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1.
Plant Physiol ; 2021 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34747472

RESUMO

Chloroplasts are the sites for photosynthesis, and two Golden2-like factors act as transcriptional activators of chloroplast development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) and maize (Zea mays L.). Rice OsGLK1 and OsGLK2 are orthologous to maize ZmGLK1 (ZmG1) and ZmGLK2 (ZmG2), respectively. However, while rice OsGLK1 and OsGLK2 act redundantly to regulate chloroplast development in mesophyll cells, maize ZmG1 and ZmG2 are functionally specialized and expressed in different cell-specific manners. To boost rice chloroplast development and photosynthesis, we generated transgenic rice plants overexpressing ZmG1 and ZmG2, individually or simultaneously, with constitutive promoters (pZmUbi::ZmG1 and p35S::ZmG2) or maize promoters (pZmG1::ZmG1, pZmG2::ZmG2, and pZmG1::ZmG1/pZmG2::ZmG2). Both ZmG1 and ZmG2 genes were highly expressed in transgenic rice leaves. Moreover, ZmG1 and ZmG2 showed coordinated expression in pZmG1::ZmG1/pZmG2::ZmG2 plants. All GLK transgenic plants had higher chlorophyll and protein contents, Rubisco activities and photosynthetic rates per unit leaf area in flag leaves. However, the highest grain yields occurred when maize promoters were used; pZmG1::ZmG1, pZmG2::ZmG2 and pZmG1::ZmG1/pZmG2::ZmG2 transgenic plants showed increases in grain yield by 51%, 47% and 70%, respectively. In contrast, the pZmUbi::ZmG1 plant produced smaller seeds without yield increases. Transcriptome analysis indicated that maize GLKs act as master regulators promoting the expression of both photosynthesis-related and stress-responsive regulatory genes in both rice shoot and root. Thus, by promoting these important functions under the control of their own promoters, maize GLK1 and GLK2 genes together dramatically improved rice photosynthetic performance and productivity. A similar approach can potentially improve the productivity of many other crops.

2.
Respirol Case Rep ; 9(12): e0870, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34745633

RESUMO

Multifocal micronodular pneumocyte hyperplasia (MMPH) is the lesser known pulmonary manifestation of tuberous sclerosis. It manifests radiologically as diffuse small ground-glass and solid nodules. Accurate diagnosis is essential as it can be mistaken for miliary tuberculosis or malignant lesions which necessitates specific treatment. Constellation of radiological features such as multicentric disease at onset and stability over time can help to distinguish MMPH from its differentials. Histologically, MMPH is characterized by hamartomatous proliferation of type II pneumocytes with a lack of high nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio. MMPH confers a benign prognosis unlike its differentials. Therefore, accurate diagnosis is paramount in ensuring appropriate care is delivered. Here, we describe the radiological and histological features of MMPH in a patient with genetically proven tuberous sclerosis complex and co-existing lymphangioleiomyomatosis.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764027

RESUMO

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. CMV is a ubiquitous Herpesviridae virus with a wide spectrum of pathologies in humans. Immunocompetent patients generally develop a benign, self-limited mononucleosis-like syndrome, whereas gastrointestinal tissue-invasive disease is more frequently seen in immunocompromised. The clinical manifestations of CMV colitis or proctitis are demarcated by bloody diarrhea, ulcerations, ulcero-infiltrative changes, and pseudomembranous formation on colonoscopy. Gastrointestinal CMV infections complicated with deep rectal ulcer and fistula formation are rare in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Ganciclovir is also the gold standard therapy for CMV colitis or proctitis.

4.
J Oncol ; 2021: 9997185, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764994

RESUMO

The most common kind of kidney cancer with poor prognosis is clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Pyroptosis is shown to be an inflammatory type of programmed cell death in recent years. In this research, we utilized pyroptosis-related differentially expressed lncRNAs in ccRCC to develop a predictive multi-lncRNA signature. We uncovered 14 lncRNAs with different expression patterns that were linked to ccRCC prognosis. Kaplan-Meier analysis identified a signature of high-risk lncRNAs related to poor prognosis for ccRCC. Furthermore, the AUC of the lncRNA signature was 0.771, indicating that they can be used to predict ccRCC prognosis. In predicting ccRCC prognosis, our risk analysis approach outperformed standard clinicopathological characteristics. In the low-risk group, GSEA indicated tumor-related pathways. T-cell functions such as T-cell coinhibition and T-cell costimulation were found to be expressed differently in two groups. Immune checkpoints including PD-1, LAG3, CTLA4, and BTLA were also differently expressed between the two groups. In patients with ccRCC, we created a 14-lncRNA-based predictor as a robust prognostic and predictive tool for OS.

