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1.
Ther Adv Chronic Dis ; 13: 20406223221091177, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924009

RESUMO

Observational findings achieved that gut microbes mediate human metabolic health and disease risk. The types of intestinal microorganisms depend on the intake of food and drugs and are also related to their metabolic level and genetic factors. Recent studies have shown that chronic inflammatory pain is closely related to intestinal microbial homeostasis. Compared with the normal intestinal flora, the composition of intestinal flora in patients with chronic inflammatory pain had significant changes in Actinomycetes, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, etc. At the same time, short-chain fatty acids and amino acids, the metabolites of intestinal microorganisms, can regulate neural signal molecules and signaling pathways, thus affecting the development trend of chronic inflammatory pain. Glucocorticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of chronic inflammatory pain, the main mechanism is to affect the secretion of inflammatory factors and the abundance of intestinal bacteria. This article reviews the relationship between intestinal microorganisms and their metabolites on chronic inflammatory pain and the possible mechanism.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35707466

RESUMO

The inflorescence of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., a well-known traditional Chinese herb, has been proved to have a certain inhibitory effect on some bacteria; however, its main components and acne bacteria inhibition effect remain to be elucidated. In this study, GC-MS was used to analyze the components of different flowering stages and different parts and to study the inhibitory effects of six essential oils on S. aureus and P. acnes and their alleviating effects on THP-1 cell inflammation. GC-MS combined with relative retention index method analyzed results stated that the 5 samples of C. morifolium to detect the 124 kinds of volatile components, including (E)-tibetin spiroether, are first detected in the volatile oil of the C. morifolium, and the content of (E)-tibetin spiroether is higher in immature inflorescence of C. morifolium and decreases as it extends its flowering period. Furthermore, the research results of inhibiting common acne-causing bacteria showed that the bacteriostatic effect of essential oils from JH at different flowering stages was better than that from JM and TJ, while the bacteriostatic effect of essential oil from stem and leaf of C. morifolium (SLC) at different parts was better than the roots of C. morifolium (RC). Finally, it was proved that the essential oil from SLC and C. morifolium could alleviate the inflammation of THP-1 cells induced by P. acnes. In conclusion, the antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of C. morifolium essential oil may be related to heterospiroolefins compounds, and the antibacterial activity decreases with the prolongation of flowering stage. It was suggested that volatile oil from C. morifolium and SLC could be used as effective components of antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cosmetics.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35656472

RESUMO

Angelica dahurica, belonging to the family Apiaceae, is a well-known herbal medicine. The roots of Angelica dahurica are commonly used for the treatment of headache, toothache, abscess, furunculosis, and acne. However, little is known about their analgesic molecular mechanism underlying pain relief. In this study, we used behavioral tests to assess the analgesic effect of the ADE (Angelica dahurica extracts) on CFA (complete Freund's adjuvant)-induced inflammatory pain mice models. TRPV1 (Transient Receptor Potential Cation Channel Subfamily V Member 1) protein activity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) was assessed with a calcium imaging assay. TRPV1 expression was detected with western blot and immunohistochemistry. Then, we examined the constituents of ADE using combined ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-light mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Our results showed that ADE effectively attenuated mechanical and thermal hypersensitivities in CFA-induced inflammatory pain model in mice. ADE also significantly reduced the activity and the protein expression of TRPV1 in DRG from CFA mice. Therefore, ADE might be an attractive and suitable analgesic agent for the management of chronic inflammatory pain.

4.
Molecules ; 27(7)2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35408512

RESUMO

Present studies have shown that Flos Chrysanthemi has anti-inflammatory and other effects and regulates intestinal function, while the chrysanthemum stem and leaf as non-medicinal parts of chrysanthemum have similar chemical components with chrysanthemum, but the activity and mechanisms are rarely elucidated. Therefore, this study used a DSS-induced zebrafish inflammatory bowel disease model to study the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of chrysanthemum stem and leaf extracts. The results indicate that DSS induction leads to increased secretion of acidic mucin in the intestines of juvenile fish, enlargement of the intestinal lumen and the emergence of intestinal inflammation. Compared with the model group, each administration group differentially inhibited the expression of IL-1ß, IL-8 and MMP9 in DSS-induced zebrafish, while upregulating the activity of superoxide dismutase. The quantitative analysis results showed that the flavonoids (including Linarin, Diosmetin-7-glucoside, Tilianin, etc.) and phenolic acids (including Isochlorogenic acid C, Isochlorogenic acid A, 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, etc.) in the alcohol extract were closely related with both anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity, while the polysaccharides were also shown a certain anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. In conclusion, this study suggests that the flavonoids, phenolic acids and polysaccharides from chrysanthemum stem and leaf extracts can improve inflammatory bowel disease of zebrafish by regulating the expressions of IL-1ß, IL-8 and MMP9.


