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1.
MycoKeys ; 83: 105-121, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602840

RESUMO

Lichens are the result of a symbiotic interaction between fungi (mycobionts) and algae (phycobionts). Aside from mycobionts, lichen thalli can also contain non-lichenised fungal species, such as lichenicolous and endolichenic fungi. For this study, three surveys were conducted in China's Yunnan Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region between 2017 and 2020. Several samples of four lichen species were collected during these surveys: Candelariafibrosa, Flavoparmeliacaperata, Flavopuncteliaflaventior and Ramalinasinensis. Six isolates of Coniochaeta were recovered from these four lichen species. The phylogenetic and morphological analyses revealed that two of these isolates were previously identified species, Coniochaetavelutinosa and C.acaciae. Those remaining were from potentially unknown species. We used molecular and morphological data to describe these previously-unknown species as Coniochaetafibrosae sp. nov., C.mongoliae sp. nov. and C.sinensis sp. nov. The findings of this study significantly improve our understanding of the variety and habitat preferences of Coniochaeta in China and globally.

2.
Plant Dis ; 2021 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34645307

RESUMO

Citrus yellow vein clearing virus is a new member of the genus Mandarivirus in the family Alphaflexiviridae. Citrus yellow vein clearing virus (CYVCV) is the causal agent of citrus yellow vein clearing disease and is widely distributed in Pakistan, India, Turkey, and China. CYVCV is transmitted from citrus to citrus by Dialeurodes citri, grafting, and contaminated knife blades, threatening citrus production. In this study, four infectious full-length cDNA clones of CYVCV (namely AY112, AY132, AY212, and AY221) derived from CYVCV isolate AY were obtained through yeast homologous recombination and inoculated to 'Eureka' lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f.) by Agrobacterium-mediated vacuum infiltration. Pathogenicity analysis indicated that the clones AY212 and AY221 caused more severe symptoms than AY112 and AY132. Northern blot and quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses showed that the titers of virulent clones (AY212 and AY221) were significantly higher than those of attenuated clones (AY112 and AY132) in the infected 'Eureka' lemon (Citrus limon Burm. f.) seedlings. Subsequent comparative studies of viral infectivity, accumulation, and symptoms induced by AY221 in nine citrus cultivars indicated that (i) the infectivity of AY221 varied from 25% to 100% among different cultivars; (ii) 'Oota' ponkan (C. reticulata L.) showed the lowest infection rate with mild symptoms, which might be a useful resource for CYVCY-resistance genes; (iii) CYVCV titer was positively associated with the symptom development in infected citrus seedlings. In general, this report revealed the biological properties of CYVCV, thus laying a foundation for further investigation of pathogenic mechanisms in this virus.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(19)2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34638830

RESUMO

Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been successfully developed in many species. However, the establishment of bovine-induced pluripotent stem cells (biPSCs) has been challenging. Here we report the generation of biPSCs from bovine mesenchymal stem cells (bMSCs) by overexpression of lysine-specific demethylase 4A (KDM4A) and the other reprogramming factors OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, LIN28, and NANOG (KdOSKMLN). These biPSCs exhibited silenced transgene expression at passage 10, and had prolonged self-renewal capacity for over 70 passages. The biPSCs have flat, primed-like PSC colony morphology in combined media of knockout serum replacement (KSR) and mTeSR, but switched to dome-shaped, naïve-like PSC colony morphology in mTeSR medium and 2i/LIF with single cell colonization capacity. These cells have comparable proliferation rate to the reported primed- or naïve-state human PSCs, with three-germ layer differentiation capacity and normal karyotype. Transcriptome analysis revealed a high similarity of biPSCs to reported bovine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and embryos. The naïve-like biPSCs can be incorporated into mouse embryos, with the extended capacity of integration into extra-embryonic tissues. Finally, at least 24.5% cloning efficiency could be obtained in nuclear transfer (NT) experiment using late passage biPSCs as nuclear donors. Our report represents a significant advance in the establishment of bovine PSCs.

