 17 patients had one or more concomitant allergic diseases, such as allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, or allergic conjunctivitis. Seven patients were not sensitized to HDMs and only sensitized to cat and/or dog dander. The duration of AIT ranged from 2 to 58 months. The symptoms of 17 patients were well-controlled, requiring only topical treatment and/or oral antihistamines. One patient required systemic cyclosporine, but only of low dose (25 mg/day). The specific IgE levels were decreased (P = .005) and IgG4 levels showed the tendency of increasing after AIT. No adverse events were observed in these patients. CONCLUSION: Although a larger number of patients for a longer follow-up period are needed to precisely assess the treatment efficacy, AIT using cat and/or dog dander may be an effective treatment option for AD patients, especially for severe AD patients with other respiratory allergic comorbidities who cannot completely avoid the exposure to animal dander.

5.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32116191

RESUMO

Inhibitors of monoamine oxidase (MAO) have shown therapeutic values in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases such as depression, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Heterocyclic compounds exhibit a broad spectrum of biological activities and vital leading compounds for the development of chemical drugs. Herein, we focus on the synthesis and screening of novel single heterocyclic derivatives with MAO inhibitory activities during the past decade. This review covers recent pharmacological advancements of single heterocyclic moiety along with structure activity relationship so as to provide better correlation among different structures and their receptor interactions.

6.
Hypertension ; 75(4): 982-990, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32148122

RESUMO

To investigate the association between visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure and the incidence of dementia and its subtypes in a general population, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Korean National Health Insurance System database. We identified 7 844 814 subjects without a history of any dementia who underwent ≥3 health examinations from 2005 to 2012 in the Korean National Health Insurance System cohort. Blood pressure variability (BPV) was measured using the variability independent of the mean, coefficient of variation, and SD. During the median follow-up of 6.2 years, there were 200 574 cases of all-cause dementia (2.8%), 165 112 cases of Alzheimer's disease (2.1%), and 27 443 cases of vascular dementia (0.3%). There was a linear association between higher BPV and outcome measures. In the multivariable adjusted model, the hazard ratios and 95% CIs of all-cause dementia were 1.06 (1.04-1.07) for the highest quartile of variability independent of the mean of diastolic blood pressure only, 1.09 (1.08-1.11) for that of systolic blood pressure only, and 1.18 (1.16-1.19) for that of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with subjects having no highest quartile for BPV. Consistent results were noted for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia using other indices of variability and in various sensitivity and subgroup analyses. BPV is an independent predictor for developing dementia and its subtypes. A dose-response relationship was noted between higher BPV and dementia incidence. Reducing BPV may be a target for preventing dementia in the general population.

7.
Br J Cancer ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reproductive factors and hormone use in postmenopausal women have been hypothesised to affect the risk of developing lung cancer, but the epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health Insurance System database, we identified 4,775,398 postmenopausal women older than 40 years who had undergone both cardiovascular health- and cancer screening between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Information about reproductive factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. The risk of lung cancer was estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, 16,556 women (15,223 non-smokers) were diagnosed with lung cancer. The risk of lung cancer was not significantly influenced by early menarche age (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.03 for menarche ≥18 vs. ≤14; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.98-1.09) or late age at menopause (aHR 1.02 for menopause ≥55 vs. <40; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14). Furthermore, the number of children, duration of breastfeeding and use of hormone replacement therapy were not associated with the risk of lung cancer. CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant association was found between reproductive factors and the risk of lung cancer in postmenopausal Korean women.

8.
J Am Chem Soc ; 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207969

RESUMO

Understanding the reaction mechanism for the catalytic process is essential to rational design and synthesis of the highly efficient catalyst. MoS2 has been reported to be an efficient catalyst towards the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), but it still lacks direct experimental evidence to reveal the mechanism for MoS2-catalyzed electrochemical HER process at atomic level. In this work, we develop a wet-chemical synthetic method to prepare the single-layer MoS2-coated polyhedral Ag core-shell heter-ostructure (Ag@MoS2) with tunable sizes as efficient catalysts for the electrochemical HER. The Ag@MoS2 core-shell hetero-structures are used as ideal platforms for the real-time surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) study owing to the strong electromagnetic field which is generated in the plasmonic Ag core. The in situ SERS results provide solid Raman spectroscopic evidence proving the S-H bonding formation on the MoS2 surface during the HER process, suggesting that the S atom of MoS2 is the catalytic active site for the electrochemical HER. It paves the way on the design and synthesis of heterostructures for exploring their catalytic mechanism at atomic level based on the in situ SERS measurement.