5.
Bioessays ; 43(12): e2100153, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34738654

RESUMO

The complexity of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling cascade has increased over the course of evolution; however, it does not suffice to accommodate the dynamic yet robust requirements of differential Hh signaling activity needed for embryonic development and adult homeostatic maintenance. One solution to solve this dilemma is to apply multiple forms of post-translational modifications (PTMs) to the core Hh signaling components, modulating their abundance, localization, and signaling activity. This review summarizes various forms of protein modifications utilized to regulate Hh signaling, with a special emphasis on crosstalk between different forms of PTMs and their feedback regulation by Hh signaling.

6.
Plant Biotechnol J ; 2021 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34800075

RESUMO

Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense) is the source of the world's finest fiber-quality cotton, yet relatively little is understood about genetic variations among diverse germplasms, genes underlying important traits, and the effects of pedigree selection. Here, we resequenced 336 G. barbadense accessions and identified 16 million SNPs. Phylogenetic and population structure analyses revealed two major gene pools and a third admixed subgroup derived from geographical dissemination and interbreeding. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 15 traits including fiber quality, yield, disease resistance, maturity, and plant architecture. The highest number of associated loci was for fiber quality, followed by disease resistance and yield. Using gene expression analyses and VIGS transgenic experiments, we confirmed the roles of five candidate genes regulating four key traits, i.e., disease resistance, fiber length, fiber strength, and lint percentage. Geographical and temporal considerations demonstrated selection for the superior fiber quality (fiber length and fiber strength), and high lint-percentage in improving G. barbadense in China. Pedigree selection breeding increased Fusarium wilt disease resistance, and separately improved fiber-quality and yield. Our work provides a foundation for understanding genomic variation and selective breeding of Sea Island cotton.

7.
J Cutan Pathol ; 2021 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34778979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous gamma/delta T-cell lymphoma (PCDG-TCL) is aggressive, frequently presenting as multiple plaques, tumors, and/or subcutaneous nodules. METHODS: In this study, we conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary center in Taiwan to characterize this rare tumor. RESULTS: We identified six patients. Five presented with a solitary lesion, including two with clinical impression of epidermal inclusion cyst or lipoma. Two of four evaluable cases exhibited epidermotropism, with one mimicking Pautrier microabscess. The neoplastic cells were pleomorphic and mostly medium- to large-sized. In all cases, the neoplastic cells expressed T-cell receptor (TCR)-γ and/or TCR-δ, with four co-expressing ßF1. Two of these ßF1+ cases co-expressed TCR-γ but not TCR-δ (two different clones). All were negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), low stage, and treated with radiotherapy alone or combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In two patients, lymphoma relapsed in 3 and 7 months, respectively, and one patient died of the disease in 7 months. Four other patients were free of disease for 6 to 126 months. CONCLUSION: PCGD-TCL cases in Taiwan are more commonly solitary, frequently with indolent courses. The two currently available TCR-δ clones alone might be insufficient to detect all tumors.

8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 782473, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34805186

RESUMO

Non-coding RNAs have been shown to play important regulatory roles, notably in cancer development. In this study, we investigated the role of microRNAs and circular RNAs in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) by constructing a circRNA-miRNA-mRNA co-expression network and performing differential expression analysis on mRNAs, miRNAs, and circRNAs. Specifically, the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection has been found to be an important risk factor for NPC, and potential pathological differences may exist for EBV+ and EBV- subtypes of NPC. By comparing the expression profile of non-cancerous immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line and NPC cell lines, we identified differentially expressed coding and non-coding RNAs across three groups of comparison: cancer vs. non-cancer, EBV+ vs. EBV- NPC, and metastatic vs. non-metastatic NPC. We constructed a ceRNA network composed of mRNAs, miRNAs, and circRNAs, leveraging co-expression and miRNA target prediction tools. Within the network, we identified the regulatory ceRNAs of CDKN1B, ZNF302, ZNF268, and RPGR. These differentially expressed axis, along with other miRNA-circRNA pairs we identified through our analysis, helps elucidate the genetic and epigenetic changes central to NPC progression, and the differences between EBV+ and EBV- NPC.