4.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(10)2021 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34685191

RESUMO

The coupling strength between two-dimensional (2D) materials and substrate plays a vital role on thermal transport properties of 2D materials. Here we systematically investigate the influence of vacuum thermal annealing on the temperature-dependence of in-plane Raman phonon modes in monolayer graphene supported on silicon dioxide substrate via Raman spectroscopy. Intriguingly, raising the thermal annealing temperature can significantly enlarge the temperature coefficient of supported monolayer graphene. The derived temperature coefficient of G band remains mostly unchanged with thermal annealing temperature below 473 K, while it increases from -0.030 cm-1/K to -0.0602 cm-1/K with thermal annealing temperature ranging from 473 K to 773 K, suggesting the great impact of thermal annealing on thermal transport in supported monolayer graphene. Such an impact might reveal the vital role of coupling strength on phonon scattering and on the thermal transport property of supported monolayer graphene. To further interpret the thermal annealing mechanism, the compressive stress in supported monolayer graphene, which is closely related to coupling strength and is studied through the temperature-dependent Raman spectra. It is found that the variation tendency for compressive stress induced by thermal annealing is the same as that for temperature coefficient, implying the intense connection between compressive stress and thermal transport. Actually, 773 K thermal annealing can result in 2.02 GPa compressive stress on supported monolayer graphene due to the lattice mismatch of graphene and substrate. This study proposes thermal annealing as a feasible path to modulate the thermal transport in supported graphene and to design future graphene-based devices.

5.
J Reprod Dev ; 2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34690214

RESUMO

Inadequate fetomaternal interactions could directly lead to pregnancy failure in dairy cows. Exosomes are widely involved in endometrial matrix remodeling, immune function changes, placental development, and other processes of embryo implantation and pregnancy in dairy cows. However, the role of exosomes derived from placental trophoblast cells in regulating the receptivity of endometrial cells and facilitating fetomaternal interaction remains unclear. In this study, bovine trophoblast cells (BTCs) were obtained from bovine placenta and immortalized by transfection with telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT). Immortalized BTCs still possess the basic and key properties of primary BTCs without exhibiting any neoplastic transformation signs. Subsequently, the effect of trophoblast-derived exosomes (TDEs) on endometrial receptivity in endometrial epithelial cells (EECs) was determined, and the mechanism whereby TDEs and their proteins participate in the fetomaternal interaction during bovine pregnancy were explored. EECs were co-cultured with the exosomes derived from BTCs treated with progesterone (P4). Such treatment enhanced the expression of the endometrial receptivity factors, integrin αv, ß3, Wnt7a, and MUC1 by changing the extracellular environment, metabolism, and redox balance in EECs via proteome alignment, compared with no treatment according to the DIA quantitation analysis. Our study demonstrated that trophoblast-derived exosome proteins are one of the most critical elements in fetomaternal interaction, and their changes may act as a key signal in altering endometrial receptivity and provide a potential target for improving fertility.

7.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 103, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neovasculogenesis is characteristic of herniated lumbar discs, in which extruded nucleus pulposus is prone to heme iron-induced cytotoxicity (increased oxidative stress causing ferroptosis). However, recent analyses of neovascularization are very complicated, and the mechanism of action is rarely reported. METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was performed to analyze human herniated and nonherniated nucleus pulposus. Then, the clinical relevance of the MALDI-TOF MS results and Pfirrmann classification of the degenerative nucleus pulposus were analyzed. To explore the mechanism, the heme-induced ferroptosis effect was evaluated at both the tissue and cell levels using high-resolution MALDI-TOF MS and molecular biology methods. RESULTS: The spectra revealed that hemoglobin (Hb) and heme signals were greatly increased, thus serving as predictors of vasculogenesis in herniated nucleus pulposus. The clinical relevance analysis demonstrated that the intensity of Hb and heme peaks was closely related to the Pfirrmann classification of degenerative nucleus pulposus. Mechanistically, increased heme catabolism and downregulation of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) levels were detected in herniated nucleus pulposus, reflecting iron-dependent cell death or ferroptosis. Iron levels was also increased in herniated nucleus pulposus compared with that in nonherniated nucleus pulposus. Furthermore, accuracy mass measurements confirmed that the levels of ferroptosis-related metabolites, such as glutathione, arachidonic acid (AA), sphinganine, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites, were significantly different between herniated and nonherniated tissues, indicating that the interior of the herniated tissues is a pro-oxidant environment. Moreover, heme-induced ferroptosis was verified in human nucleus pulposus cells (HNPCs), and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the Notch pathway. CONCLUSIONS: Neovascularization in herniated nucleus pulposus may expose tissues to high levels of heme, which can induce cytotoxicity and ferroptosis within tissues and accelerate the progressive degeneration of herniated nucleus pulposus. This study is beneficial for understanding the pathological mechanism of herniated nucleus pulposus and facilitating the development of nonoperative interventions for treating lumbar disc herniation (LDH).