Assuntos
Chrysanthemum , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chrysanthemum/metabolismo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Flavonoides/análise , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo
5.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 292: 115026, 2022 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35074452

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mulberry leaf has attracted much attention due to its excellent curative effect on diabetes and its complications, whether the combination of its effective components have protective and synergistic effect on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in vivo remain unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to investigate the protective and synergistic effect of the combination (MAF1:1 and MAF1:5) of mulberry leaf alkaloids (MA) and flavonoids extract (MF) on DN. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A step by step method consisted of network pharmacological prediction, animal in vivo validation and metabolic mechanism research was used to construct the multi-component-target-pathway network of mulberry leaf against DN. Firstly, the potential components and mechanism of mulberry leaf against DN was explored by network pharmacology analysis. Secondly, DN animal model was established to validate the anti-DN activity of these potential compounds. Thirdly, the metabolomics of serum and urine samples from animal experiments was analyzed to explore the anti-DN mechanism of these potential compounds. RESULTS: The results of network pharmacology demonstrated that a total of 7 compounds detected in MA and MF exhibited anti-DN activity, their mechanism were strongly in connection with metabolic pathways, arachidonic acid metabolism, sphingolipid signaling pathway, etc. The results of animal experiment indicated that MAF1:1 and MAF1:5 significantly relieved metabolic disorders through regulating Wnt/ß-catenin and TGF-ß/Smads signaling pathway, just like MF or MA alone. Metabolomics suggested they could regulate 16 serum and 7 urine endogenous metabolites through arachidonic acid metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism, thus alleviated DN. Significantly, MAF1:1 and MAF1:5 might possess synergistic effect considering their therapeutic effects on DN rats were superior to the single use of MA or MF. CONCLUSIONS: MAF1:1 and MAF1:5 possessed protective and synergistic effect on DN rats through multi-target and multi-pathways. These findings were of great scientific significance and application value to reveal the advantage of mulberry leaf in preventing and treating DN.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Diabetes Mellitus , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Morus , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Ácido Araquidônico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Transdução de Sinais , Esfingolipídeos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo
6.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 283: 114713, 2022 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34626776

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Mulberry leaves have been used as traditional hypoglycemic medicine-food plant for thousand years in China. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) belongs to the category of XiaoKe. Presently, the research of mulberry leaf hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering direction is mature, but the curative effects of alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and other bioactive ingredients and the related mechanism is still unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: This paper aims to study the efficacy and mechanism of alkaloids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and other bioactive components in mulberry leaves in the treatment of T2DM individually. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The determination of levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (T-Cho), and pyruvate kinase (PK), hexokinase (HK), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT/GPT) of in plasma of diabetic mice. Urine metabolomics was analyzed by UPLC-QTOF/MS to evaluate differential metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways. The glucose uptake of HepG2 cells and 3T3-L1 cells. Expression of Caspase-3 and caspase-9, inflammatory injury and p38MAPK/NF-κB signaling pathway in GLUTag cells. RESULTS: Our study revealed alkaloids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides in mulberry leaf could increase the levels of PK, HK, and ALT/GPT, and decrease the levels of TG and T-Cho significantly, and regulate glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, 1-deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) and isoquercitrin (QG) both could increase glucose uptake and promote differentiation of HepG2 cells, increase PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP-l expression in 3T3-L1 cells, and inhibit AGEs-induced injury and apoptosis in GLUTag cells, reduce the expression of proteins related to AGEs/RAGE and p38MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Notably, isoquercitrin exhibited more pronounced anti-diabetic efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The alkaloids, flavonoids, and polysaccharides from mulberry leaf exhibited hypoglycemic activity through the regulation of glucose, amino acid, and lipid metabolism. 1-DNJ and QG increased glucose uptake and promoted differentiation of HepG2 cells, increased PPARγ, C/EBPα and SREBP-l expression in 3T3-L1 cells, and inhibited AGEs-induced injury and apoptosis in GLUTag cells via the AGEs/RAGE and p38 MAPK/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Morus/química , Células 3T3-L1 , Alcaloides/isolamento & purificação , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Animais , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptor para Produtos Finais de Glicação Avançada/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo
7.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(21): 5674-5682, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34951221