9.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 19(1): 366, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789291

RESUMO

Aß42 is one of the most extensively studied blood and Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for the diagnosis of symptomatic and prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Because of the heterogeneity and transient nature of Aß42 oligomers (Aß42Os), the development of technologies for dynamically detecting changes in the blood or CSF levels of Aß42 monomers (Aß42Ms) and Aß42Os is essential for the accurate diagnosis of AD. The currently commonly used Aß42 ELISA test kits usually mis-detected the elevated Aß42Os, leading to incomplete analysis and underestimation of soluble Aß42, resulting in a comprised performance in AD diagnosis. Herein, we developed a dual-target lateral flow immunoassay (dLFI) using anti-Aß42 monoclonal antibodies 1F12 and 2C6 for the rapid and point-of-care detection of Aß42Ms and Aß42Os in blood samples within 30 min for AD diagnosis. By naked eye observation, the visual detection limit of Aß42Ms or/and Aß42Os in dLFI was 154 pg/mL. The test results for dLFI were similar to those observed in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Therefore, this paper-based dLFI provides a practical and rapid method for the on-site detection of two biomarkers in blood or CSF samples without the need for additional expertise or equipment.

10.
Mater Horiz ; 8(2): 426-446, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34821263

RESUMO

In the past 30 years, researchers have worked towards reducing the size of ordinary three-dimensional (3D) materials into 1D or 2D materials in order to obtain new properties and applications of these low-dimensional systems. Among them, functional nanofibers with large surface area and high porosity have been widely studied and paid attention to. Because of the interesting properties of nanofibers, they find extensive application in filtration, wound dressings, composites, sensors, capacitors, nanogenerators, etc. Recently, a variety of nanofiber preparation methods such as melt blowing, electrospinning (e-spinning), centrifugal spinning and solution blow spinning (SBS) have been proposed. This paper includes a brief review of the fundamental principles of the preparation of nanofibers for solution jet spinning, the influence of experimental parameters, and the properties and potential applications of the solution-blown fibers. And the industrialization and challenges of SBS are also included.

11.
Front Oncol ; 11: 734694, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34722282

RESUMO

SNHG8, a family member of small nucleolar RNA host genes (SNHG), has been reported to act as an oncogene in gastric carcinoma (GC). However, its biological function in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) remains unclear. This study investigated the role of SNHG8 in EBVaGC. Sixty-one cases of EBVaGC, 20 cases of non-EBV-infected gastric cancer (EBVnGC), and relative cell lines were studied for the expression of SNHG8 and BHRF1 (BCL2 homolog reading frame 1) encoded by EBV with Western blot and qRT-PCR assays. The relationship between the expression levels of SNHG8 and the clinical outcome in 61 EBVaGC cases was analyzed. Effects of overexpression or knockdown of BHRF1, SNHG8, or TRIM28 on cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and cell cycle and the related molecules were determined by several assays, including cell proliferation, colony assay, wound healing assay, transwell invasion assay, cell circle with flow cytometry, qRT-PCR, and Western blot for expression levels. The interactions among SNHG8, miR-512-5p, and TRIM28 were determined with Luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP), pull-down assays, and Western blot assay. The in vivo activity of SNHG8 was assessed with SNHG8 knockdown tumor xenografts in zebrafish. Results demonstrated that the following. (1) BHRF1 and SNHG8 were overexpressed in EBV-encoded RNA 1-positive EBVaGC tissues and cell lines. BHRF1 upregulated the expressions of SNHG8 and TRIM28 in AGS. (2) SNHG8 overexpression had a significant correlation with tumor size and vascular tumor thrombus. Patients with high SNHG8 expression had poorer overall survival (OS) compared to those with low SNHG8 expression. (3) SNHG8 overexpression promoted EBVaGC cell proliferation, migration, and invasion in vitro and in vivo, cell cycle arrested at the G2/M phase via the activation of BCL-2, CCND1, PCNA, PARP1, CDH1, CDH2 VIM, and Snail. (4) Results of dual-luciferase reporter assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and pull-down assays indicated that SNHG8 sponged miR-512-5p, which targeted on TRIM28 and promoted cancer malignant behaviors of EBVaGC cells. Our data suggest that BHRF1 triggered the expression of SNHG8, which sponged miR-512-5p and upregulated TRIM28 and a set of effectors (such as BCL-2, CCND1, CDH1, CDH2 Snail, and VIM) to promote EBVaGC tumorigenesis and invasion. SNHG8 could be an independent prognostic factor for EBVaGC and sever as target for EBVaGC therapy.

