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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113052, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535239

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. as a traditional Asian medicinal plant, roots and rhizomes (Danshen) are used to treat chronic hepatitis and coronary heart disease. In recent years, the medicinal value of S. miltiorrhiza stems and leaves total phenolic acids extract (JF) similar to roots and rhizomes has received increasing attention. S. miltiorrhiza roots and rhizome tanshinone extract (DT) has a good anti-inflammatory effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the therapeutic effect and possible molecular mechanisms of JF and DT alone or in combination on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by received 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Then mice were administered orally for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) scores and body weight were recorded daily. After the end of the experiment, colon was removed, colon length was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. Inflammatory factors expression was determined by ELISA, its mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of related proteins on TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Treatment with JF and DT alone or in combination reduced DAI scores, increase body weight, improved colon shortening, and decreased colon histology scores. In addition, the expression level of inflammatory factors was inhibited. The combination of JF and DT had a better inhibitory effect on inflammatory factors compared to JF alone. We also found that DT alone and JF combined with DT inhibited TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-related proteins expression levels (including TLR4, p-PI3K p110α/PI3K p110α, p-AKT (ser473)/AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, NF-κB p65), showing an effective anti-inflammatory effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated for the first time that, JF and DT alone or in combination effectively ameliorated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice, possibly by inhibiting the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.

2.
J Sep Sci ; 43(16): 3170-3182, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506800

RESUMO

Safflower has both medicinal and edible values but research on its nutrient composition is still lacking. This study was established for the quantitative determination of 28 nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 30 batches of safflower from different producing areas indicated that the contents of l-proline, l-asparagine, l(+)-arginine, l-serine, l-histidine, uracil, guanosine, and uridine was high in safflower. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis found that samples from different regions could be distinguished well, and samples from the same area could be clustered into one class, different geographical environments may cause the differences of nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in safflower. The analysis of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and counter propagation artificial neural network show similar results. Then the content of nucleosides, nucleobases, and essential amino acids were compared, and found that the content in safflower from Gansu was higher than those from other regions, and there was a little difference between the samples from Xinjiang, Sichuan, and Yunnan. This research revealed the composition of nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in safflower, and provided a theoretical basis for utilization of safflower.

3.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 890-895, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237490

RESUMO

The solid wastes of Chinese materia dedica industrialization represented by Salvia miltiorrhiza residues have a strong small-molecule bio-recalcitrance in the process of high-value utilization of biotransformation. Highly tolerant strains were bred to break bio-recalcitrance of Salvia miltiorrhiza residues and produce high-value added cellulose, which has a significant significance for recycling and industrial utilization of solid waste. In this study, a strain of fungus, Penicillium expansum SZ13, was found with small-molecule antibacterial substance tanshinone contained in Salvia miltiorrhiza residues by a biological method. The optimal enzyme production process and peak period of SZ13 were determined. It was found that SZ13 could maintain peak enzyme production for 5 days by degrading residues under the conditions of temperature 35 ℃, rotation speed 180 r·min~(-1), 5% of residues addition, and 5% seed solution addition. Meanwhile, the ability of SZ13 to degrade the enzyme production of multiple types of residues was explored. The results showed a high enzyme activity and stable enzyme production of SZ13 in the process of degrading residues. SZ13 could efficiently utilize various types of Chinese medicine residues, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza residues, to realize the high-value utilization of cellulose in multiple types of residues.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Fermentação , Materia Medica , Penicillium/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Resíduos Sólidos , China , Indústria Farmacêutica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas
4.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 285-289, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237310

