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1.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0254892, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34653177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: In a recent study, attenuation imaging (ATI) with ultrasound was used as a new approach for detecting liver steatosis. However, although there are many studies on ATI and controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) that prove their practicability, there are few studies comparing these two methods. As such, this study compared CAP and ATI for the detection and evaluation of liver steatosis. METHODS: A prospective analysis of 28 chronic liver disease patients who underwent liver biopsy, FibroScan® imaging, and ATI with ultrasound was conducted. The presence and degree of steatosis, as measured with the FibroScan® device and ATI, were compared with the pathological results obtained using liver biopsy. RESULTS: The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of ATI and CAP for differentiating between normal and hepatic steatosis were 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.00) and 0.96 (95% CI 0.81-0.99), respectively. ATI has a higher AUROC than CAP does in liver steatosis, at 0.99 (95% CI, 0.86-1.00) versus 0.91 (95% CI, 0.74-0.98) in grade ≥ 2 and 0.97 (95% CI, 0.82-1.00) versus 0.88 (95% CI, 0.70-0.97) in grade = 3, respectively. CONCLUSION: The ATI and CAP results showed good consistency and accuracy for the steatosis grading when compared with the liver biopsy results. Moreover, ATI is even better than CAP in patients with moderate or severe steatosis. Therefore, ATI represents a non-invasive and novel diagnostic tool with which to support the diagnosis of liver steatosis in clinical practice.

2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1924-1928, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated 8, 12, or 24 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir in patients with hepatitis C virus and end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis. METHODS: Primary efficacy end point was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Primary safety end point was treatment discontinuation because of adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: Ninety-four percent (89/95) achieved sustained virologic response 12 weeks after treatment. Six patients died during treatment (n = 4) or before study completion (n = 2); no deaths were related to treatment. No patients discontinued treatment because of AEs. Thirteen percent had serious AEs; none were related to treatment. DISCUSSION: Treatment with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir was safe and effective in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing dialysis.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sofosbuvir/administração & dosagem , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Hepatol Int ; 15(5): 1109-1121, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34365587

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The long-term outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among patients dually infected with HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the long-term liver outcomes of HBV/HCV-coinfected patients after antiviral therapy. METHODS: A total of 11,359 chronically HCV-infected patients with interferon-based therapy were registered in a nationwide Taiwanese Chronic Hepatitis C Cohort. A propensity score matched (PSM) cohort of HCV mono-infected (n = 7020) and HBV/HCV (n = 702) co-infected patients by age, sex, and fibrosis was recruited for outcome analysis. The primary outcome was liver-related complications, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and liver decompensation during a mean follow-up period of 4.44 years. RESULTS: Among HBV/HCV co-infected patients, patients without HCV-SVR had a significantly higher 10-year cumulative incidence of major liver-related complications than those with HCV-SVR. However, among patients with HCV-SVR in the PSM cohort, the risk of major liver-related complications, both HCC and liver decompensation, did not differ between HBV/HCV co-infected and HCV mono-infected patients. Similar results were observed among those without HCV-SVR. A substantial lower risk of major liver-related complications was found in HBV/HCV co-infected patients with HCV SVR and subsequent anti-HBV nucleot(s)ide analogues treatment. Overall, factors associated with major liver-related complications included age ≥ 65 year-old, BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2, FIB-4 ≥ 3.25, eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, and non-HCV SVR, but not HBV co-infection. CONCLUSION: Interferon-based therapy reduced the long-term risk of major liver-related complications among HBV/HCV co-infected patients, as among HCV mono-infected patients. Nevertheless, post-HCV-SVR surveillance for major liver-related complications is mandatory among those high-risk groups.