12.
Front Immunol ; 12: 699192, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34777334

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) represent different stages of renal failure; thus, CKD can be regarded as a result of AKI deterioration. Previous studies have demonstrated that immune cell infiltration, oxidative stress, and metabolic mentalism can support renal fibrosis progression in AKI cases. However, the most important triggers and cell types involved in this pathological progression remain unclear. This study was conducted to shed light into the underlying cellular and molecular features of renal fibrosis progression through the analysis of three mouse whole kidney and one human single-cell RNA-sequencing datasets publicly available. According to the different causes of AKI (ischemia reperfusion injury [IRI] or cisplatin), the mouse samples were divided into the CIU [control-IRI-unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)] and CCU (control-cisplatin-UUO) groups. Comparisons between groups revealed eight different modules of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). A total of 1,214 genes showed the same expression pattern in both CIU and CCU groups; however, 1,816 and 1,308 genes were expressed specifically in the CCU and CIU groups, respectively. Further assessment of the DEGs according to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) showed that T-cell activation, fatty acid metabolic process, and arachidonic acid metabolism were involved in the fibrosis progression in CIU and CCU. Single-cell RNA-sequencing data along with the collected DEGs information also revealed that the T-cell activation mainly happened in immune cells, whereas the fatty acid metabolic process and arachidonic acid metabolism occurred in tubule cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the fibrosis process differed between the CIU and CCU stages, in which immune and tubule cells have different functions. These identified cellular and molecular features of the different stages of fibrosis progression may pave the way for exploring novel potential therapeutic strategies in the clinic.

13.
Nano Lett ; 21(20): 8888-8894, 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34661417

RESUMO

We predict that high temperature Bose-Einstein condensation of charge transfer excitons can be achieved in organic-two-dimensional (2D) material heterostructures, at ∼50-100 K. Unlike 2D bilayers that can be angle-misaligned, organic-2D systems generally have momentum-direct low-energy excitons, thus favoring condensation. Our predictions are obtained for ZnPc-MoS2 using state-of-the-art first-principles calculations with the GW-BSE approach. The exciton energies we predict are in excellent agreement with recent experiments. The lowest energy charge transfer excitons in ZnPc-MoS2 are strongly bound with a spatial extent of ∼1-2 nm and long lifetimes (τ0 ∼ 1 ns), making them ideal for exciton condensation. We also predict the emergence of inter-ZnPc excitons that are stabilized by the interaction of the molecules with the 2D substrate. This novel way of stabilizing intermolecular excitons by indirect substrate mediation suggests design strategies for singlet fission and exciton multiplication, which are important to overcome the Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit in solar cells.

14.
Food Funct ; 12(19): 8899-8906, 2021 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34606541

RESUMO

Elucidating the organometallic interactions in Baijiu will promote a deeper understanding of the flavour formation mechanism during Baijiu aging. However, the organometallic interactions during aging are difficult to explore because the concentration and status of metals in Baijiu samples are affected by other substances (such as organic acids), and the concentrations of these substances also change dynamically. Hence, the flavour formation mechanism of aged Baijiu was investigated based on a multi-method analysis (i.e. electrochemistry, ICP-MS/OES, and UPLC-Q-Orbitrap-MS/MS), which enabled us to solve the difficulty above. The key finding is that, in the aging period, the organic acids induce the transformation of the metal ion state from the complex state to the free state. As a result, the flavour compound (i.e. the esters) contents in aged Baijiu are regulated by the free metal ion-catalyzed reactions.