RESUMO

Two terpenes, 3-keto-tirucalla-8,24-dien-21-oic acid(KTDA) and 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy-furanogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one(FSA), are isolated from Olibanum and Myrrha respectively, which are characterized by high yield and easy crystallization during the preparation. The present study explored the regulatory targets and anti-inflammatory mechanism of KTDA and FSA based on network pharmacology and cell viability assay. First, the drug-likeness of KTDA and FSA was predicted by Swiss ADME. The target prediction of active components was carried out by Swiss Target Prediction and Pharmmapper. TTD, Drug Bank, and Gene Cards were searched for inflammation-related target genes of KTDA and FSA. Protein-protein interaction(PPI) analysis was performed on the inflammatory targets of KTDA and FSA by STRING, and Cytoscape was used to conduct topological analysis of the interaction results and construct the PPI network. GO function and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses of inflammatory targets of KTDA and FSA were carried out by DAVID, and a " component-target-pathway" network was constructed. Finally, lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264. 7 cells were treated with KTDA and FSA at different concentrations, and nitric oxide(NO) concentration and protein and m RNA expression levels were detected. The results showed that both KTDA and FSA showed good drug-likeness. A total of 157 and 142 inflammation-related targets of KTDA and FSA were screened out. PPI network analysis showed that MAPK1, AKT1, MAPK8, PIK3 CA,PIK3 R1, EGFR, etc. might be the key proteins for the anti-inflammatory effect. PI3 K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways were obtained by KEGG and GO-BP enrichment. Cell experiment results showed that KTDA and FSA could exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NO production, reducing the phosphorylation levels of JNK, p38, and AKT proteins, and down-regulating the m RNA expression of interleukin(IL)-1ß and IL-6. Meanwhile, FSA could also inhibit ERK phosphorylation. The results indicated that KTDA and FSA had significant anti-inflammatory activity, which provided a scientific basis and important support for the further research,development, and utilization of Olibanum and Myrrha.


Assuntos
Formigas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Franquincenso , Animais , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(19): 4898-4906, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738383

RESUMO

Bile of animal(mainly chicken, pig, snake, cow, and bear) has long been used as medicine. As the major active components of bile, bile acids mainly include cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid, and taurochenodeoxycholic acid. They interact with intestinal microorganisms in enterohepatic circulation, thereby playing an important part in nutrient absorption and allocation, metabolism regulation, and dynamic balance. Bile acids have pharmacological effects such as protecting liver, kidney, heart, brain, and nerves, promoting bile secretion, dissolving gallstones, anti-cancer, relieving cough and dyspnea, dispelling phlegm, treating eye diseases, and regulating intestinal function and blood glucose, which are widely used in clinical practice. This study summarized and analyzed the research on the chemical constituents and pharmacological effects of bile acids from medicinal animals, in a bid to provide scientific basis and reference for the further development and utilization of bile acids.


Assuntos
Ácidos e Sais Biliares , Ácido Desoxicólico , Animais , Bovinos , Ácido Quenodesoxicólico , Ácidos Cólicos , Feminino , Suínos , Ácido Ursodesoxicólico
9.
J Sep Sci ; 44(22): 4082-4091, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34514725

RESUMO

Red and yellow pigments are the major ingredients of safflower, often used to color food and cosmetics. Carthamin was the main component of red pigment and hydroxysafflor yellow A and anhydrosafflower yellow B were representative components of yellow pigment. Plant metabolomics and semi-quantitative analysis were used to analyze the changes of pigment composition during the blooming period, especially these characteristic components. Carthamin, hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflower yellow B, and other components were screened out as differential metabolites based on plant metabolomics. Then semi-quantitative analysis was used to quantify these three representative components of pigments. Experimental results showed that the content of pigments has dynamic changes along with flowering, in the early blooming period, yellow pigment accumulated much and red pigment was low in content. In the middle period, the accumulation rate of the yellow pigment slowed down and content was stabilized. In the next step, the content of yellow pigments gradually decreased, and the content of red pigments gradually increased. Later, the level of yellow pigment decreased significantly, and the accumulation rate of red pigment increased significantly. Last, the appearance color of safflower was red, with yellow parts barely visible, and accumulation of red pigment was the highest and of the yellow pigment was the lowest in content.