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570211

RESUMO

AIMS: Our previous study demonstrated that Ca2+ influx through the Orai1 store-operated Ca2+ channel in macrophages contributes to foam cell formation and atherosclerosis via the calcineurin-ASK1 pathway, not the classical calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT) pathway. Moreover, up-regulation of NFATc3 in macrophages inhibits foam cell formation, suggesting that macrophage NFATc3 is a negative regulator of atherogenesis. Hence, this study investigated the precise role of macrophage NFATc3 in atherogenesis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Macrophage-specific NFATc3 knockout mice were generated to determine the effect of NFATc3 on atherosclerosis in a mouse model of adeno-associated virus-mutant PCSK9-induced atherosclerosis. NFATc3 expression was decreased in macrophages within human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, NFATc3 levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from atherosclerotic patients were negatively associated with plaque instability. Furthermore, macrophage-specific ablation of NFATc3 in mice led to the atherosclerotic plaque formation, whereas macrophage-specific NFATc3 transgenic mice exhibited the opposite phenotype. NFATc3 deficiency in macrophages promoted foam cell formation by potentiating SR-A- and CD36-meditated lipid uptake. NFATc3 directly targeted and transcriptionally up-regulated miR-204 levels. Mature miR-204-5p suppressed SR-A expression via canonical regulation. Unexpectedly, miR-204-3p localized in the nucleus and inhibited CD36 transcription. Restoration of miR-204 abolished the proatherogenic phenotype observed in the macrophage-specific NFATc3 knockout mice, and blockade of miR-204 function reversed the beneficial effects of NFATc3 in macrophages. CONCLUSION: Macrophage NFATc3 up-regulates miR-204 to reduce SR-A and CD36 levels, thereby preventing foam cell formation and atherosclerosis, indicating that the NFATc3/miR-204 axis may be a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis.

9.
Phytomedicine ; 92: 153687, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aesculin (AES), an effective component of Cortex fraxini, is a hydroxycoumarin glucoside that has diverse biological properties. The nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing receptor, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome has been heavily interwoven with the development of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI). Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether AES makes a difference to the changes of the NLRP3 inflammasome in MIRI. PURPOSE: We used rats that were subjected to MIRI and neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) that underwent oxygen-glucose deprivation/restoration (OGD/R) process to investigate what impacts AES exerts on MIRI and the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. METHODS: The establishment of MIRI model in rats was conducted using the left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 0.5 h ischemia and then untying the knot for 4 h of reperfusion. After reperfusion, AES were administered intraperitoneally using 10 and 30 mg/kg doses. We evaluated the development of reperfusion ventricular arrhythmias, hemodynamic changes, infarct size, and the biomarkers in myocardial injury. The inflammatory mediators and pyroptosis were also assessed. AES at the concentrations of 1, 3, and 10 µM were imposed on the NRCMs immediately before the restoration process. We also determined the cell viability and cell death in the NRCMs exposed to OGD/R insult. Furthermore, we also analyzed the levels of proteins that affect the NLRP3 inflammasome activation, pyroptosis, and the AKT serine/threonine kinase (Akt)/glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3ß)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway via western blotting. RESULTS: We found that AES notably attenuated reperfusion arrhythmias and myocardia damage, improved the hemodynamic function, and ameliorated the inflammatory response and pyroptosis of cardiomyocytes in rats and NRCMs. Additionally, AES reduced the NLRP3 inflammasome activation in rats and NRCMs. AES also enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3ß, while suppressing the phosphorylation of NF-κB. Moreover, the allosteric Akt inhibitor, MK-2206, abolished the AES-mediated cardioprotection and the NLRP3 inflammasome suppression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that AES effectively protected cardiomyocytes against MIRI by suppressing the NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated pyroptosis, which may relate to the upregulated Akt activation and disruption of the GSK3ß/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Inflamassomos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica , Animais , Esculina , Quinase 3 da Glicogênio Sintase , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt , Piroptose , Ratos
10.
Biomolecules ; 11(9)2021 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34572470