4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26724, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398046

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To evaluate the duration of topical brimonidine therapy before the onset of brimonidine-related allergic conjunctivitis and the clinical characteristics associated with the development of brimonidine allergy.We retrospectively enrolled patients who presented brimonidine allergy from December 1, 2008 to November 30, 2020. The duration of brimonidine treatment, concomitant medications, benzalkonium chloride (BAK) exposure, change in IOP, and season of onset were evaluated.292 patients were included, among which 147 were female and 145 were male. The mean age was 58.3 ± 13.6 years old. The mean (median) duration of brimonidine therapy was 266.6 (196) days, with a peak at 60-120 days. The duration was similar whether the patients received brimonidine monotreatment or in combination with other glaucoma drugs, with or without BAK. The IOP increased by 5.6% after brimonidine allergy (P < .001), which was even higher in the brimonidine monotherapy group (9.2%, P < .001). There was no significant IOP elevation in patients treated with multiple glaucoma medications.Around half of brimonidine allergy occurred within 6 months, with a peak in 2 to 4 months. The duration did not differ in patients receiving brimonidine monotherapy or multiple glaucoma medications. The presence of BAK did not affect the duration either. When brimonidine allergy occurred, there was a loss of IOP control, especially in patients receiving brimonidine monotherapy. It is recommended to switch to other types of glaucoma medications for better IOP control.


Assuntos
Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Tartarato de Brimonidina/efeitos adversos , Conjuntivite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Soluções Oftálmicas/efeitos adversos , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Tartarato de Brimonidina/administração & dosagem , Conjuntivite Alérgica/induzido quimicamente , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Seguimentos , Glaucoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333150

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Sofosbuvir is approved for chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with severe chronic kidney disease (CKD). The impact of sofosbuvir-based therapy on renal function augmentation on a real-world nationwide basis is elusive. METHODS: The 12,995 CHC patients treated with sofosbuvir-based (n = 6802) or non-sofosbuvir-based (n = 6193) regimens were retrieved from the Taiwan nationwide real-world HCV Registry Program. Serial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels were measured at baseline, end of treatment (EOT), and end of follow-up (EOF) (3 months after EOT). RESULTS: The eGFR decreased from baseline (91.4 mL/min/1.73 m2) to EOT (88.4 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001) and substantially recovered at EOF (88.8 mL/min/1.73 m2) but did not return to pretreatment levels (P < .001). Notably, a significant decrease in eGFR was observed only in patients with baseline eGFR ≥90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (from 112.9 to 106.4 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001). In contrast, eGFR increased progressively in patients whose baseline eGFR was <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 (from 70.0 to 71.5 mL/min/1.73 m2; P < .001), and this increase was generalized across different stages of CKD. The trend of eGFR amelioration was consistent irrespective of sofosbuvir usage. Multivariate adjusted analysis demonstrated that baseline eGFR >90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the only factor independently associated with significant slope coefficient differences of eGFR (-1.98 mL/min/1.73 m2; 95% confidence interval, -2.24 to -1.72; P < .001). The use of sofosbuvir was not an independent factor associated with eGFR change. CONCLUSIONS: Both sofosbuvir and non-sofosbuvir-based regimens restored renal function in CHC patients with CKD, especially in those with significant renal function impairment.