Assuntos
Pigmentos Biológicos/metabolismo , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Chalcona/análogos & derivados , Chalcona/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flores/química , Glucosídeos/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Plantas
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(10): 2371-2379, 2021 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34047081

RESUMO

In this paper, network pharmacology method and molecular docking technique were used to investigate the target genes of Olibanum and Myrrha compatibility and the possible mechanism of action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis(RA). Our team obtained the main active components of Olibanum-Myrrha based on literatures study, relevant traditional Chinese medicine systematic pharmacological databases and literature retrieval, and made target prediction of the active components through SwissTargetPrediction database. At the same time, RA-related targets were collected through DrugBank, GeneCards and Therapeutic Target Database(TDD) databases; and VENNY 2.1 was use to collect intersection targets to map common targets of drug and disease of Venn diagram online. The team used STRING database to construct PPI protein interaction network diagram, and screen out core targets according to the size of the interaction, and Cytoscape 3.6.0 software was used to construct network models of "traditional Chinese medicine-component-target" "traditional Chinese medicine-component-target-disease" and core target interaction network model. The intersection target was analyzed by using DAVID 6.8 online database for GO function analysis and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and Pathon was used to visualization. AutoDock Vina and Pymol were used to connect the core active components with the core targets. Sixteen active components of Olibanum-Myrrha pairs were found and collected in the laboratory, and 320 relevant potential targets, 468 RA-related targets and 62 intersection targets were obtained through the Venn diagram. It mainly acted on multiple targets, such as IL6, TNF, IL1 B and MAPK1, involving TNF signaling pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway in RA treatment. Finally, in this study, possible targets and signaling pathways of Olibanum-Myrrha compatibility therapy for RA were discussed, and molecular docking between core targets and core active components was conducted, which could provide scientific basis for the study on the mechanism of Olibanum-Myrrha compatibility.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Franquincenso , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/genética , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(2): 426-435, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645132

RESUMO

This study aimed to explore the effect of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves on the diversity of intestinal microflora in rats with diabetic kidney injury. Diabetic rats model was established by feeding high glucose and high fat diet and 5% glucose solution with intraperitoneal injection of 30 mg·kg~(-1) streptozocin(STZ). The rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, irbesartan control group, Huangkui Capsules control group, as well as low, middle and high dose groups of Sal-viae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, its stems and leaves. After administration for 2 weeks, 16 S rRNA technique was used to analyze the diversity of intestinal microflora in the feces of each group. The results showed rats in the model group developed renal tubular epithelial vacuole degeneration and a large amount of inflammatory cell infiltration in the renal interstitium. A small amount of inflammatory cell infiltration was seen in each administration group. The kidney structure of rats in irbesartan group, Huangkui Capsules group, high-dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem water extract, as well as high dose group of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stem ethnol extract group was close to the normal group. The diversity and structure of intestinal flora in the model group were significantly different from those in the normal group. Each administration group improved the fecal flora diversity in rats with diabetic kidney injury to a certain extent, especially the high dose of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma and its stems water extract. Different flora were found in feces of diabetic nephropathy model rats on class, order, family and genus levels. On families and genera levels, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Turicibacter, Peptostreptococcaceae, Desulfovibrio, and SMB53 showed an upward trend in model group, but that of Lactobacillus, Clostridium, Rikenella, Rumen fungi showed a downward trend. The administration groups can improve the relative abundance of the above intestinal flora in the model rats to a normal-like level. The results of this study provide a reference for resource utilization and further development of Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Animais , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ratos
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113052, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535239