RESUMO

Poverty alleviation by Chinese herbal medicine industry is an important way to implement the major strategic plan of the government and to effectively alleviate poverty and increase income of poor farmers in areas with high resource's endowment of Chinese medicinal materials. Based on the analysis of the existing achievements and problems in poverty alleviation by Chinese herbal medicine industry, this paper proposes that improving the comprehensive benefits of Chinese herbal medicine industry is an important direction for poverty alleviation in the poverty-stricken areas with the high endowment of traditional Chinese medicine resources in the future. Then, based on the concept of resource recycling of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, the feasibility and strategies of utilizing by-products in the production process of Chinese medicinal materials and expanding the ways of poverty alleviation were analyzed and discussed. The aim of all these works was to provide the support for enhancing the comprehensive competitiveness of the industry in poverty-stricken regions, enlarging the poverty alleviation effect of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Herbária/economia , Pobreza , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109926, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028239

RESUMO

The spontaneous db/db mice were used to elucidate the biological effects and mechanisms of Rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside (DHY) on kidney injury through biochemical indicators, kidney pathological section analysis, metabolic profiling, intestinal flora analysis and in vitro Human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cell model induced by high glucose. It was found that DHY can decrease the blood sugar level (insulin, INS; fasting blood glucose, FBG), blood lipid level (Total Cholesterol, T-CHO; Triglyceride, TG) significantly and improve kidney injury level (blood urea nitrogen, BUN; urine microalbumin, mALB; serum creatinine, Scr). It can also alleviate kidney tubular epithelial cell oedema and reduce interstitial connective tissue hyperplasia of the injury kidney induced by high glucose. 13 endogenous metabolites were identified in serum, which involved of ether lipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. High glucose can also lead to the disorder of intestinal flora, especially Firmicutes and Bacteroides. Meanwhile, DHY also inhibited the expression of α-SMA, TGF- ß1, Smad3 and Smad4 in the kidney tissues of db/db mice and HK-2 cells. To sum up, DHY may restore the dysfunctional intestinal flora to normal and regulate glycolipid level of db/db mice as well as TGF-ß/Smad signalling pathway regulation to improve early kidney damage caused by diabetes.

6.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683684

RESUMO

Frankincense and myrrha (FM), commonly used as a classical herbal pair, have a wide range of clinical applications and definite anti-inflammatory activity. However, anti-neuroinflammation effects and mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we adopted a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial (BV2) cell model and a network pharmacology method to reveal the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanisms of boswellic acid (BA) and myrrha sesquiterpenes (MS) with different proportions of compatibility. The data showed that the different ratios of BA and MS had different degrees of inhibition of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, down-regulated the phosphor-nuclear factor kappa B/nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-Ò¡B)/(NF-Ò¡B), phosphorylated protein kinase b/protein kinase b (p-AKT/AKT), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression levels, and increased phospho-PI3 kinase (p-PI3K) protein expression levels. When the ratios of BA and MS were 10:1, 5:1, and 20:1, better effective efficacy was exhibited. According to the correlation analysis between the effect index and bioactive substances, it was suggested that 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy -fruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one (Compound 1), 3α-acetyloxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (Compound 2), 11-keto-boswellic acid (Compound 3), and 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß -boswellic acid (Compound 4) made important contributions to the treatment of neuroinflammation. Furthermore, based on the network pharmacological analysis, it was found that these four active compounds acted on 31 targets related to neuroinflammation and were involved in 32 signaling pathways which mainly related to the immune system, cardiovascular system, and nervous system, suggesting that BA and MS could be used to treat neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Commiphora/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia
7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533325

RESUMO

In the present study, a new strategy including the combination of external appearance, chemical detection, and biological analysis was proposed for the comprehensive evaluation of safflowers in different producing areas. Firstly, 40 batches of safflower samples were classified into class I and II based on color measurements and K-means clustering analysis. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 16 chromaticity-related characteristic components (including characteristic components hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, safflomin C, and another 13 flavonoid glycosides) in safflowers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2). The results of the quantification indicate that hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, kaempferol, quercetin, and safflomin C had significant differences between the two types of safflower, and class I of safflower had a higher content of hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, and safflomin C as the main anti-thrombotic components in safflower. Thirdly, chemometrics methods were employed to illustrate the relationship in multivariate data of color measurements and chromaticity-related characteristic components. As a result, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside were strongly associated with the color indicators. Finally, anti-thrombotic analysis was used to evaluate activity and verify the suitability of the classification basis of safflower based on the color measurements. It was shown that brighter, redder, yellower, more orange-yellow, and more vivid safflowers divided into class I had a higher content of characteristic components and better anti-thrombotic activity. In summary, the presented strategy has potential for quality evaluation of other flower medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Carthamus tinctorius/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Geografia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra
8.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2044-2055, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209937