15.
BMC Gastroenterol ; 21(1): 402, 2021 Oct 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34696716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perioperative patients are at risk of developing stress ulcers (SU), which can cause clinically important bleeding. Stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) is widely applied to the patients in Intensive care unit (ICU) as well as the general ward, so it may lead to overmedication. However, there have been no surveys regarding SUP knowledge or prescribing habits. OBJECTIVE: Our study assessed the knowledge, attitudes, and prescribing behavior of the surgeons toward perioperative patients regarding SUP and determined factors associated with low knowledge and high level of prescribing behaviors. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional survey using questionnaires, randomly sampling 1266 surgeons on their current SUP practices. RESULTS: Proton pump inhibitors for SUP were used the most (94%); 43% used lansoprazole. Guideline awareness was inconsistent; the most familiar guideline was the National Medical Journal of China, and 46% were unaware of any guidelines. The predictors of low knowledge score regarding SUP in multivariable analysis were the hospital grade (p = 0.000), the type of hospital (p = 0.044), attendance at continuing education programs (p = 0.037), the awareness of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) for SUP (p = 0.000). Twenty-one percent of physicians were high prescribers. High prescribing behavior was associated with hospital grade(p = 0.000), education level(p = 0.010) and attendance at continuing education programs (p = 0.000). CONCLUSION: We found that most surgeons used SUP, primarily proton pump inhibitors. However, surgeons knew little about the SUP guidelines, which may lead to insufficient SUP knowledge and overmedication. In addition, hospital grade, the type of hospital and attendance at continuing education programs may also affect the low knowledge of SUP. Hospital grade, education level and attendance at continuing education programs may affect high prescribing behavior.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos , Médicos , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/uso terapêutico , Úlcera
16.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34665593

RESUMO

The electron dynamics of atomically thin 2-D polar metal heterostructures, which consisted of a few crystalline metal atomic layers intercalated between hexagonal silicon carbide and graphene grown from the silicon carbide, were studied using nearly degenerate transient absorption spectroscopy. Optical pumping created charge carriers in both the 2-D metals and graphene components. Wavelength-dependent probing suggests that graphene-to-metal carrier transfer occurred on a sub-picosecond time scale. Following rapid (<300 fs) carrier-carrier scattering, charge carriers monitored through the metal interband transition relaxed through several consecutive cooling mechanisms that included sub-picosecond carrier-phonon scattering and dissipation to the silicon carbide substrate over tens of picoseconds. By studying 2-D In, 2-D Ga, and a Ga/In alloy, we resolved accelerated electron-phonon scattering rates upon alloy formation as well as structural influences on the excitation of in-plane phonon shear modes. More rapid cooling in alloys is attributed to increased lattice disorder, which was observed through correlative polarization-resolved second harmonic generation and electron microscopy. This connection between the electronic relaxation rates, far-field optical responses, and metal lattice disorder is made possible by the intimate relation between nonlinear optical properties and atomic-level structure in these materials. These studies provided insights into electronic carrier dynamics in 2-D crystalline elemental metals, including resolving contributions from specific components of a 2-D metal-containing heterojunction. The correlative ultrafast spectroscopy and nonlinear microscopy results suggest that the energy dissipation rates can be tuned through atomic-level structures.

17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5989, 2021 10 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645818

RESUMO

Liquid-liquid phase separation promotes the formation of membraneless condensates that mediate diverse cellular functions, including autophagy of misfolded proteins. However, how phase separation participates in autophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria (mitophagy) remains obscure. We previously discovered that nuclear receptor Nur77 (also called TR3, NGFI-B, or NR4A1) translocates from the nucleus to mitochondria to mediate celastrol-induced mitophagy through interaction with p62/SQSTM1. Here, we show that the ubiquitinated mitochondrial Nur77 forms membraneless condensates capable of sequestrating damaged mitochondria by interacting with the UBA domain of p62/SQSTM1. However, tethering clustered mitochondria to the autophagy machinery requires an additional interaction mediated by the N-terminal intrinsically disordered region (IDR) of Nur77 and the N-terminal PB1 domain of p62/SQSTM1, which confers Nur77-p62/SQSTM1 condensates with the magnitude and liquidity. Our results demonstrate how composite multivalent interaction between Nur77 and p62/SQSTM1 coordinates to sequester damaged mitochondria and to connect targeted cargo mitochondria for autophagy, providing mechanistic insight into mitophagy.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/genética , Triterpenos Pentacíclicos/farmacologia , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/genética , Animais , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Reporter , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde , Células HeLa , Humanos , Proteínas Luminescentes , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia/genética , Membro 1 do Grupo A da Subfamília 4 de Receptores Nucleares/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Transporte Proteico , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão , Reologia , Proteína Sequestossoma-1/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
18.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 715041, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34512696