9.
J Cell Mol Med ; 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32057179

RESUMO

Fetal growth restriction (FGR) is ranked number two of most common complication of abnormal pregnancy worldwide. The pathogenesis of FGR is complicated due to multiple aetiologies and the exact mechanism for FGR development is currently unknown. T regulatory cells (Tregs) are proven to play central roles in the maintenance of normal pregnancy. Peripheral blood samples of 102 pregnant human were collected analysed using flow cytometry to identify Tregs. We found that reduced Tregs and down-regulation of Foxp3 were observed in peripheral blood of FGR patients. In FGR mouse model, we have found that Tregs were not only reduced in spleen but also in placenta. In vitro, Foxp3 and its transcription regulatory signalling molecules, including P-Smad2, P-Smad3 and Smad4, were diminished as well. Inhibition on Foxp3 expression was partially reversed by overexpression of Smad2 and Smad4. In FGR patients, Western blot results revealed that Foxp3, P-Smad2, P-Smad3 and Smad4 expression was inhibited in placenta. Our preliminary result suggests that maternal-foetal immune tolerance mediated by Tregs plays an essential role in the development of FGR. The inhibited expression of Foxp3 and down-regulated Smad2/Smad3/Smad4 signalling pathway were involved in the FGR pathogenesis. Targeting maternal-foetal immune tolerance through Tregs might represent a novel therapeutic option for FGR.

10.
J Cancer Surviv ; 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076992

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major non-cancer cause of mortality among cancer survivors, and statin therapy is the mainstay of cardiovascular risk management. However, little is known about adherence to statin therapy relative to current guidelines for the management of cholesterol among cancer survivors. We investigated the prevalence of statin-eligible but untreated individuals among cancer survivors and factors associated with underuse of statins. METHODS: We used US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2011-2016) and identified 706 cancer survivors and matched controls (1:2) by age and sex. We identified participants who met the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2018) guidelines but were not currently in treatment. We estimated the proportion of patients who were statin-eligible but untreated and performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify the factors associated with underuse of statins. RESULTS: The mean age of the total sample was 62.2 years (standard deviation, 9.1). Among the total participants, 37.5% of cancer survivors and 37.2% of controls were statin-eligible but untreated. The crude statin-eligible untreated proportion was 41.2% among cancer survivors who had received a cancer diagnosis within 3 years and 40.3% among long-term survivors of 10 years or more. In multivariate analysis, old age, male sex, lack of a usual source of care, current smoking, and low household income were significantly associated with statin-eligible untreated status. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: More than one-third of cancer survivors were statin-eligible but untreated under current guidelines. There is room for improvement to reduce the burden of non-cancer mortality by managing traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

11.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 44(4): 968, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32066823

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

12.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 24(3): 145-149, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32105524

RESUMO

Introduction: The zinc finger homeobox 4 (ZFHX4) protein is a crucial molecular regulator of tumor-initiating stem cell-like functions. Objective: This study aimed to determine the role of ZFHX4 in the progression of ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma (OSC). Methods: Differential gene expression ZFHX4 among low-stage (stages I and II), high-stage (stages III and IV), low-grade (grades I and II), and high-grade (grades III and IV) OSC patients was identified using four independent cohorts from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO). We compared ZFHX4 expression as a prognostic factor using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, multivariate analysis, the time-dependent area under the curve (AUC) of Uno's C-index, and the AUC of the receiver operating characteristics at 4 years post diagnosis. Results: ZFHX4 gene expression in high-stage tumors is significantly higher than in low-stage tumors (TCGA, p = 0.007; GSE9891, p = 0.001). A Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that elevated expression of ZFHX4 was associated with a poor prognosis in OSC patients for all cohorts, regardless of stage and grade (TCGA, p = 1e-04; GSE9891, p = 0.0044; GSE13876, p = 0.00078; GSE26712, p = 0.039). Analysis of C-indices and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve further supported this result (C-index: TCGA, 0.599; GSE9891, 0.642; GSE13876, 0.585; GSE26712, 0.597). Moreover, univariate and multivariate Cox hazards analyses confirmed the prognostic significance of ZFHX4 levels. Conclusion: Collectively, these findings suggest that ZFHX4 is a prognostic factor for OSC.