RESUMO

Mulberry leaf was reported that it has antidiabetic activity, although the mechanisms underlying the function have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the results of network pharmacology suggested that mulberry leaves could regulate key biological process in development of diabetes, and the process implicates multiple signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, MAPK, VEGF, PPAR, and Wnt. Then, the research in vitro indicated that mulberry leaves remarkably ameliorated high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which was characterized with significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4, and it was found to be connected with the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Moreover, the results of bioinformatics and the dual luciferase report showed that ZEB1 might be a target gene of miR-302a; decreased miR-302a and increased ZEB1 expressions could significantly promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, mulberry leaves could reverse these modulations. Our results demonstrated that network pharmacology could provide a guidance role for traditional Chinese medicine research, and mulberry leaves could be of benefit in preventing high glucose-induced EMT in HK-2 cells, which proved that it was related to the upregulation of miR-302a by targeting ZEB1 and the inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK1/2 pathway.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Nefropatias/patologia
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(3): 518-525, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989917

RESUMO

Based on the toxic characteristics caused by the compatibility between "Zaoji Suiyuan" and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which was found in the previous studies, the expanded study was carried out on the incompatibility mechanism between Crotonis Semen Pulveratum(CT) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(GU) with the diuretic effect and intestinal flora as the characteristic indexes. The results showed that GU could slow down the rapid diuretic effect of CT, which suggested a tendency of decreasing the efficacy. Both the high and low dose of CT could significantly induce the intestinal injury and change the intestinal bacteria structure of mice. Low dose CT combined with GU could significantly increase the levels of Streptococcus and Rikenellaceae_ukn. The relative abundance of Desulfovibrio and Streptococcaceae_ukn were increased after the combined application of high dose CT and GU. It also suggested that there was a risk of inflammation in the liver and intestines when combined application of these two herbs. The results revealed that the combination of CT and GU has a tendency to reduce the clinical effect and increase the toxicity from the aspects of its traditional efficacy and its effect on intestinal microflora structure, which could provide the data for the clinical use of CT.


Assuntos
Croton/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Animais , Diuréticos , Interações Medicamentosas , Intestinos , Camundongos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sementes/química
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(2): 308-313, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989950

RESUMO

To investigate the effects of essential oil from three kinds of pungent herbs,namely Menthae Haplocalycis Herba,Atractylodis Rhizoma and Cnidii Fructus,on the transdermal absorption in vitro of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix. The modified vertical Franz diffusion cell was used to conduct a transdermal experiment in vitro with the isolated abdominal skin of the SD rats as the transdermal absorption barrier. The effects of such three kinds of pungent essential oil on percutaneous absorption of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix were investigated by determining the content of 6 alkaloids( oxymatrine,oxysophocarpine,N-methylcytisine,sophoridine,matrine,and sophocarpidine) in the transdermal acceptor with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry( UPLC-TQ-MS) technique simultaneously. With enhancement ratio( ER) as the index,their effects on promoting penetration was as follows: 1% Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 1% Cnidii Fructus oil > 3% Azone ≈ 3% Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 5%Atractylodis Rhizoma oil > 3% Cnidii Fructus oil ≈ 5% Cnidii Fructus oil > 3% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > 5% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > 1% Menthae Haplocalycis Herba oil > Blank. The results showed that these three kinds of pungent essential oil could be used as enhancers for alkaloids of Sophorae Flavescentis Radix,providing scientific guidance for improving percutaneous absorption of alkaloids from Sophorae Flavescentis Radix.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Absorção Cutânea , Sophora/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Raízes de Plantas/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
11.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 229: 222-232, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339979

