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1.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 196-205, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357682

RESUMO

This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary benzoic acid on production performance, egg quality, intestinal morphology, and intestinal microbiota of laying hens. A total of seven hundred twenty 45-wk-old Lohman pink-shell laying hens were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments: control (CON), diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA1), and 2,000 mg/kg benzoic acid (BA2). Each treatment included 10 replicates of 24 hens; laying hens were monitored for 16 wk. Overall, the results indicate that benzoic acid supplementation had no effect on laying rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and breaking rate; however, a decrease in egg weight (P < 0.01) was observed in the BA2 group. Albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were also linearly increased in the BA1 and BA2 groups (linear effect, P < 0.05). An increase in duodenum villus height (V) (quadratic effect, P = 0.041) and crypt depth (C) (linear effect, P = 0.012) was observed in the BA2 group, whereas an increased jejunum C and decreased V/C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) in the BA1 group. Moreover, an increase in ileum V and C (quadratic effect, P < 0.05) was observed in the BA1 group. Microbial richness and diversity were reduced in the BA2 group (P < 0.01). An increase in the abundance of Clostridia (class), Clostridiales (order), Ruminococcaceae (family), and Lachnospiraceae (family) was noted in the BA1 group, whereas an enrichment of Bacteroides caecicola (species) was observed in the BA2 group. The HU positively correlated with genus Sphaerochaeta and Enorma (r = 0.56, 0.56; P < 0.05) but negatively correlated with Romboutsia, Subdoligranulum, Helicobacter, and Mucispirillum (r = -0.58, -0.49, -0.48; -0.70; P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation with benzoic acid had no effect on production performance, but it significantly improved egg quality. In addition, 1,000 mg/kg benzoic acid positively modulated intestinal health by improving intestinal morphology and enriching microbial composition.

2.
Poult Sci ; 99(1): 430-440, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416828

RESUMO

The tea polyphenol (TP) can improve the egg albumen quality in laying hens; however, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms and proteomic changes in the egg albumen remains limited. A total of 720 layers (35-wk-old) were allocated into 5 treatments with TP and were added at 0 (control), 200 (TP200), 400 (TP400), 600 (TP600), and 800 (TP800) mg/kg. It showed that 400 mg/kg TP increases albumen height and Haugh unit (quadratic effect, P < 0.01), while 400 mg/kg TP decreases gel strength, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness value in a quadratic manner (P = 0.01). Eggs from TP400-fed layers had highest reducing power and oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and lowest albumen malondialdehyde content (quadratic effect, P < 0.05). Through Tandem Mass Tag-based quantitative proteomics analysis, 258 proteins were identified and 31 differentially accumulated proteins in egg white affected by 400 mg/kg TP compared to control group, with 19 proteins upregulated and 12 proteins downregulated. A total of 11 binding proteins (A0A1D5PZE3, F1NTQ2, Q7SX63, F1NRV5, P24802, A0A1L1RM02, E1BTX1, A0A1L1RMF4, A0A1D5P1N3, A0A1L1RML6, A0A1L1RQF3), 9 immune response proteins (P10184, R4GI90, P01875, Q6IV20, Q64EU6, P02701, P08110, P0CB50, A0A1D5PQ63), and 3 cell redox homeostasis proteins (P0CB50, P20136, Q8JG64) were changed in albumen of laying hens fed TP400. The differentially expressed proteins mainly involved in pyruvate metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, glutathione metabolism, glycolysis, and protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum pathway. The result gathered in this study suggested that the improving mechanism of TP on albumen quality may act through regulating binding mediation, immune function, and antioxidant activity-related proteins.

3.
Microorganisms ; 8(5)2020 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32443502

RESUMO

Growing concern for public health and food safety has prompted a special interest in developing nutritional strategies for removing waterborne and foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella. Strong links between manganese (Mn) and intestinal barrier or immune function hint that dietary Mn supplementation is likely to be a promising approach to limit the loads of pathogens in broilers. Here, we provide evidence that Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, 4 × 108 CFUs) challenge-induced intestinal injury along with systemic Mn redistribution in broilers. Further examining of the effect of dietary Mn treatments (a basal diet plus additional 0, 40, or 100 mg Mn/kg for corresponding to Mn-deficient, control, or Mn-surfeit diet, respectively) on intestinal barrier and inflammation status of broilers infected with S. Typhimurium revealed that birds fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets exhibited improved intestinal tight junctions and microbiota composition. Even without Salmonella infection, dietary Mn deficiency alone increased intestinal permeability by impairing intestinal tight junctions. In addition, when fed the control and Mn-surfeit diets, birds showed decreased Salmonella burdens in cecal content and spleen, with a concomitant increase in inflammatory cytokine levels in spleen. Furthermore, the dietary Mn-supplementation-mediated induction of cytokine production was probably associated with the nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB)/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) pathway, as judged by the enhanced manganese superoxide dismutase activity and the increased H2O2 level in mitochondria, together with the increased mRNA level of NF-κB in spleen. Ingenuity-pathway analysis indicated that acute-phase response pathways, T helper type 1 pathway, and dendritic cell maturation were significantly activated by the dietary Mn supplementation. Our data suggest that dietary Mn supplementation could enhance intestinal barrier and splenic inflammatory response to fight against Salmonella infection in broilers.