13.
Nat Genet ; 52(2): 177-186, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32015526

RESUMO

Lung cancer is the world's leading cause of cancer death and shows strong ancestry disparities. By sequencing and assembling a large genomic and transcriptomic dataset of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) in individuals of East Asian ancestry (EAS; n = 305), we found that East Asian LUADs had more stable genomes characterized by fewer mutations and fewer copy number alterations than LUADs from individuals of European ancestry. This difference is much stronger in smokers as compared to nonsmokers. Transcriptomic clustering identified a new EAS-specific LUAD subgroup with a less complex genomic profile and upregulated immune-related genes, allowing the possibility of immunotherapy-based approaches. Integrative analysis across clinical and molecular features showed the importance of molecular phenotypes in patient prognostic stratification. EAS LUADs had better prediction accuracy than those of European ancestry, potentially due to their less complex genomic architecture. This study elucidated a comprehensive genomic landscape of EAS LUADs and highlighted important ancestry differences between the two cohorts.

14.
Radiology ; 295(1): 54-63, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32096704

RESUMO

Background There is limited research on supplemental screening breast US in women with a personal history of breast cancer (PHBC). Purpose To compare the performance of supplemental screening breast US in women with and women without a PHBC by using a matched cohort. Materials and Methods Consecutive asymptomatic women who underwent radiologist-performed supplemental breast US and mammography between January 2013 and December 2013 at a tertiary referral university hospital were retrospectively identified. Inclusion criteria were negative or benign findings at mammography, follow-up data for at least 1 year, first cancer stage of 0 to II in women with a PHBC, and incidence screening in women without a PHBC. The two groups were matched 1:1 according to age and breast density. Performance measures were compared with McNemar test, generalized estimating equation, or penalized likelihood logistic regression. Results A total of 3226 women with a PHBC were matched with 3226 women without a PHBC (mean age ± standard deviation, 52 years ± 9; mammographic breast density, fatty in 603 and dense in 2623). Fourteen cancers (six screen-detected, eight interval cancers) were found in women with a PHBC and 13 cancers (12 screen-detected, one interval cancer) in women without a PHBC. Supplemental US in women with a PHBC compared with women without a PHBC showed lower sensitivity (43% [95% confidence interval {CI}: 18%, 71%; six of 14 cancers] vs 92% [95% CI: 64%, 100%; 12 of 13 cancers]; P = .03), higher interval cancer rates (2.5 [95% CI: 1.1, 4.9; eight of 3226 women] vs 0.3 [95% CI: 0, 1.7; one of 3226 women] per 1000; P = .02), and higher specificity (92.8% [95% CI: 91.9%, 93.7%; 2982 of 3212 women] vs 89.3% [95% CI: 88.2%, 90.4%; 2870 of 3213 women]; P < .001), respectively. Conclusion Supplemental US screening in women with a personal history of breast cancer had lower sensitivity and higher interval cancer rate but higher specificity relative to women without a personal history of breast cancer. © RSNA, 2020 Online supplemental material is available for this article. See also the editorial by Lee and Lee in this issue.