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: As recorded in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory, Genkwa Flos (YH) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GC) compose one herbal pair of the so-called "eighteen incompatible medicaments", which indicate pairs of herbs that are mutually incompatible and that theoretically should not be applied simultaneously. However, the theory has been called into question due to a lack of evidence. AIMS OF STUDY: In this study, the incompatibility of YH and GC was investigated based on an assessment of the toxic effects of their combination by traditional safety methods and a modern metabonomic approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate the subacute toxicity of YH and YH-GC. The serum, urine, and several tissues were collected for biochemical analysis, histopathological examination, and metabonomic analysis. RESULTS: Rats exposed to a dose of 1.0 g/kg YH (3 times of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia maximum dose) exhibited toxicity of the heart, liver, kidney and testes, and rats exposed to a YH-GC combination (1.0 g/kg YH + 1.0 g/kg GC) exhibited similar hepatotoxicity, which aggravated renal and reproductive toxicity. Following this, a metabonomic study tentatively identified 14 potential biomarkers in the YH group and 10 potential biomarkers in the YH-GC group, and metabolic pathways were then constructed. YH disturbed the pathways of glycerophospholipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis, and sphingolipid metabolism, while YH-GC combination induced disruptions in phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. CONCLUSION: The toxicities of YH and YH-GC combination above the Chinese Pharmacopoeia dose were obvious but different. Metabonomics combined with biochemical and histopathological methods can be applied to elucidate the toxicity mechanism of the YH-GC combination that caused liver, kidney and reproductive injuries in rats.


Assuntos
Daphne , Glycyrrhiza , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Flores , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Metabolômica , Miocárdio/patologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia
12.
Pharmacol Res ; 139: 26-40, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30395946

RESUMO

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a complication of diabetes that is caused by uncontrolled high blood sugar. It has been reported that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) possesses the ability to prevent kidney damage, although the mechanisms remain unclear. The study was to investigate whether and how SM improved DN injury via regulation of metabolome and the molecular mechanisms. In this study, SD rats were fed a high glucose / high fat diet accompanied by 0.5% glucose water. Three weeks later, the rats were given one intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg/kg STZ each day for three days for DN model. The biochemical indicators and metabolomics of plasma, urine and renal tissue were analyzed. Then the western blotting analysis of renal tissue and glomerular mesangial cells were investigated. The results showed that Salvia miltiorrhiza extracts improved the renal injury and regulation of abnormal glycolipid metabolism. The metabolites in serum, urine and renal tissues have been changed significantly. The involved metabolic pathways mainly include phospholipid, arachidonic acid, and pyrimidine metabolisms. Meanwhile, SM inhibited the relative expression levels of wnt4, ß-catenin and TGF-ß in renal tissue and high-glucose induced glomerular mesangial cells.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Animais , Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Nefropatias Diabéticas/patologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , Proteínas Wnt/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
13.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 43(7): 1484-1491, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728041

RESUMO

To evaluate the effect and mechanism of aerial parts of Salvia miltiorrhiza(SM) on high sugar-induced Drosophila melanogaster metabolic disorder model. The levels of glucose, triglyceride and protein in SM were detected; nymphosis time was recorded, and the reliability of metabolic disorder model as well as the mechanism of aerial parts of SM were evaluated based on metabonomics. The results showed that the levels of glucose and triglyceride in model group were significantly higher than those in normal control group(P<0.05). As compared with the model group, the glucose level was significantly decreased in gliclazide(GLZ) group, SM medium(SM-M) and high(SM-H) dose groups(P<0.05, P<0.01); the triglyceride level was significantly decreased in GLZ group and SM-H group(P<0.05, P<0.01). By principal component analysis(PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis(PLS-DA), the metabolic level of model ones was recovered to a certain degree after intervention by aerial parts of SM. Seventeen marker compounds and four major metabolic pathways were obtained by screening differential metabolites, comparing literature and retrieving the database. The aerial parts of SM may regulate glycolipid metabolism through the impact on histidine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, pentose and glucuronate interconversions, cysteine and methionine metabolism and glycerolipid metabolism. Extract from aerial parts of SM can regulate the glycolipid metabolism of D. melanogaster metabolic disorder model and make it return to normal condition. This paper provides reference for the value discovery and resource utilization of the aerial parts of S. miltiorrhiza.