4.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(5): 1384-1391, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32342530

RESUMO

This research aims to evaluate the effects of maternal vitamin E (VE) dietary supplementation on the egg characteristics, hatchability and antioxidant status of the embryo and newly hatched chicks of prolonged storage eggs. A total of 576 75-week-old Ross 308 breeder hens were randomly allocated into three dietary VE treatments (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) with 6 replicates of 32 hens, for a 12-week feeding trial. At week 12, a total of 710 eggs were collected over a 5-day period, and eggs per treatment were attributed into 5 replicates and stored for 14 days until incubation. The egg yolk, trunk and head of 7-day-old embryo and the serum, liver, brain and yolk sac of newly hatched chicks were sampled for the evaluation of antioxidant status. Results showed that as maternal dietary VE levels increased, yolk α-tocopherol concentration increased (p < .05). Compared with 100 mg/kg VE, the use of 200 and 400 mg/kg VE increased the hatchability of set/fertile eggs and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of liver and serum in chicks (p < .05), and decreased both the early embryonic mortality and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of trunk and head in 7-day-old embryos (p < .05); moreover, 400 mg/kg VE increased the yolk T-AOC (p < .05) and decreased yolk and brain MDA content of chicks (p < .05). Brain T-AOC of chicks in 200 mg/kg VE group was improved compared to that of chicks in 100 mg/kg VE group (p < .05). In conclusion, maternal dietary VE at 200 or 400 mg/kg could increase hatchability by decreasing early embryonic mortality and increasing the antioxidant status of egg yolk, embryo and newly hatched chicks as breeder egg storage was prolonged to 14-18 days. The suitable VE level for the broiler breeder diet was 200 mg/kg as breeder egg storage was prolonged.

5.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1705-1716, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115038

RESUMO

Vanadium (V) is an ultratrace metal with the insulin-tropic properties and is often researched as the diabetes drug. However, in animals, V has been reported to have toxic effects on the development, immunity, oxidation-reduction equilibrium, gastrointestinal function, and so forth. Especially in poultry, supplementation of more than 10 mg of V/kg in the layer diets has been shown to adversely affect the egg production and egg quality. In this study, we supplemented 0 mg of V/kg, 5 mg of V/kg, and 10 mg of V/kg in the layer diets for 35 D and examined the quantitative proteomics of albumen for finding the possible target signaling pathway and mechanism of V action and made the preliminary verification. In contrast to the control group, V resulted in a significant drop in the albumen height, and in oviduct ampulla, the activity of total antioxidant capacity and glutathione peroxidase significantly decreased (P = 0.01, P = 0.02), the content of malonic dialdehyde significantly increased (P = 0.01), and the apoptosis rate significantly increased in the 5-mg V/kg and 10-mg V/kg treatment groups (P < 0.01). V affected 36 differentially accumulated proteins in albumen, with 23 proteins upregulated and 13 proteins downregulated. The expressions of innate protein albumen lysozyme (Q6LEL2), vitellogenin-2 (P02845), and the F1NWD0 protein in albumen belonged to the P53 family were significantly reduced, in contrast to the control (P < 0.05), and the expression of riboflavin-binding protein (P02752) was significantly improved (P < 0.05). The Hippo signaling pathway-fly, which is suitable for the key protein P53 as the most significantly affected network, might be important for discriminating V.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Clara de Ovo/análise , Proteoma , Vanádio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Galinhas , Dieta/veterinária , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Feminino , Oviductos , Transdução de Sinais
6.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 104(4): 1067-1074, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953905