15.
iScience ; 23(3): 100902, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32106054

RESUMO

Polymerization and modification play central roles in polymer chemistry and are generally implemented in two steps, which suffer from the time-consuming two-step strategy and present considerable challenge for complete modification. By introducing the radical cascade reaction (RCR) into polymer chemistry, a one-step strategy is demonstrated to achieve synchronized polymerization and complete modification in situ. Attributed to the cascade feature of iron-catalyzed three-component alkene carboazidation RCR exhibiting carbon-carbon bond formation and carbon-azide bond formation with extremely high efficiency and selectivity in one step, radical cascade polymerization therefore enables the in situ synchronized polymerization through continuous carbon-carbon bond formation and complete modification through carbon-azide bond formation simultaneously. This results in a series of α, ß, and γ poly(amino acid) precursors. This result not only expands the methodology library of polymerization, but also the possibility for polymer science to achieve functional polymers with tailored chemical functionality from in situ polymerization.

16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1165, 2020 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32109228

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2994, 2020 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055003

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

18.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487320905722, 2020 Feb 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089010

RESUMO

AIMS: Due to improving cancer treatment results, non-cancer mortality is an important issue for cancer survivors. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading causes of death in Korea and globally. In addition to lowering the risk of cardiovascular disease, the use of statins has led to an overall reduction in cancer mortality in recent observational studies. We investigated the status of current dyslipidemia management in cancer survivors with reference to 2018 guidelines. METHODS: The study is a cross-sectional analysis of 1460 cancer survivors aged from 40 to 75 years who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2016. Dyslipidemia management status among cancer survivors was assessed according to 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines and Korean Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score guidelines. RESULTS: The rate of treatment for dyslipidemia was 8.5% for males, 13.8% for females, and 11.9% overall. Among cancer survivors who were not receiving treatment for dyslipidemia, 59.6% of males, 34.2% of females and 43.9% of total cancer survivors would have been eligible for statin therapy under the 2018 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines and Korean Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score guidelines. The rate of undertreatment of dyslipidemia increased with age and length of time since cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Nearly 50% of cancer survivors remain untreated although they are eligible for statin therapy. This emphasizes the need for more attention to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease among cancer survivors.

19.
Pediatr Dent ; 42(1): 62-65, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075714

RESUMO

External root resorption (ERR) of permanent teeth is a pathological process that can lead to their loss. There are several systemic and/or genetic abnormalities that have been associated with ERR. Among them, familial expansile osteolysis (FEO) is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by skeletal defects, middle ear deafness, and abnormal root resorption. The purpose of this paper was to describe the case of a 10-year-old female with familial expansile osteolysis born with missing ossicles and, therefore, deafness. The patient was not diagnosed with FEO until the age of 10 years, when she presented to the dental clinic with advanced ERR in several permanent teeth. The series of tests she underwent for diagnosis and the treatments rendered are presented and discussed. It is recommended that when ERR cannot be explained by local etiologic factors, systemic abnormalities and genetic testing should be considered.


Assuntos
Osteólise , Reabsorção da Raiz , Criança , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2020 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992841

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the associations between ambient air pollutants, obesity, and kidney function. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We enrolled 3345 people who had undergone health checkups at Seoul National University Hospital. We recorded the annual average concentrations of ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤10 µm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO), in each subject's residential area. Various obesity traits, such as body mass index, waist circumference, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas, were measured by quantified computerized tomography (CT), and kidney function was assessed in relation to estimated glomerular filtration rate as an indicator of kidney function. RESULTS: High PM10, NO2, SO2, and CO concentrations were significantly associated with decreased kidney function (ß = -2.39 and standard error = 0.32, -1.00 and 0.31, -1.23 and 0.28, and -1.32 and 0.29, respectively), and with the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The association between air pollutant concentrations and decreased kidney function, including CKD, was stronger among those with high abdominal adiposity, as defined by CT measurement. For example, the association between increased concentrations of air pollutants and the prevalence of CKD was stronger in the group with greater visceral adiposity than in the group with less visceral adiposity (aORs = 1.29 vs 1.16 for PM10, 1.42 vs 1.21 for SO2, and 1.27 vs 1.11 for CO). CONCLUSIONS: Long-term exposure to higher concentrations of air pollutants was unfavorably associated with kidney function and CKD prevalence, especially in people with abdominal obesity. This may indicate a high susceptibility to air pollutants in obese people.

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