6.
JGH Open ; 5(8): 929-940, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34386602

RESUMO

Background and Aim: Ropeginterferon alfa-2b (P1101) is a novel long-acting mono-PEGylated recombinant proline interferon (IFN) conjugated to a 40 kDa branched polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain at its N-terminus, allowing every-two-week injection. It received European Medicines Agency and Taiwan marketing authorization for the treatment of polycythemia vera in 2019 and 2020, respectively. This phase 2 study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, safety, and preliminary efficacy of ropeginterferon alfa-2b as compared with PEG-IFN-α2a in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection. Methods: One hundred six treatment naive patients were enrolled in this phase 2 study and randomized to four treatment groups: subcutaneous weekly PEG-IFN-α2a 180 µg (group 1), weekly ropeginterferon alfa-2b 180 µg (group 2), weekly ropeginterferon alfa-2b 270 µg (group 3), or biweekly ropeginterferon alfa-2b 450 µg (group 4) plus ribavirin for 48 weeks. Results: After multiple weekly administration, serum exposure (AUC0-τ) in ropeginterferon alfa-2b 180 µg was approximately 41% greater and the accumulation ratio of 2-fold greater than PEG-IFN-α2a 180 µg. The incidences of flu-like symptoms were 66.7% (18/27), 53.3% (16/30), 55.0% (11/20), and 48.3% (14/29), anxiety were 14.8% (4/27), 6.7% (2/30), 0%, and 0%, and depression were 25.9% (7/27), 13.3% (4/30), 0%, and 3.4% (1/29), for groups 1-4, respectively. Two grade 2 of 3 depression were noted in PEG-IFN-α2a arm, but none in ropeginterferon arms. The SVR24 rates were 77.8% (21/27), 66.7% (20/30), 80% (16/20), and 69% (20/29), respectively. Conclusions: Ropeginterferon alfa-2b showed longer effective half-life and superior safety profile than PEG-IFN-α2a. Biweekly injection of ropeginterferon alfa-2b will be studied in larger viral hepatitis patient population.

7.
Clin Mol Hepatol ; 27(4): 575-588, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Real-world studies assessing the effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) plus ribavirin (RBV) for Child-Pugh B/C hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis are limited. METHODS: We included 107 patients with Child-Pugh B/C HCV-related cirrhosis receiving SOF/VEL plus RBV for 12 weeks in Taiwan. The sustained virologic response rates at off-treatment week 12 (SVR12) for the evaluable population (EP), modified EP, and per-protocol population (PP) were assessed. Thesafety profiles were reported. RESULTS: The SVR12 rates in the EP, modified EP and PP were 89.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.5-94.2%), 94.1% (95% CI, 87.8-97.3%), and 100% (95% CI, 96.2-100%). Number of patients who failed to achieve SVR12 were attributed to virologic failures. The SVR12 rates were comparable regardless of patient characteristics. One patient discontinued treatment because of adverse events (AEs). Twenty-four patients had serious AEs and six died, but none were related to SOF/VEL or RBV. Among the 96 patients achieving SVR12, 84.4% and 64.6% had improved Child-Pugh and model for endstage liver disease (MELD) scores. Multivariate analysis revealed that a baseline MELD score ≥15 was associated with an improved MELD score of ≥3 (odds ratio, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.16-14.71; P=0.02). Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 1 had more significant estimated glomerular filtration rate declines than patients with CKD stage 2 (-0.42 mL/min/1.73 m2/month; P=0.01) or stage 3 (-0.56 mL/min/1.73 m2/month; P<0.001). CONCLUSION: SOF/VEL plus RBV for 12 weeks is efficacious and well-tolerated for Child-Pugh B/C HCV-related cirrhosis.

8.
J Ophthalmol ; 2021: 7655747, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34239721

RESUMO

Purpose: To evaluate Humphrey visual field (VF) progression rate before and after cataract surgery in patients with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and angle-closure glaucoma (ACG). Methods: After reviewing all records in our Humphrey VF database from July 1, 2001, to December 31, 2018, eyes of OAG and ACG that had received uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation during the period and had been followed up regularly for more than one year with ≥3 reliable VF tests before and after cataract surgery, respectively, were enrolled. The VF progression rate, visual acuity, and intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after cataract surgery were compared. Results: Seventy-seven eyes (OAG: 51; ACG: 26) from 60 patients were enrolled. The mean preoperative and postoperative follow-up durations were 4.89 ± 2.70 and 5.48 ± 2.30 years in the OAG group and 5.14 ± 3.31 and 5.97 ± 2.35 years in the ACG group. IOP and visual acuity significantly improved postoperatively in both groups. In the OAG group, there was no significant change in the VF progression rate (pre-op: -0.39 ± 0.94 dB/year; post-op: -0.47 ± 0.72 dB/year) (P=0.619), whereas, in the ACG group, the rate significantly flattened after surgery from -1.39 ± 1.31 dB/year to -0.34 ± 0.64 dB/year (P=0.003). Conclusions: The VF progression rate did not differ between preoperative and postoperative eyes with OAG, but those with ACG exhibited rapid VF decline preoperatively, which was significantly flattened postoperatively.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25933, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34106663