RESUMO

A study was conducted to investigate the effects of oregano essential oil (EO) on growth performance, nutrients utilization, intestinal morphology, intestinal barrier-related gene expression and antioxidant capability in meat ducks. A total of 360 1-day-old ducks were divided into three groups (12 replicates pens per diet of 10 ducks in each pen): negative control (no essential oil or antibiotic), positive control (antibiotic: 500 mg/kg aureomycin of diet) and oregano EO (100 mg/kg of diet). The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Ducks were given feed and water ad libitum. Ducks fed EO supplement showed similar body weight and feed to gain ratio to antibiotic fed ducks. EO supplementation significantly increased (p < .05) feed intake (day 1-35), jejunal villus height (VH) to crypt depth (CD) ratio, serum superoxide dismutase activities (SOD) and jejunal total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of ducks compared to controls. Ducks fed diets supplemented with oregano EO also had decreased (p < .05) jejunal CD, serum and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, and the mRNA expression of jejunal zonula occludens-3 (ZO-3) and secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) genes in comparison to the control group. Compared to the antibiotic supplementation group, the mRNA expression of claudin1 (CLND1) and CLND2 significantly increased (p < .05), but the mRNA expression of ZO-3 and mucin 2 markedly decreased (p < .05) in the jejunum of ducks in oregano EO supplementation group. These results suggest that oregano EO improves the antioxidant capacity and intestinal defence and structural measures and may aide in helping to maintain enteric health in production without growth-promoting antibiotics.

7.
Br J Nutr ; 123(2): 172-181, 2020 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495347

RESUMO

Resistant starch (RS) was recently approved to exert a powerful influence on gut health, but the effect of RS on the caecal barrier function in meat ducks has not been well defined. Thus, the effect of raw potato starch (RPS), a widely adopted RS material, on microbial composition and barrier function of caecum for meat ducks was determined. A total of 360 Cherry Valley male ducks of 1-d-old were randomly divided and fed diets with 0 (control), 12, or 24 % RPS for 35 d. Diets supplemented with RPS significantly elevated villus height and villus height:crypt depth ratio in the caecum. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis indicated that the diet with 12 % RPS had a higher relative abundance of Firmicutes and the butyrate-producing bacteria Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Erysipelatoclostridium were enriched in all diets. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium were significantly increased in the 24 % RPS diet v. the control diet. When compared with the control diet, the diet with 12 % RPS was also found to notably increase acetate, propionate and butyrate contents and up-regulated barrier-related genes including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1, mucin-2 and proglucagon in the caecum. Furthermore, the addition of 12 % RPS significantly reduced plasma TNF-α, IL-1ß and endotoxin concentrations. These data revealed that diets supplemented with 12 % RPS partially improved caecal barrier function in meat ducks by enhancing intestinal morphology and barrier markers expression, modulating the microbiota composition and attenuating inflammatory markers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Ceco/microbiologia , Patos/metabolismo , Patos/microbiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Animais , Ceco/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Carne , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Solanum tuberosum
8.
Br J Nutr ; 120(11): 1217-1229, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309398

RESUMO

Both genetic selection and increasing nutrient density for improving growth performance had inadvertently increased leg problems of meat ducks, which adversely affects animal welfare. We hypothesised that slowing weight gain with improving tibia quality probably enhanced tibial mechanical properties and alleviated leg deformities. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of graded Ca supplementation in a low-nutrient density (LND) diet on tibia composition and bone turnover in meat ducks. A total of 720 15-d-old male meat ducks were randomly assigned and fed a standard nutrient density positive control (PC) diet containing 0·9 % Ca, and four LND diets with 0·5, 0·7, 0·9 and 1·1 % Ca, respectively. Ducks fed the 0·5 % Ca LND diet and the PC diet had higher incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD). When compared with the 0·5 % Ca LND diet, LND diets with ≥0·7 % Ca significantly improved tibia composition, microarchitecture and mechanical properties, and consequently decreased the incidence of TD. Furthermore, LND diets with ≥0·7 % Ca increased osteocyte-specific gene mRNA expression, blocked the expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes including osteocalcin, collagenase-1 and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and also decreased the expression of osteoclast differentiation genes, such as vacuolar-type H+-ATPase, cathepsin K and receptor activator of NF-κB. Meanwhile bone markers such as serum ALP, osteocalcin (both osteoblast markers) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (an osteoclast marker) were significantly decreased in at least 0·7 % Ca treated groups. These findings indicated that LND diets with ≥0·7 % Ca decreased bone turnover, which subsequently increased tibia quality for 35-d-old meat ducks.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Remodelação Óssea , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cálcio/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciências da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Patos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Masculino , Carne , Osteócitos/metabolismo , Tíbia/fisiopatologia
9.
Anim Sci J ; 88(12): 2016-2024, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28776913