RESUMO

In this study, the co-application of chitosan and tetramycin against kiwifruit soft rot and its effects on the disease resistance, growth, quality and aroma of kiwifruit were investigated. The results show that chitosan could effectively enhance tetramycin against soft rot of kiwifruit with the field control efficacy of 85.33% for spraying chitosan 100 time + 0.3% tetramycin AS 5000-time dilution liquid, which was higher than 80.99% for 0.3% tetramycin AS 5000-time dilution liquid and significantly (p < 0.01) higher than 40.66% for chitosan 100-time dilution liquid. Chitosan could significantly (p < 0.05) improve the promoting effects of tetramycin on total phenolics, total flavonoids, SOD activity of kiwifruit compared to tetramycin during storage for 0-28 days and enhance the disease resistance of kiwifruit. Moreover, the co-application of chitosan and tetramycin was more effective than tetramycin or chitosan alone in enhancing fruit growth, improving fruit quality and increasing fruit aroma. This study highlights that chitosan can be used as an adjuvant to enhance tetramycin against soft rot of kiwifruit and promote tetramycin's improvement for the single fruit volume and weight, vitamin C, soluble sugar, soluble solid, dry matter, soluble protein, titratable acidity and aroma of kiwifruit.

11.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(9)2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34562896

RESUMO

Owing to poor aqueous solubility and low delivery efficiency, most of anti-cancer chemodrugs depend on various smart drug delivery platforms to enhance the treatment efficacy. Herein, a stimuli-responsive supramolecular drug delivery system (SDDS) is developed based on polymeric cyclodextrins (PCD) which crosslinked by stimuli-cleavable drug dimers via host-guest interaction. PEGylated PCD was precisely controlled synthesized by ring-opening polymerization and azide-alkyne click chemistry, and two doxorubicins (DOX) were linked with a disulfide bond to form a drug dimer (ss-DOX). They then co-assembled into supramolecular micelles. Drug dimers were utilized as cross-linkers to stabilize the micelles. The drug loading efficiency was very high that could be up to 98%. The size and morphology were measured by DLS and TEM. Owing to the disulfide bonds of drug dimers, these supramolecular micelles were dissociated by treating with dithiothreitol (DTT). In the meanwhile, the free DOXs were recovered and released from cavities of cyclodextrins because of dynamic equilibrium and hydrophilicity changes. The release profile was studied under mimic physiological conditions. Furthermore, in vitro cytotoxicity study showed excellent anti-cancer efficacy of reduced-responsive supramolecular polymeric micelles. Therefore, it can be served as a safe and stimuli-responsive SDDS for cancer therapy.

12.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 214: 106001, 2021 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547381

RESUMO

Uterine prostaglandins F2α (PGF2α) is essential for implantation, initiation of luteolysis and delivery. Previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme limiting PGF2α rate, is regulated by steroid hormones, and also dihydrotestosterone (DHT) may be involved in regulating COX-2 expression both positively and negatively. However, it remains unclear how whether DHT regulates COX-2 expression and consequent PGF2α release in bovine endometrial epithelial cells (EECs). In this study, we evaluated the localization of the two isoforms of DHT synthetase 5α-reductase (5α-red1 and 5α-red2) and androgen receptor (AR) in bovine endometria by immunohistochemistry, and investigated 5α-red1, 5α-red2, AR, and DHT levels at the different stages of endometria (follicle, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy phases). The results showed that 5α-red1, 5α-red2 and AR all were expressed in endometria, and their expressions and the level of DHT significantly increased in the late-pregnancy phase compared with the mid-pregnancy phase. Moreover, we cultured EECs from the mid-pregnancy phase and the in vitro study showed that DHT dose-dependently increased COX-2 expression and PGF2a release, but AR antagonist (flutamide) inhibited the stimulating effect via DHT. In addition, the DHT-induced COX-2 expression and PGF2α release were subjected to the regulation of both EGFR/PI3K/Akt/NFkB signaling as the inhibitors of EGFR (AG1478) and PI3K/Akt (LY294002) and NFkB (QNZ) attenuated the DHT mediated effect. Taken together, the results demonstrated that DHT-induced COX-2 expression and consequent PGF2α release in bovine EECs were mediated through AR-derived EGFR transactivation and PI3K/Akt cascade leading to NFkB activation.

13.
Am J Transl Res ; 13(8): 9914-9917, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34540128

RESUMO

[This corrects the article on p. 6632 in vol. 11, PMID: 31737213.].