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The incidence rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and colorectal polyps have been increasing over the last decades. However, direct associations between T2DM and colorectal polyps have not been extensively reported. We will explore the relationship between T2DM and colorectal polyps.In the retrospective study, we classified DM and NonDM groups (control) from 993,516 people in Taiwan nationwide population insurance database from the period of 2000 to 2013. We collected data on income and comorbidities through the international classification of diseases, ninth revision-clinical modification (ICD-9-CM) codes.The T2DM group had a higher incidence rate of colorectal polyps (31.97%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.97-33.28) than the control group (25.9%, 95% CI = 25.1-26.72), and the crude incidence ratio was 1.235 (95% CI = 1.174-1.300). In 13 years of follow-up (2000-2013), T2DM was linked to a significantly higher cumulative probability of colorectal polyps (log-rank test: P = .0001).Patients with T2DM had a 1.23-fold higher risk of new colorectal polyps than control patients in 13 years of follow-up. We explain the T2DM increases incidence for colorectal polyps in long term follow-up.


Assuntos
Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(10): 2884-2892, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33963615

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: It is currently unknown how hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR) therapy affects the incidence of new-onset liver cirrhosis (LC) in patients without cirrhosis and the incidence of decompensated liver disease (DLD) or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: Taiwanese chronic hepatitis C cohort (T-COACH) is a nationwide HCV registry cohort from 23 hospitals in Taiwan recruited between 2003 and 2015. This study enrolled 10 693 patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC), linked to the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, receiving PR therapy for at least 4 weeks for new-onset LC and liver-related complications (DLD or HCC). RESULTS: Of the 10 693 patients, 1372 (12.8%) patients had LC, and the mean age was 54.0 ± 11.4 years. The mean follow-up duration was 4.38 ± 2.79 years, with overall 46 798 person-years. The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of new-onset LC were 5.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.2-7.7) in patients without cirrhosis with a sustained virologic response (SVR) and 21.9% (95% CI: 13.4-32.4) in those without SVR (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.22, P < 0.001). The 10-year cumulative incidence rates of liver-related complications were 21.4% (95% CI: 11.1-37.2) in patients with cirrhosis with SVR and 47.0% (95% CI: 11.1-86.0) in those without SVR after adjustment for age, sex, and competing mortality (HR: 0.52, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hepatitis C virus eradication with PR therapy decreased the incidence of new-onset LC in noncirrhotic patients and the incidence of liver-related complications in cirrhotic patients with CHC.

11.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 78(4): 511-519.e1, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940114

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Hemodialysis facilities are high-risk environments for the spread of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Eliminating HCV from all dialysis facilities in a community may be achieved more effectively under a collaborative care model. STUDY DESIGN: Quality improvement study of multidisciplinary collaborative care teams including nephrologists, gastroenterologists, and public health practitioners. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: All dialysis patients in Changhua County, Taiwan were treated using an interdisciplinary collaborative care model implemented within a broader Changhua-Integrated Program to Stop HCV Infection (CHIPS-C). QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ACTIVITIES: Provision of an HCV care cascade to fill 3 gaps, including screening and testing, diagnosis, and universal direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment implemented by collaborating teams of dialysis practitioners and gastroenterologists working under auspices of Changhua Public Health Bureau. OUTCOME: Outcome measures included quality indicators pertaining to 6 steps in HCV care ranging from HCV screening to treatment completion to cure. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: A descriptive analysis. RESULTS: A total of 3,657 patients from 31 dialysis facilities were enrolled. All patients completed HCV screening. The DAA treatment initiation rate and completion rate were 88.9% and 94.0%, respectively. The collaborative care model achieved a cure rate of 166 (96.0%) of 173 patients. No virologic failure occurred. The cumulative treatment ratios for patients with chronic HCV infection increased from 5.3% before interferon-based therapy (2017) to 25.6% after restricted provision of DAA (2017-2018), and then to 89.1% after universal access to DAA (2019). LIMITATIONS: Unclear impact of this collaborative care program on incident dialysis patients entering dialysis facilities each year and on patients with earlier stages of chronic kidney disease. CONCLUSIONS: A collaborative care model in Taiwan increased the rates of diagnosis and treatment for HCV in dialysis facilities to levels near those established by the World Health Organization.