Assuntos
Drosophila melanogaster , Glicolipídeos/metabolismo , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salvia miltiorrhiza/química , Animais , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Açúcares
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(18): 3628-3632, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29218952

RESUMO

The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Desenvolvimento Industrial , Projetos de Pesquisa , Drogas Veterinárias , Animais , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(21): 4218-4225, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29271164

RESUMO

To study the pharmacokinetic effect of Mori Folium flavones and alkaloids in normal and diabetic rats. An UPLC-TQ-MS method was developed for the simultaneous determination of rutin, isoquercitrin, astragalin, kaempferol, quercetin, chlorogenic acid, cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, DNJ and fagomine in plasma of rats. The diabetic rat model was induced through intravenous injection with alloxan and high-fat diet. Samples of plasma of rats were obtained at different time points, after the rats were administrated with Mori Folium flavones and alkaloids. After the deproteinization with acetonitrile, the concentrations of Mori Foliam constituents in rats at different time points were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS method, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 software. The results showed that quercetin and kaempferol reached peak at 0.333 h, indicating that Mori Folium flavonoid constituents were absorbed and distributed quickly. At about 4 h after administration, both of them reached the peak concentrations for the second time, suggesting that they stayed in intestine for a long time. DNJ and fagomine in gastrointestinal tract can be quickly absorbed into blood, and the concentration in plasma reached peak after 0.667 h, suggesting that both of them could be rapidly distributed in the systemic circulation of rats. Cryptochlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid, quercetin, kaempferol and rutin were found to have a higher Cmax and AUC0-t in normal rats than those in diabetic rats. The t1/2values of cryptochlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid were shorter in diabetic rats, while quercetin, kaempferol and rutin had a longer t1/2value in diabetic rats. Chlorogenic acid, astragalin, isoquercitrin, fagomine had a higher Cmax in diabetic rats, and the t1/2values of astragalin and fagomine were longer, which suggested differences in absorption of active ingredients under normal and diabetic conditions.


Assuntos
Alcaloides/farmacocinética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonas/farmacocinética , Morus/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacocinética , Ratos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 42(16): 3098-3105, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29171227

RESUMO

This paper investigated the diversity of the silkworm excrement bacterial communities in different ages before and after drying, aiming to clarify the differences of bacterial communities in composition and bacterial abundance and the influences of drying treatment, and provide scientific basis for the efficacy of scientific connotation and utilization of silkworm excrement. High-throughput sequencing technique was used to measure the sequence of 16S rDNA-V4 variable region of bacteria in silkworm excrement. QIIME, Mothur and PICRUSt software programs were employed to sort and calculate the number of sequences and operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for each sample. Thereafter, the abundance, distribution, alpha diversity index of species, beta diversity and bacterial communities diversity among different sample groups and predicted the bacterial gene functions were analyzed. In this study, the numbers of effective sequences for six samples were 259 250; the rarefaction curves showed a sufficient sequencing depth, and the number of OTUs was close to saturation. The bacteria in silkworm excrement belonged to the following five phylums: Proteobacteria (89.3%), Actinobacteria (5.0%), Firmicutes (4.4%), Bacteroidetes (1.1%) and Cyanobacteria (0.2%). The dominant specie was Cyanobacteria of the total bacteria identified, respectively. The abundances and diversities of the silkworm excrement bacterial communities have been reduced after drying treatment, especially the silkworm excrement of the fifth instar. PICRUSt analysis was performed to show that abundance of the functional genes such as membrane transport, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, lipid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, cellular processes and signaling were relatively high. The result showed that the drying treatment could decreased the species and numbers of pathogenic bacteria in silkworm excrement obviously and improve the quality of medicinal materials. Compared with the lower ages, silkworm excrement of fifth instar seems like to be more suitable for use in medicine. Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing system provides a more accurate and scientific data resource for the study of bacteria in silkworm excrement.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bombyx/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499205