RESUMO

A study was carried out to investigate the effects of dietary methionine source and level on plasma free amino acids patterns and the expression of genes involved in hepatic methionine metabolism in broiler breeders. A total of 2184 broiler breeders were assigned to 13 dietary treatments, with eight replicates per treatment. The 13 treatments included one control group and 12 additional treatments employing two sources and six levels (0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25 and 1.00%). Higher plasma methionine concentration was measured for DL-methionine (DLM) treated hens. Plasma alanine concentration was linearly increased as DLM or 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) supplementation level increased. There was a linear increase in concentrations of tyrosine, valine, glycine and serine as dietary DLM supplementation level increased. Hens treated with DLM had higher relative expression of ADA than those fed HMTBA. The expression of MS, ADA, SAHH and MAT2A changed quadratically as HMTBA supplementation level increased, while the expression of GNMT and SAHH changed quadratically as DLM supplementation level increased. In conclusion, the effects of HMTBA on plasma free amino acid patterns and the expression of hepatic genes involved with methionine are different from DLM.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/metabolismo , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Adenosina Desaminase , Alanina/sangue , Aminoácidos Sulfúricos/sangue , Animais , Butiratos/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Glicina/sangue , Metionina/sangue , Metionina Adenosiltransferase , Serina/sangue , Tirosina/sangue , Valina/sangue
10.
Anim Nutr ; 3(2): 127-131, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29767138

RESUMO

The study was conducted to investigate the effect of essential oils on performance, egg quality, nutrient digestibility and yolk fatty acid profile in laying hens. A total of 960 Lohmann laying hens aged 53 weeks were enrolled, under 4 different treatment diets supplemented with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg essential oils (Enviva EO, Dupont Nutrition Biosciences ApS, Denmark), respectively. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with 30 birds each. Birds were fed dietary treatment diets for 12 weeks (54 to 65 weeks). For data recording and analysis, a 12-week period was divided into 3 periods of 4 weeks' duration each: period 1 (54 to 57 weeks), period 2 (58 to 61 weeks), and period 3 (62 to 65 weeks). For the diet supplemented with Enviva EO, hen-day egg production and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) at weeks 58 to 61, and the eggshell thickness was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at week 65. However, egg production, egg weight, feed intake, FCR and other egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh unit, egg yolk color and eggshell strength) were not affected by the dietary treatment. In addition, compared with the control diet, protein digestibility in the 100 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment group was significantly increased (P < 0.05), and fat digestibility in the 100 and 150 mg/kg Enviva EO treatment groups was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), but Enviva EO had no effect on energy apparent digestibility. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) gradually decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) increased with Enviva EO supplementation, but the difference was not significant. The data suggested that the supplementation of essential oils (Enviva EO) in laying hen diet did not show a significant positive effect on performance and yolk fatty acid composition but it tended to increase eggshell thickness and protein digestibility, especially at the dose of 50 mg/kg.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26807215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary canthaxanthin (CX), 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D 3 ) and vitamins have been widely reported to be involved in productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. However, limited information is available for duck breeders. In this study, a total of 1,560 Cherry Valley SM3 duck breeder females and 312 males were used to assess if the addition of CX and 25-OH-D3 could increase the performance of duck breeders under two different dietary vitamin regimens. Four diets were used under a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 kinds of vitamin premixes (REGULAR and HIGH; HIGH premix had higher levels of all vitamins except K3 than REGULAR premix), and with or without the supplementation of the mixture of CX (6 mg/kg) and 25-OH-D3 (0.069 mg/kg). The ducks were fed ad libitum with pelleted diets based on corn-soybean meal from 38 to 77 wk of age. RESULTS: HIGH vitamin premix decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P < 0.001) of egg yolk, increased hatchability of fertile eggs (P = 0.029), increased hatchability of total eggs (P = 0.029), and decreased serum protein carbonyl level (P = 0.037) of breeder males. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 increased serum calcium of breeder females (P = 0.010), decreased the cracked egg rate (P = 0.001), increased the pigmentation of egg yolk (P < 0.001) and male bill (P < 0.001), and decreased MDA level of egg yolk (P < 0.001) and male serum (P = 0.034). Interactive effects were observed in cracked egg rate (P = 0.038), shell thickness (P = 0.011) and serum phosphorus (P = 0.026) of breeder females. HIGH vitamin premix together with the mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 decreased cracked egg rate and increased shell thickness of duck breeders. Serum phosphorus was decreased in duck breeder females fed REGULAR vitamin premix without the addition of the CX and 25-OH-D3 mixture. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary HIGH vitamin premix increased antioxidant status of eggs and breeder males, and increased hatchability. The mixture of CX and 25-OH-D3 enhanced egg shell quality, and promoted pigmentation and antioxidant status of eggs and breeder males.