Assuntos
Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/terapia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Diálise Renal/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Diálise Renal/normas , Taiwan/epidemiologia
12.
Jpn J Ophthalmol ; 65(4): 546-553, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948759

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To figure out the impact of national health insurance program and treatment modalities on the clinical outcomes of patients with retinoblastoma. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: Enrolled patients were classified into three groups according to the time period in which their initial diagnosis was performed: patients diagnosed before 1995 (group 1), patients diagnosed in the time period 1995-2010 (group 2), patients diagnosed after 2010 (group 3). Comparison was made of clinical features including presenting signs, tumor spreading, and treatment modes. Survival and globe salvage rates were analyzed within each group. RESULTS: There were 157 patients (202 eyes) enrolled from 1978 to 2015. The overall mortality rate was 24.2%. The overall 5-year survival rate was 63.4%, 73.8%, 89.1% in the three time periods respectively (P = 0.007). The 5-year survival improved continuously in both unilateral and bilateral disease (P = 0.057; P = 0.015). Patients without extraocular spreading or diagnosed before 2 years of age had a better 5- year survival of 97.4% and 81.1% respectively. The globe salvage rate improved from 8.2%, 14.5%, to 35.1% (P < 0.001). The globe salvage rate was 46.9% in patients who received ophthalmic artery chemosurgery (OAC) and 6.4% in patients not received OAC. CONCLUSIONS: Improvement of survival and globe salvage rate was observed over time periods. National health insurance program has made medical care easily accessible to the public, leading to earlier diagnosis and treatment. Different treatment modes could achieve a better clinical outcome; among the new treatment modalities, OAC played an important role.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Retina , Retinoblastoma , Humanos , Lactente , Artéria Oftálmica , Neoplasias da Retina/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Retina/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Retina/terapia , Retinoblastoma/diagnóstico , Retinoblastoma/epidemiologia , Retinoblastoma/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taiwan/epidemiologia
13.
J Glaucoma ; 30(8): 690-696, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927152

RESUMO

PRECIS: In patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG), topical dorzolamide might enhance the vessel density (VD), topical carteolol decreased the VD in the inferior-temporal peripapillary retina, whereas topical brimonidine did not change the VD. PURPOSE: Topical antiglaucoma medications may improve ocular perfusion pressure or microcirculation in the optic nerve head. The study evaluated responses of retinal VD to topical carteolol, brimonidine, and dorzolamide in NTG using optical coherence tomography angiography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective, nonrandomized, comparative study. The study included 131 individuals (77 men, 54 women) diagnosed with NTG, without systemic medication use, who visited the glaucoma clinic of Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between January 2019 and May 2020. If both eyes were diagnosed with NTG, only the right eye was included. Of these, there were 80 carteolol-treated eyes, 27 brimonidine-treated eyes, and 24 dorzolamide-treated eyes. We studied the response of optical coherence tomography angiography parameters and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness to drugs, 6 months after treatment. RESULTS: In dorzolamide-treated eyes, increases in the peripapillary superficial retinal VD, especially in the superior-nasal area, were significant; however, no RNFL thickness changes were observed. In contrast, the superficial retinal VD decreased at the inferior-temporal peripapillary area, and RNFL thickness decreased in the inferior-nasal peripapillary area of carteolol-treated eyes. Finally, in brimonidine-treated eyes, changes in either VD parameters or RNFL thickness were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Topical dorzolamide possibly enhanced the VD of the peripapillary retina in NTG eyes. On the contrary, topical carteolol possibly decreased VD in the inferior-temporal peripapillary retina. Finally, in cases treated with topical brimonidine, peripapillary microcirculation remained unchanged. The study shows preliminary results and future large-scale studies are needed to confirm findings.