RESUMO

Kansui, the root of Euphorbia kansui T.N. Liou ex T.P. Wang (Euphorbiaceae), is a well-known poisonous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, many monographs of TCM indicated that it cannot be co-used with licorice, as kansui-licorice is a typical "eighteen incompatible" medicaments. Our previous studies have indicated that kansui was effective in treating malignant pleural effusion (MPE), and the efficacy could be weakened by the co-use of licorice, even causing serious toxicity at the given ratio. Nevertheless, the actual mechanisms of their dosage-toxicity-efficacy relationship need to be well clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of individual and combined use of kansui and licorice on MPE rats, and explain the underlying mechanisms from a metabolomic perspective. Urine samples were analyzed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) models were built to evaluate the interaction between kansui and licorice. Seven potential biomarkers contribute to the separation of model group and control group were tentatively identified. And selenoamino acid metabolism and nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism with the impact-value 0.31 and 0.24, respectively, were filtered out as the most important metabolic pathways. Kansui and kansui-licorice at a ratio of 4:1 can treat MPE rats by adjusting abnormal metabolic pathways to the normal state, while it may have opposite result with kansui-licorice 1:4. The different influences to the two metabolic pathways may partially explain the dosage-toxicity-efficacy relationship of kansui-licorice with different ratios. The results could offer valuable insights into the compatibility property changes for the two herbs.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Euphorbia/química , Glycyrrhiza/química , Derrame Pleural Maligno/tratamento farmacológico , Derrame Pleural Maligno/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/urina , Interações Medicamentosas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/toxicidade , Masculino , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Análise Multivariada , Raízes de Plantas/química , Derrame Pleural Maligno/urina , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
18.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 31(12)2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28543613

RESUMO

Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch (RG), is officially listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and is widely used in China. In this paper, a sensitive and rapid ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method including multiple-reaction monitoring mode was developed and applied to study the pharmacokinetic effect of acteoside from total glycoside extracted from the leaves of Rehmannia (TLR) and Dihuangye total glycoside capsule (DTG) in normal and diabetic nephropathy rats. The diabetic nephropathy rat model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of a small dose of streptozotocin and high-fat diet and plus 5% glucose drinking water. Samples of plasma of rats were obtained at different times after rats were administered TLR (7.2 g/kg) and DTG (360 mg/kg). After deproteinization by acetonitrile, the concentrations of acteoside in rats at different time points were detected by UPLC-TQ-MS method and pharmacokinetics parameters were calculated using DAS 3.2.8 software. A good linearity of acteoside was shown in the range of 8.51-3404.8 ng/m L (r2 = 0.9987). The mean extraction recovery of analyte was in the range of 63.55-79.49%, and the intra- and inter-day RSD values were <8.8%. Compared with the normal group, the maximum plasma concentration, AUC0-t , AUC0-∞ and apparent plasma clearance corresponding dose in model group rats decreased significantly. After rats were administered TLR and DTG, the acteoside reached the maximum plasma concentration at about 15 min. The method proved to be simple, rapid and specific, and to be suitable for the determination of acteoside in plasma of diabetic nephropathy rats and pharmacokinetic study.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/metabolismo , Glucosídeos/sangue , Glucosídeos/farmacocinética , Glicosídeos/química , Fenóis/sangue , Fenóis/farmacocinética , Extratos Vegetais/química , Rehmannia/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Glucosídeos/química , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Fenóis/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
19.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 206: 152-159, 2017 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28408246