RESUMO

Wild cotton species can contribute to a valuable gene pool for genetic improvement, such as genes related to salt tolerance. However, reproductive isolation of different species poses an obstacle to produce hybrids through conventional breeding. Protoplast fusion technology for somatic cell hybridization provides an opportunity for genetic manipulation and targeting of agronomic traits. Transcriptome sequencing analysis of callus under salt stress is conducive to study salt tolerance genes. In this study, calli were induced to provide materials for extracting protoplasts and also for screening salt tolerance genes. Calli were successfully induced from leaves of Gossypium sturtianum (C1 genome) and hypocotyls of G. raimondii (D5 genome), and embryogenic calli of G. sturtianum and G. raimondii were induced on a differentiation medium with different concentrations of 2, 4-D, KT, and IBA, respectively. In addition, embryogenic calli were also induced successfully from G. raimondii through suspension cultivation. Transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed on the calli of G. raimondii and G. sturtianum, which were treated with 200 mM NaCl at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, and a total of 12,524 genes were detected with different expression patterns under salt stress. Functional analysis showed that 3,482 genes, which were differentially expressed in calli of G. raimondii and G. sturtianum, were associated with biological processes of nucleic acid binding, plant hormone (such as ABA) biosynthesis, and signal transduction. We demonstrated that DEGs or TFs which related to ABA metabolism were involved in the response to salt stress, including xanthoxin dehydrogenase genes (ABA2), sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinases (SnRK2), NAM, ATAT1/2, and CUC2 transcription factors (NAC), and WRKY class of zinc-finger proteins (WRKY). This research has successfully induced calli from two diploid cotton species and revealed new genes responding to salt stress in callus tissue, which will lay the foundation for protoplast fusion for further understanding of salt stress responses in cotton.

19.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 12(36): 8841-8846, 2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492190

RESUMO

Complex organic-inorganic interfaces are important for device and sensing applications. Charge transfer doping is prevalent in such applications and can affect the interfacial energy level alignments (ELA), which are determined by many-body interactions. We develop an approximate ab initio many-body GW approach that can capture many-body interactions due to interfacial charge transfer. The approach uses significantly less resources than a regular GW calculation but gives excellent agreement with benchmark GW calculations on an F4TCNQ/graphene interface. We find that many-body interactions due to charge transfer screening result in gate-tunable F4TCNQ HOMO-LUMO gaps. We further predict the ELA of a large system of experimental interest-4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)bipyridine (DMAP-OED) on monolayer MoS2, where charge transfer screening results in an ∼1 eV reduction of the molecular HOMO-LUMO gap. Comparison with a two-dimensional electron gas model reveals the importance of explicitly considering the intraband transitions in determining the charge transfer screening in organic-inorganic interface systems.

20.
COPD ; : 1-7, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468237

RESUMO

Impaired mucociliary clearance may increase COPD exacerbation risk. We aimed to compare bronchial ciliary function and epithelial ultrastructure of COPD patients to healthy controls and explore its relationship to exacerbator phenotypes (frequent [FE] and infrequent [IFE] exacerbator). In this cross-sectional study, 16 COPD patients and 12 controls underwent bronchial brushings. Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and dyskinesia index (DI; % of dyskinetic cilia) were assessed using digital high-speed video microscopy, and epithelial ultrastructure using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Bronchial epithelium in COPD showed lower CBF and higher DI, compared to controls (median [IQR] CBF: 6.8 (6.1-7.2) Hz vs 8.5 (7.7-8.9) Hz, p<0.001 and DI: 73.8 (60.7-89.8) % vs 14.5 (11.2-16.9) %, p<0.001, respectively). This was true for FE and IFE phenotypes of COPD, which were similar in terms of bronchial CBF or DI. Subgroup analyses demonstrated lower CBF and higher DI in FE and IFE COPD phenotypes compared to controls, irrespective of smoking status. TEM showed more loss of cilia, extrusion of cells, cytoplasmic blebs and dead cells in COPD patients versus controls. Profound dysfunction of bronchial cilia is a feature of COPD irrespective of exacerbation phenotype and smoking status, which is likely to contribute to poor mucus clearance in COPD.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2021.1963695 .

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