Assuntos
Carteolol , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto , Glaucoma , Angiografia , Tartarato de Brimonidina , Feminino , Angiofluoresceinografia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Masculino , Fibras Nervosas , Células Ganglionares da Retina , Vasos Retinianos/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sulfonamidas , Tiofenos , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Campos Visuais
14.
J Clin Med ; 10(5)2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801163

RESUMO

In recent years, ultrasound attenuation imaging (ATI) has emerged as a new method to detect liver steatosis. However, thus far, no studies have confirmed the clinical utility of this technology. Using a retrospective database analysis of 28 patients with chronic liver disease who underwent ultrasound liver biopsy and ATI, we compared the presence and degree of steatosis measured by ATI with the results obtained through liver biopsy. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of the ATI for differentiating between normal and hepatic steatosis was 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.00). The AUROC of the ATI was 0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.86-1.00) in grade ≥2 liver steatosis and 0.97 (95% confidence interval: 0.82-1.00) in grade 3. ATI showed good consistency and accuracy for the steatosis grading of liver biopsy. Therefore, ATI represents a novel diagnostic measurement to support the diagnosis of liver steatosis in non-invasive clinical practice.

15.
Liver Int ; 41(6): 1265-1277, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33655714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) are highly effective in treating chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. The real-world treatment outcome in Taiwanese patients on a nationwide basis is elusive. METHODS: The Taiwan HCV Registry (TACR) programme is a nationwide registry platform including 48 study sites, which is organized and supervised by the Taiwan Association for the Study of the Liver. The primary endpoint was sustained virological response (SVR12, undetectable HCV RNA 12 weeks after end-of-treatment). RESULTS: A total of 13 951 registered patients with SVR12 data available were analysed (mean age, 63.0 years; female, 55.9%; HCV genotype-1 [GT1], 57.9%; cirrhosis, 38.4%; preexisting hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC], 10.6%; and hepatitis B virus coinfection, 7.7%). The overall SVR12 rate was 98.3%, with 98.7%, 98.0%, 98.4% and 97.4% in treatment-naïve noncirrhotic, treatment-naïve cirrhotic, treatment-experienced noncirrhotic and treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients, respectively. The SVR12 rate was > 95% across all subgroups except treatment-experienced cirrhotic patients who received sofosbuvir/ribavirin (88.7%), treatment-naïve noncirrhotic patients (94.8%) and treatment-experienced cirrhotic (94.8%) patients who received daclatasvir/asunaprevir. The most important factor associated with treatment failure was DAA adherence < 60% ( adjusted odds ratio [aOR]/95% confidence interval [CI]: 117.1/52.4-261.3, P < .001), followed by GT3/GT2 (aOR/CI: 5.78/2.25-14.9, P = .0003 and aOR/CI: 1.55/1.05-2.29, P = .03, compared with GT1), active hepatocellular carcinoma (aOR/CI: 4.29/2.57-7.16, P < .001), the use of sofosbuvir/ribavirin (aOR/CI: 2.51/1.67-3.77, P < .001) and daclatasvir/asunaprevir (aOR/CI: 3.29/1.94-5.58, P < .001), decompensated liver cirrhosis (aOR/CI: 2.50/1.20-5.22, P = .02) and high HCV viral loads (aOR/CI: 2.16/1.57-2.97, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: DAAs are highly effective in treating Taiwanese HCV patients in the real-world setting. Maintaining DAA adherence and selecting highly efficacious regimens are keys to ensure treatment success.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/tratamento farmacológico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/epidemiologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Sofosbuvir/uso terapêutico , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Falha de Tratamento , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Hepatol Int ; 15(2): 338-349, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the real-world effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) for East Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and compensated liver disease are limited. We evaluated the performance of SOF/VEL for 12 weeks for HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease in a large real-world cohort in Taiwan. METHODS: Between July 2019 and March 2020, 1880 HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease who received SOF/VEL 400/100 mg once daily for 12 weeks were included at 15 academic centers in Taiwan. The sustained virologic response at off-treatment week 12 (SVR12) was assessed for evaluable (EP) and per-protocol populations (PP). The tolerance was also reported. RESULTS: The SVR12 rates by EP and PP analyses were 95.6% [1798 of 1880 patients; 95% confidence interval (CI) 94.6-96.5%] and 99.3% (1798 of 1811 patients; 95% CI 98.8-99.6%), respectively. Among 82 patients who failed to achieve SVR12, 13 (15.9%) were attributed to virologic failures. The SVR12 rates were comparable regardless of baseline characteristics. A total of 1859 (98.9%) patients completed 12-week SOF/VEL treatment. Four (0.2%) patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events (AEs). All patients with serious AEs or deaths were judged not related to SOF/VEL. The AEs occurring in ≥ 10% included headache (16.8%), fatigue (16.2%), nausea (11.8%), and insomnia (11.1%). Nine (0.5%) and 2 (0.1%) patients had grade 3 total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase elevations. CONCLUSIONS: SOF/VEL for 12 weeks is efficacious and well-tolerated by chronic HCV-infected patients with compensated liver disease in Taiwan.