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge. as a traditional Asian medicinal plant, roots and rhizomes (Danshen) are used to treat chronic hepatitis and coronary heart disease. In recent years, the medicinal value of S. miltiorrhiza stems and leaves total phenolic acids extract (JF) similar to roots and rhizomes has received increasing attention. S. miltiorrhiza roots and rhizome tanshinone extract (DT) has a good anti-inflammatory effect. AIM OF THE STUDY: To explore the therapeutic effect and possible molecular mechanisms of JF and DT alone or in combination on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Colitis was induced by received 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. Then mice were administered orally for 7 days. Disease activity index (DAI) scores and body weight were recorded daily. After the end of the experiment, colon was removed, colon length was measured and histopathological analysis was performed. Inflammatory factors expression was determined by ELISA, its mRNA expression was detected by real-time quantitative PCR, and the expression of related proteins on TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal was analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS: Treatment with JF and DT alone or in combination reduced DAI scores, increase body weight, improved colon shortening, and decreased colon histology scores. In addition, the expression level of inflammatory factors was inhibited. The combination of JF and DT had a better inhibitory effect on inflammatory factors compared to JF alone. We also found that DT alone and JF combined with DT inhibited TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling-related proteins expression levels (including TLR4, p-PI3K p110α/PI3K p110α, p-AKT (ser473)/AKT, mTOR, p-mTOR, NF-κB p65), showing an effective anti-inflammatory effect. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated for the first time that, JF and DT alone or in combination effectively ameliorated DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice, possibly by inhibiting the TLR4/PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Abietanos/administração & dosagem , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxibenzoatos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/antagonistas & inibidores , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Fosfoinositídeo-3 Quinase/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Folhas de Planta , Caules de Planta , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo
13.
J Sep Sci ; 43(16): 3170-3182, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32506800

RESUMO

Safflower has both medicinal and edible values but research on its nutrient composition is still lacking. This study was established for the quantitative determination of 28 nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids based on the ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry. Analysis of 30 batches of safflower from different producing areas indicated that the contents of l-proline, l-asparagine, l(+)-arginine, l-serine, l-histidine, uracil, guanosine, and uridine was high in safflower. Principle component analysis and cluster analysis found that samples from different regions could be distinguished well, and samples from the same area could be clustered into one class, different geographical environments may cause the differences of nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in safflower. The analysis of principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and counter propagation artificial neural network show similar results. Then the content of nucleosides, nucleobases, and essential amino acids were compared, and found that the content in safflower from Gansu was higher than those from other regions, and there was a little difference between the samples from Xinjiang, Sichuan, and Yunnan. This research revealed the composition of nucleosides, nucleobases, and amino acids in safflower, and provided a theoretical basis for utilization of safflower.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/análise , Carthamus tinctorius/química , Nucleosídeos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise de Componente Principal , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
14.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(2): 285-289, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237310

RESUMO

Poverty alleviation by Chinese herbal medicine industry is an important way to implement the major strategic plan of the government and to effectively alleviate poverty and increase income of poor farmers in areas with high resource's endowment of Chinese medicinal materials. Based on the analysis of the existing achievements and problems in poverty alleviation by Chinese herbal medicine industry, this paper proposes that improving the comprehensive benefits of Chinese herbal medicine industry is an important direction for poverty alleviation in the poverty-stricken areas with the high endowment of traditional Chinese medicine resources in the future. Then, based on the concept of resource recycling of traditional Chinese medicinal materials, the feasibility and strategies of utilizing by-products in the production process of Chinese medicinal materials and expanding the ways of poverty alleviation were analyzed and discussed. The aim of all these works was to provide the support for enhancing the comprehensive competitiveness of the industry in poverty-stricken regions, enlarging the poverty alleviation effect of Chinese herbal medicine industry, and consolidating the achievements of poverty alleviation.