14.
Nanoscale ; 13(35): 15021-15030, 2021 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533142

RESUMO

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), as one of the most aggressive human malignancies, cannot be cured by 131iodine (131I) internal radiotherapy (RT) because the tumor cells cannot effectively take up 131I and are resistant to radiotherapy. In this study, a facile and simple method was proposed to synthesize mesoporous polydopamine nanoparticles (MPDA) and tailor their morphologies by component-adjusting Pluronic micelle-guided polymerization. Then, MPDA were used not only as nanocarriers to radiolabel 131I, but also as photothermal conversion agents for photothermal therapy (PTT) to promote RT. The iodine-labeling capacity and photothermal conversion efficiency of MPDA can be enhanced by optimizing their morphologies. It was found that MPDA NPs with a cerebroid pore channel structure (CPDA) showed the highest iodine-carrying capacity and a higher photothermal conversion efficiency as a result of their maximum specific surface area and unique morphology. In subsequent experiments in vitro and in vivo, our ATC animal models showed impressive therapeutic responses to CPDA-131I NPs because of the synergistic effect of PTT and RT. Additionally, CPDA-125I NPs can be utilized to obtain high-quality SPETC/CT images of tumors, which can guide clinical therapy for ATC. Considering their great biosafety, these radioiodine-labeled CPDA NPs may serve as a promising tool in combined therapy and diagnosis in ATC.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide , Animais , Humanos , Indóis , Radioisótopos do Iodo/uso terapêutico , Fototerapia , Polímeros , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Anaplásico da Tireoide/terapia , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/terapia
15.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 732790, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34539413

RESUMO

Interleukin-38 (IL-38), a new cytokine of interleukin-1 family (IL-1F), is expressed in the human heart, kidney, skin, etc. Recently, new evidence indicated that IL-38 is involved in the process of different autoimmune diseases. Autoimmune diseases are a cluster of diseases accompanied with tissue damage caused by autoimmune reactions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriasis, etc. This review summarized the links between IL-38 and autoimmune diseases, as well as the latest knowledge about the function and regulatory mechanism of IL-38 in autoimmune diseases. Especially, this review focused on the differentiation of immune cells and explore future prospects, such as the application of IL-38 in new technologies. Understanding the function of IL-38 is helpful to shed light on the progress of autoimmune diseases.

16.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol ; 17(9): 1149-1156, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372746

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To compare the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of the new prolonged-release leuprorelin acetate microspheres for injection (3.75 mg) with the reference product Enantone® (3.75 mg). METHOD: 48 healthy male volunteers were enrolled and randomly received a single 3.75 mg dose of the test drug or Enantone®. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-48 between the test group and reference group (P > 0.05). The 90% confidence intervals of the two groups were 87.49%~112.74%, 97.15%~154.25%, and 80.85%~109.01%, respectively. Twenty-eight days after administration, both groups reached 100.0% castration level; there was no difference in the time from administration to reaching castration level between the two groups (P > 0.05); However, the difference between the two groups in the duration of castration level was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no major or serious adverse events, and the severity was mild to moderate. CONCLUSION: The pharmacokinetic characteristics of leuprorelin in two groups were consistent. The two groups exhibited similar inhibitory effects on testosterone and more subjects in the test group maintained a longer castration time than those in the reference group.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Leuprolida/administração & dosagem , Testosterona/sangue , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacocinética , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/farmacologia , Área Sob a Curva , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Humanos , Injeções , Leuprolida/farmacocinética , Leuprolida/farmacologia , Masculino , Microesferas , Método Simples-Cego , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16210, 2021 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34376708

RESUMO

With the increased incidence and recognition, ulcerative colitis (UC) has become a global public health problem in the world. Although many immunosuppressant and biological drugs have been used for UC treatment, the cure rate is still very low. It is necessary to find some safe and long-term used medicine for UC cure. Recently, the Chinese traditional herb Danshen has been investigated in the treatment of UC. However, it is a limitation of Danshen that many of the active components in Danshen are not easily absorbed by the human body. Probiotics could convert macromolecules into smaller molecules to facilitate absorption. Thus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (F-B4-1) and Bacillus subtillis Natto (F-A7-1) were screened to ferment Danshen in this study. The fermented Danshen products were gavaged in the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced UC model mice. Danshen had better results to attenuate symptoms of DSS-induced UC after fermented with F-B4-1 and F-A7-1. Loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) were reduced. The abnormally short colon lengths and colonic damage were recovered. And fermented Danshen had the better inhibitory effect than Danshen itself on pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during DSS-induced UC. The results indicated that compared with Danshen, fermented Danshen relieved DSS-induced UC in mice more effectively. Danshen fermented by probiotics might be an effective treatment to UC in clinic stage in the future.