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The flower of Abelmoschus manihot (Linn.) Medicus (A. manihot), as a traditional Chinese Herbal medicine, was used widely in China with efficacy of inducing diuresis for treating strangurtia, and subdhing swelling and detoxicating. It has been reported that Huangkui capsule, prepared by the extract of the flower of A. manihot, can reduce the content of urinary protein, serum creatinine and serum urea nitrogen in nephropathy rats and processes renoprotective activity, while the action mechanism need to illuminate deeply. AIMS OF THE STUDY: In this study, we investigated the protection effect of Huangkui capsule on tubulointerstitial fibrosis in chronic renal failure (CRF) rats and its mechanism against high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in renal tubular epithelial cells (HK-2) of its bioactive components. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The animals were divided into normal group, CRF model group and Huangkui capsule-treated group. Hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining were applied to observe pathological changes in renal tissue of different groups. Biochemical indicators including serum urea nitrogen (BUN), urine protein (UP) and serum creatinine (Scr) were measured according to the manufacturer's instructions of kits. HK-2 cell damaged model was established to access the protection effect and action mechanism of five main flavonoids from Huangkui capsule. The experimental cells were divided into eight groups: control group, model group, positive drug group and five main flavonoids treated groups. The dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay was used to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in different groups. Western blot was applied to analyze the expression of pathogenesis-related proteins in different groups. RESULTS: The results stated that Huangkui capsule significantly inhibited the elevation of Scr, BUN, UP, the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), phosphorylation-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK1/2), NADPH Oxidase 1, NADPH Oxidase 2 and NADPH Oxidase 4 in adenine-induced CRF rats. The main bioactive components of quercetin (QT), hyperoside (HY), isoquercitrin (IQT), gossypetin-8-O-ß-D-glucuronide (GG) and quercetin-3'-O-glucoside (QG) at the dosage of 100µM, like NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium, exhibited a significant effect on inhibiting the expression of α-SMA, p-ERK1/2, NADPH Oxidase 1, NADPH Oxidase 2 and NADPH Oxidase 4 in high glucose-induced HK-2 cells, especially GG. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that Huangkui capsule and the flavonoids components prevent tubulointerstitial fibrosis in CRF rat involvement in the action mechanism of inhibiting NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK pathway.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Falência Renal Crônica/sangue , Falência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Falência Renal Crônica/urina , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
20.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 135: 206-216, 2017 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28040655

RESUMO

A novel and generally applicable approach was established to hierarchically identify the bioactive components of a medicinal herb by preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (prep-HPLC) and a selective knock-out strategy. In this study, the targeted components of an herbal medicine were separated and knocked out using prep-HPLC. Subsequently, the contributions of the different target components to the overall effect of the medicinal herb were comparatively evaluated and differentiated by a heat map and a 3D score plot. This approach was successfully applied to investigate the bioactive constituents of safflower. The contributions of 11 components to the overall effect of safflower were as follows: anhydrosafflor yellow B (10)>6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6-di-O-ß-d-glucoside (8)>hydroxysafflor yellow A (3)>kaempferol 3-O-ß-rutinoside (11)>6-hydroxykaempferol 3-O-ß-rutinoside (9)>6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6-di-O-ß-d-glucoside-7-O-ß-d-glucuronide (4)>6-hydroxyapigenin 6-O-ß-d-glucoside-7-O-ß-d-glucuronide (6)>cytidine (1)>6-hydroxykaempferol 3-O-ß-rutinoside-6-O-ß-d-glucoside (7)>6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6,7-tri-O-ß-d-glucoside (5)>adenosine (2). These results demonstrate that quinochalcone C-glycosides (3 and 10) and some flavonoid glycosides containing C7-OH (such as 8, 9 and 11) made a greater contribution to the overall effect of safflower than the other components that were knocked out. The results provided an important reference for improving quality control and further development of safflower products. And this approach should also be useful for investigating the bioactive constituents of other medicinal herbs.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Carthamus tinctorius , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/análise , Animais , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Flores , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Coelhos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
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