Assuntos
Indústria Farmacêutica/economia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicina Herbária/economia , Pobreza , China , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
15.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(4): 890-895, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237490

RESUMO

The solid wastes of Chinese materia dedica industrialization represented by Salvia miltiorrhiza residues have a strong small-molecule bio-recalcitrance in the process of high-value utilization of biotransformation. Highly tolerant strains were bred to break bio-recalcitrance of Salvia miltiorrhiza residues and produce high-value added cellulose, which has a significant significance for recycling and industrial utilization of solid waste. In this study, a strain of fungus, Penicillium expansum SZ13, was found with small-molecule antibacterial substance tanshinone contained in Salvia miltiorrhiza residues by a biological method. The optimal enzyme production process and peak period of SZ13 were determined. It was found that SZ13 could maintain peak enzyme production for 5 days by degrading residues under the conditions of temperature 35 ℃, rotation speed 180 r·min~(-1), 5% of residues addition, and 5% seed solution addition. Meanwhile, the ability of SZ13 to degrade the enzyme production of multiple types of residues was explored. The results showed a high enzyme activity and stable enzyme production of SZ13 in the process of degrading residues. SZ13 could efficiently utilize various types of Chinese medicine residues, such as Salvia miltiorrhiza residues, to realize the high-value utilization of cellulose in multiple types of residues.


Assuntos
Celulase/biossíntese , Fermentação , Materia Medica , Penicillium/metabolismo , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Resíduos Sólidos , China , Indústria Farmacêutica , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 125: 109926, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028239

RESUMO

The spontaneous db/db mice were used to elucidate the biological effects and mechanisms of Rehmannia glutinosa leaves total glycoside (DHY) on kidney injury through biochemical indicators, kidney pathological section analysis, metabolic profiling, intestinal flora analysis and in vitro Human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cell model induced by high glucose. It was found that DHY can decrease the blood sugar level (insulin, INS; fasting blood glucose, FBG), blood lipid level (Total Cholesterol, T-CHO; Triglyceride, TG) significantly and improve kidney injury level (blood urea nitrogen, BUN; urine microalbumin, mALB; serum creatinine, Scr). It can also alleviate kidney tubular epithelial cell oedema and reduce interstitial connective tissue hyperplasia of the injury kidney induced by high glucose. 13 endogenous metabolites were identified in serum, which involved of ether lipid metabolism, sphingolipid metabolism, glyoxylic acid and dicarboxylic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism. High glucose can also lead to the disorder of intestinal flora, especially Firmicutes and Bacteroides. Meanwhile, DHY also inhibited the expression of α-SMA, TGF- ß1, Smad3 and Smad4 in the kidney tissues of db/db mice and HK-2 cells. To sum up, DHY may restore the dysfunctional intestinal flora to normal and regulate glycolipid level of db/db mice as well as TGF-ß/Smad signalling pathway regulation to improve early kidney damage caused by diabetes.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rehmannia/química , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Creatinina/sangue , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Rim/citologia , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Túbulos Renais/citologia , Túbulos Renais/efeitos dos fármacos , Túbulos Renais/patologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Folhas de Planta
17.
Molecules ; 24(21)2019 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683684

RESUMO

Frankincense and myrrha (FM), commonly used as a classical herbal pair, have a wide range of clinical applications and definite anti-inflammatory activity. However, anti-neuroinflammation effects and mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we adopted a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced microglial (BV2) cell model and a network pharmacology method to reveal the anti-neuroinflammatory effects and mechanisms of boswellic acid (BA) and myrrha sesquiterpenes (MS) with different proportions of compatibility. The data showed that the different ratios of BA and MS had different degrees of inhibition of interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA expression, down-regulated the phosphor-nuclear factor kappa B/nuclear factor kappa B (p-NF-Ò¡B)/(NF-Ò¡B), phosphorylated protein kinase b/protein kinase b (p-AKT/AKT), and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) protein expression levels, and increased phospho-PI3 kinase (p-PI3K) protein expression levels. When the ratios of BA and MS were 10:1, 5:1, and 20:1, better effective efficacy was exhibited. According to the correlation analysis between the effect index and bioactive substances, it was suggested that 2-methoxy-5-acetoxy -fruranogermacr-1(10)-en-6-one (Compound 1), 3α-acetyloxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid (Compound 2), 11-keto-boswellic acid (Compound 3), and 3-acetyl-11-keto-ß -boswellic acid (Compound 4) made important contributions to the treatment of neuroinflammation. Furthermore, based on the network pharmacological analysis, it was found that these four active compounds acted on 31 targets related to neuroinflammation and were involved in 32 signaling pathways which mainly related to the immune system, cardiovascular system, and nervous system, suggesting that BA and MS could be used to treat neuroinflammation.