18.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(34): 40267-40277, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424662

RESUMO

As the gold standard for stealth polymer materials, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been widely used in drug delivery with excellent properties such as low toxicity, reduced immunogenicity, good water solubility, and so forth. However, lack of understanding for the fate of PEG and PEGylated delivery systems at the cellular level has limited the application of PEGylated molecules in diagnosis and therapy. Here, we chose linear PEG 5k as a representative model and focused on the internalization behavior and mechanism, intracellular trafficking, sub-cellular localization, and cellular exocytosis of PEG and PEGylated molecules in living cells. Our investigation showed that PEG could be internalized into cells in 1 h. The internalized PEG was localized to lysosome, cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria. Importantly, the fate of PEG in cells could be regulated by conjugating different small molecules. PEGylated rhodamine B (PEG-RB) as the positively charged macromolecule was internalized into cells by micropinocytosis and then transported in lysosomes, ER, and mitochondria via vesicles sequentially. In contrast, PEGylated pyropheophorbide-a (PEG-PPa) as the negatively charged macromolecule was internalized into cells and transported to lysosomes ultimately. PEGylation slowed down the exocytosis process of RB and PPa and significantly prolonged their residence time inside the cells. These findings improve the understanding of how PEG and PEGylated molecules interact with the biological system at cellular and sub-cellular levels, which is of significance to rational PEGylation design for drug delivery.

19.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 727916, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421621

RESUMO

Puerarin, an isoflavone component extracted from herb radix puerariae, is widely used in China in the treatment of immune diseases and inflammation. Previous studies have demonstrated that puerarin prevented acute lung injury by regulating inflammatory responses. However, the effect of puerarin on acute liver injury (ALI) was unclear. The purpose of this study was to explore the beneficial effects of puerarin when applied to ALI. We found that puerarin inhibited liver injury and inflammatory cell infiltration in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/D-galactose (D-Gal)-induced acute liver failure and the liver pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in liver tissues with ALI and LPS-induced L-02 cells but upregulated the expression level of zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2). Significantly, the results of this study showed that the inhibition of liver pro-inflammatory cytokine (IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNF-α) production in LPS-induced L-02 cells was caused by ZEB2 overexpression. However, knocking down ZEB2 promoted LPS-mediated secretion of liver pro-inflammatory cytokines in L-02 cells. Additional experiments showed that puerarin inhibited the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway by elevating ZEB2 expression in L-02 cells. In summary, puerarin most likely prevented activation of the pro-inflammatory factors and reduced LPS/D-Gal-induced liver injury by enhancing the ZEB2 expression level and, consequently, blocking activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway in the liver.

20.
Cancer Sci ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382294

RESUMO

WEE1 plays an important role in the regulation of cell cycle G2/M checkpoints and DNA damage response (DDR). Inhibition of WEE1 can increase the instability of the genome and have anti-tumor effects in some solid tumors. However, it has certain limitations for multiple cancer cells from different lineages. Therefore, we consider the use of synthetic lethal interactions to enhance the therapeutic effect. Our experiments proved that WEE1 inhibitor (WEE1i) can activate the ataxia telangiectasia and RAD3-related (ATR) pathway and that blockage of ATR dramatically sensitized the WEE1i-induced cell death. The tumor-selective synthetic lethality between bioavailable WEE1 and ATR inhibitors led to tumor remission in vivo. Mechanistically, the combination promoted the accumulation of cytosolic double-strand DNA, which subsequently activated the stimulator of the interferon gene (STING) pathway and induced the production of type I interferon and CD8+ T cells, thereby inducing anti-tumor immunity. Furthermore, our study found that immune checkpoint programmed death-ligand 1 is upregulated by the combination therapy, and blocking PD-L1 further enhances the effect of the combination therapy. In summary, as an immunomodulator, the combination of WEE1i with ATR inhibitor (ATRi) and immune checkpoint blockers provides a potential new approach for cancer treatment.

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