12.
J Anim Sci Biotechnol ; 6(1): 12, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25908971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies with broiler have shown dietary supplementation with multi-enzyme complex containing non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) degrading enzymes and phytase is efficient in releasing phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), energy and amino acids from corn-soybean meal diets or corn-sorghum diets, hence compensating considerable levels of nutrients in formulation. Notwithstanding, such potentials have not been well defined in duck nutrition. Giving China being the largest duck producing country, we conducted this study to establish adequate specifications of major nutrients along with multi-enzyme complex to meat duck from day-old to slaughter, focusing on performance, utilization of nutrients and bone mineralization. Five dietary treatments were: Positive control (PC,T1 ): the nutrients concentration of diet for 1 to 14 d of age were apparent metabolizable energy(AME) 2,800 kcal/kg, crude protein (CP)19.39%, Ca 0.85%, available phosphorus (avP) 0.42%; for 15 to 35 d of age these parameters were AME 2,900 kcal/kg, CP 16.47%,Ca 0.76%,avP 0.38%; Negative control 1(NC1,T2), the AME and digestible amino acids (DAA) were reduced by 70 kcal/kg and 2.0%, avP and Ca by 1.0 g/kg from PC diet; Negative control 2( NC2,T4), the down-spec from PC diet was AME 100 kcal/kg, DAA 2.5%, avP 1.5 g/kg and Ca 1.2 g/kg; The enzyme complex was added at the same dosage (200 mL/ 1,000 kg) on NC1 (T3) and NC2 (T5) diets. RESULTS: Comparing with the ducks fed on T1, T3 and T5 diets, the birds fed on NC2 diet showed the lowest (P < 0.05) body weight ( d 14 and 35), feed intake (d 35), tibia ash, Ca and P contents (d 14 and 35), and the utilization of nutrients (P < 0.05). The supplementation with the enzyme complex to the NC diets restored growth rate, utilization of nutrients and bone mineralization to the level of the PC diet, and increased AME by 60 kcal/kg and 117 kcal/kg, respectively for the NC1 and NC2 diets. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that down-spec AME by 100 kcal/kg, DAA by 2.5%, avP by 1.5 g/kg and Ca by 1.2 g/kg caused detrimental effects on duck performance compared with those fed on the PC diet, and these performance losses can be compensated by the addition of the multiple-enzyme complex.

13.
Poult Sci ; 92(9): 2358-66, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23960118

RESUMO

Research on the interaction between dietary vitamins and intestinal bacteria is poorly understood. To investigate the effect of dietary vitamins on the cecal bacterial communities, 2 bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were constructed from pooled PCR products obtained from the cecal digesta of 28-d broilers fed diets with vitamins (V) at the NRC level or with no vitamins (NV). The results showed that BW gain and average feed intake of V broilers was significantly higher (P < 0.01) than NV broilers, whereas the feed/gain ratio was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in V broilers. A total of 188 and 185 clones were sequenced for the NV and V broilers, respectively. Sequence identity criterion of 98% was used to assign sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTU). Clones from the NV group broilers were assigned to 14 OTU, with 33% clones affiliated with the genus Clostridium, 19% affiliated with the genera Escherichia/Shigella, 14% affiliated with the genus Bacteroides, and the remaining clones (34%) affiliated with 5 other bacterial genera (Faecalibacterium, Parasporobacterium, Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Subdoligranulum). Clones from the V group broilers were assigned to 23 OTU, with 46% of the clones affiliated with the genus Clostridium, 11% affiliated with the genus Fecalibacterium, and the remaining clones (43%) affiliated with 8 other genera (Anaerofilum, Lactobacillus, Anaerotruncus, Oscillibacter, Alistipes, Gracilibacter, Acetivibrio, and Haloplasma). Three OTU assigned to Clostridium, Faecalibacterium, and Ruminoccus were shared between the 2 libraries. Shannon diversity index showed the V broilers exhibited significantly higher bacterial diversity (P = 0.05), and Libshuff analysis indicated that the community structure between the 2 groups was significantly different (P < 0.0001). These results suggest that lack of dietary vitamins can increase the ratio of facultative pathogenic bacteria and decrease the diversity of bacteria in the cecum of broilers. Our results provide new leads for further investigations on the interaction between dietary vitamin additives and the gut health of broilers.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Vitaminas/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , China , Clonagem Molecular , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Biblioteca Gênica , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , RNA Bacteriano/genética , RNA Bacteriano/metabolismo , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA/veterinária , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem
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