Assuntos
Commiphora/química , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Microglia/patologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Forma Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Ontologia Genética , Inflamação/patologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos , Camundongos , Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Triterpenos/farmacologia
18.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533325

RESUMO

In the present study, a new strategy including the combination of external appearance, chemical detection, and biological analysis was proposed for the comprehensive evaluation of safflowers in different producing areas. Firstly, 40 batches of safflower samples were classified into class I and II based on color measurements and K-means clustering analysis. Secondly, a rapid and sensitive analytical method was developed for simultaneous quantification of 16 chromaticity-related characteristic components (including characteristic components hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, safflomin C, and another 13 flavonoid glycosides) in safflowers by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple-quadrupole linear ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTRAP®/MS2). The results of the quantification indicate that hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, kaempferol, quercetin, and safflomin C had significant differences between the two types of safflower, and class I of safflower had a higher content of hydroxysafflor yellow A, anhydrosafflor yellow B, and safflomin C as the main anti-thrombotic components in safflower. Thirdly, chemometrics methods were employed to illustrate the relationship in multivariate data of color measurements and chromaticity-related characteristic components. As a result, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside and 6-hydroxykaempferol-3-O-ß-d-glucoside were strongly associated with the color indicators. Finally, anti-thrombotic analysis was used to evaluate activity and verify the suitability of the classification basis of safflower based on the color measurements. It was shown that brighter, redder, yellower, more orange-yellow, and more vivid safflowers divided into class I had a higher content of characteristic components and better anti-thrombotic activity. In summary, the presented strategy has potential for quality evaluation of other flower medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Carthamus tinctorius/química , Fenômenos Químicos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Animais , Carthamus tinctorius/classificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fibrinolíticos/química , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Geografia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Peixe-Zebra
19.
Phytother Res ; 33(8): 2044-2055, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209937

RESUMO

Mulberry leaf was reported that it has antidiabetic activity, although the mechanisms underlying the function have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, the results of network pharmacology suggested that mulberry leaves could regulate key biological process in development of diabetes, and the process implicates multiple signaling pathways, such as JAK-STAT, MAPK, VEGF, PPAR, and Wnt. Then, the research in vitro indicated that mulberry leaves remarkably ameliorated high glucose-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which was characterized with significant reduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels as well as downregulation of NADPH oxidase subunits NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4, and it was found to be connected with the ERK1/2 signaling pathway in human tubular epithelial cells (HK-2). Moreover, the results of bioinformatics and the dual luciferase report showed that ZEB1 might be a target gene of miR-302a; decreased miR-302a and increased ZEB1 expressions could significantly promote epithelial to mesenchymal transition. However, mulberry leaves could reverse these modulations. Our results demonstrated that network pharmacology could provide a guidance role for traditional Chinese medicine research, and mulberry leaves could be of benefit in preventing high glucose-induced EMT in HK-2 cells, which proved that it was related to the upregulation of miR-302a by targeting ZEB1 and the inhibition of NADPH oxidase/ROS/ERK1/2 pathway.


Assuntos
Nefropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Morus/química , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Humanos , Nefropatias/patologia
20.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(3): 518-525, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989917

RESUMO

Based on the toxic characteristics caused by the compatibility between "Zaoji Suiyuan" and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, which was found in the previous studies, the expanded study was carried out on the incompatibility mechanism between Crotonis Semen Pulveratum(CT) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma(GU) with the diuretic effect and intestinal flora as the characteristic indexes. The results showed that GU could slow down the rapid diuretic effect of CT, which suggested a tendency of decreasing the efficacy. Both the high and low dose of CT could significantly induce the intestinal injury and change the intestinal bacteria structure of mice. Low dose CT combined with GU could significantly increase the levels of Streptococcus and Rikenellaceae_ukn. The relative abundance of Desulfovibrio and Streptococcaceae_ukn were increased after the combined application of high dose CT and GU. It also suggested that there was a risk of inflammation in the liver and intestines when combined application of these two herbs. The results revealed that the combination of CT and GU has a tendency to reduce the clinical effect and increase the toxicity from the aspects of its traditional efficacy and its effect on intestinal microflora structure, which could provide the data for the clinical use of CT.


Assuntos
Croton/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glycyrrhiza/química , Animais , Diuréticos , Interações Medicamentosas , Intestinos , Camundongos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Sementes/química
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