17.
J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 36(8): 2247-2254, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624849

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with impaired renal function. The aim of this study is to explore the risk of and factors associated with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) under maintenance dialysis among HCV patients after anti-HCV therapy. METHODS: A total of 12 696 HCV-infected patients with interferon-based therapy, including 9679 (76.2%) achieving sustained virological response (SVR), were enrolled from 23 hospitals in Taiwan. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up period of 5.3 years (67 554 person-years), the annual incidence of 4.1/10 000 person-years, 4.0/10 000 and 4.7/10 000 person-years among SVR patients and non-SVR patients, respectively. History of diabetes and baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/m2 , instead of SVR, were the significant risk factors for developing ESRD with maintenance dialysis after anti-HCV therapy (adjusted hazard ratio 7.75 and 9.78). CONCLUSION: Diabetes and baseline impaired renal function were strongly associated with progression to ESRD with maintenance dialysis among chronic HCV-infected patients after antiviral therapy.

18.
Gut ; 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408122

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Data regarding the real-world effectiveness and safety of sofosbuvir/velpatasvir (SOF/VEL) with or without low-dose ribavirin (RBV) in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and severe renal impairment (RI) are limited. We evaluated the performance of SOF/VEL with or without low-dose RBV in HCV-infected patients with chronic kidney disease stage 4 or 5. DESIGN: 191 patients with compensated (n=181) and decompensated (n=10) liver diseases receiving SOF/VEL (400/100 mg/day) alone and SOF/VEL with low-dose RBV (200 mg/day) for 12 weeks were retrospectively recruited at 15 academic centres in Taiwan. The effectiveness was determined by sustained virological response at off-treatment week 12 (SVR12) in evaluable (EP) and per-protocol populations (PP). The safety profiles were assessed. RESULTS: The SVR12 rates by EP and PP analyses were 94.8% (95% CI 90.6% to 97.1%) and 100% (95% CI 97.9% to 100%). In patients with compensated liver disease, the SVR12 rates were 95.0% and 100% by EP and PP analyses. In patients with decompensated liver disease, the SVR12 rates were 90.0% and 100% by EP and PP analyses. Ten patients who failed to achieve SVR12 were attributed to non-virological failures. Among the 20 serious adverse events (AEs), none were judged related to SOF/VEL or RBV. The AEs occurring in ≥10% included fatigue (14.7%), headache (14.1%), nausea (12.6%), insomnia (12.0%) and pruritus (10.5%). None had ≥grade 3 total bilirubin or alanine aminotransferase elevations. CONCLUSION: SOF/VEL with or without low-dose RBV is effective and well-tolerated in HCV-infected patients with severe RI.

19.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(9): 1919-1926, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400288

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Successful antiviral treatment in patients with hepatitis C can lead to reduced liver stiffness. In this study, we attempted to compare 2-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography (SWE), shear wave dispersion (SWD), and attenuation imaging (ATI) with transient elastography (TE) and the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in patients under direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. METHODS: Patients with chronic hepatitis C infection undergoing DAA therapy from January 2017 to June 2020 were retrospectively examined. The results of 2D SWE, SWD, ATI, TE, and CAP were recorded before and 12 weeks after the completion of DAA therapy. RESULTS: A total of 122 patients with a median age of 61 years were investigated; among them, 121 (99.2%) achieved a sustained virologic response at 12 weeks after DAA therapy. Fibrosis 4, the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index, 2D SWE, and TE were reduced after DAA therapy. The CAP was increased; however, SWD and ATI showed no statistically significant changes after DAA therapy. Two-dimensional SWE and TE were strongly correlated (r = 0.885-0.897; P < .001). Albumin and the baseline liver stiffness measurement were independent factors of liver stiffness measurement changes after DAA therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Direct-acting antiviral therapy can significantly decrease liver stiffness (using both 2D SWE and TE) but not SWD and ATI values in patients with hepatitis C. An increased CAP is also observed after DAA therapy.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Hepatite C Crônica , Hepatite C , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Hepatite C Crônica/complicações , Hepatite C Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(3): 956-964, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ropeginterferon alfa-2b is a novel mono-pegylated interferon that has only one major form as opposed to the 8 to 14 isomers of other on-market pegylated interferon products, allowing every-two-week injection with high tolerability. It received European Medicines Agency marketing authorization in 2019 and Taiwan Biologics License Applications Approval in 2020 for the treatment of polycythemia vera. This study aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Ropeginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin in genotype 2 chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients. METHODS: Eighty-six treatment naive patients with genotype 2 CHC were randomized to weekly peginterferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN-α2a) at 180 µg (n = 22), or every-two-week Ropeginterferon alfa-2b at 270 µg (n = 23), 360 µg (n = 21), 450 µg (n = 20), plus daily oral ribavirin 1000 mg (≤75 kg) or 1200 mg (>75 kg). Patients with rapid virologic response received 16-week regimen while those without RVR received 24-week regimen. The primary endpoint was sustained virologic response at 24 weeks post-treatment (SVR24). RESULTS: SVR24 was achieved by 95.5%, 78.3%, 85.7%, and 60% of subjects in Peg-IFN-α2a 180 µg, Ropeginterferon alfa-2b 270 µg, 360 µg, and 450 µg groups, respectively. The safety profile was similar across 4 groups. The incidence rate of adverse event during the treatment period was 0.407, 0.252, 0.395, and 0.347 per patient-week, respectively. CONCLUSION: Ropeginterferon alfa-2b, although at only half the number of injections, is as safe and effective as Peg-IFN-α2a for genotype 2 CHC. A phase 3 study to confirm safety and efficacy of Ropeginterferon alfa-2b in genotype 2 CHC is ongoing.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica , Antivirais/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Genótipo , Hepacivirus/genética , Hepatite C Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Polietilenoglicóis/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Ribavirina/uso terapêutico , Taiwan
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