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1.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 71(2): 163-177, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770872

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the acceptability and safety of the menstrual cup as a feminine hygiene product. METHODS: A search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine and Google Scholar databases for publications be- tween 1966 and July 2019. The terms ("Menstrual" AND "Cup") OR ("Copa" AND "Menstrual") were used. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed studies were included, as well as case series and case reports published in English and Spanish assessing the menstrual cup in women in childbearing age. The studies were selected and the data extracted by two reviewers working independently. Acceptability and safety were assessed as the primary result. The summary of the information is presented in narrative form. RESULTS: Overall, 737 titles were found for initial review and, in the end, 38 studies were included in this work. The acceptability of the menstrual cup ranges between 35 % and 90 %. Between 10 to 45 % of women found it difficult to use. It was described as more comfortable when compared to tampons and pads. Continued use of the cup ranges between 48 and 94 %. In terms of safety, there was one case of toxic shock syndrome, one case of mechanical entrapment, and another case of allergy; and a higher risk of expulsion was found among intrauterine device users. CONCLUSIONS: The menstrual cup appears to be a comfortable, safe and efficient option for menstrual hygiene. Further randomized controlled studies and long-term prospective cohort studies are needed in order to determine the risk of complications due to excess bacterial colonization or retrograde menstruation.


TITULO: ACEPTABILIDAD Y SEGURIDAD DE LA COPA MENSTRUAL: REVISIÓN SISTEMÁTICA DE LA LITERATURA. OBJETIVO: Realizar una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura para evaluar la aceptabilidad y seguridad de la copa menstrual como producto de higiene genital femenina. METODOS: Se realizó búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine y Google Scholar, desde 1966 hasta julio de 2019. Se utilizaron los términos: "Menstrual" AND "Cup" OR "Copa" AND "Menstrual". Se incluyeron estudios cuantitativos, cualitativos y mixtos, series y reportes de caso publicados en inglés y español que hubieran evaluado la copa menstrual en mujeres en edad reproductiva. Los estudios fueron selecciona- dos y los datos fueron extraídos por dos evaluadores de manera independiente. Como resultado primario se evaluó la aceptabilidad y seguridad. La síntesis de información se presenta de manera narrativa. RESULTADOS: Se encontraron 737 títulos para revisión inicial. Finalmente, se incluyeron 38 estudios. La copa menstrual tiene una aceptabilidad que varía entre el 35 y el 90 %. Del 10 al 45 % la encontraron difícil de usar. Fue descrita como más cómoda comparada con el tampón y la toalla higiénica de fabricación industrial. La continuidad de su uso está entre el 48 y el 94 %. En cuanto a la seguridad se presentó un caso de síndrome de choque tóxico, uno de atrapamiento mecánico, uno de alergia al producto y mayor riesgo de expulsión en usuarias del dispositivo intrauterino. CONCLUSIONES: La copa menstrual es una alternativa cómoda, segura y eficiente para la higiene mens- trual. Se requieren más estudios controlados alea- torizados y cohortes prospectivas a largo plazo para determinar el riesgo de complicaciones por una exagerada colonización bacteriana o menstruación retrógrada.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Contaminação de Equipamentos , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/efeitos adversos , Produtos de Higiene Menstrual/microbiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Choque Séptico/etiologia , Choque Séptico/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
3.
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 35(2): 174-180, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126305

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: la fisiopatología de los desórdenes gastrointestinales funcionales (DGF) incluye un eje intestino-cerebro alterado. Objetivo: determinar la prevalencia y posibles asociaciones de ansiedad en niños con DGF. Metodología: estudio de prevalencia realizado en ciudades colombianas en niños entre 8 y 18 años a quienes se les identificaron DGF según los Criterios de Roma III y ansiedad por medio del State Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children. Se incluyeron variables sociodemográficas y familiares. El análisis estadístico incluyó medidas de tendencia central, análisis uni- y multivariados, y regresión logística, teniendo en cuenta una p < 0,05 como significativa. Resultados: se incluyeron 1496 niños, 12,7 ± 2,1 años, 50,5 % niñas, 79,9 % con ansiedad transitoria y 51,5 % con tendencia a experimentar estados de ansiedad. Hubo predominio para el estado-ansiedad en adolescentes masculinos y para el rasgo-ansiedad en adolescentes femeninas con algún DGF. Los posibles factores de riesgo fueron la edad y el sexo para estado-ansiedad, y la edad, el sexo y los DGF para el rasgo-ansiedad. Conclusiones: cerca de la mitad de los niños tuvo tendencia a presentar estados de ansiedad, con predominio de las adolescentes femeninas y con factores de riesgo como la edad, el sexo y tener algún DGF.


Abstract Introduction: The pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders includes alteration of the gut-brain axis. Objective: This study measures prevalence and of functional gastrointestinal disorders and discusses possible associations with anxiety in children with these conditions. Methodology: This is a prevalence study of children between 8 and 18 years of age diagnosed with functional gastrointestinal disorders as defined by the Rome III Criteria and anxiety as defined by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children in several Colombian cities. Sociodemographic and family variables were included. Statistical analyses included measures of central tendency, univariate and multivariate analysis, and logistic regression, with p <0.05 established as significant. Results: The study included 1,496 children of whom 50.5% were girls. The boys average age was 12.7 ± 2.1 years, 79.9% had suffered transitory anxiety, and 51.5% had tendencies to experience states of anxiety. State/anxiety predominated in male adolescents while trait/anxiety predominated in female adolescents with functional gastrointestinal disorders. Possible risk factors for state/anxiety were age and sex. Possible risk factors for trait/anxiety were age, sex, and functional gastrointestinal disorders. Conclusions: About half of the children tended to states of anxiety. Female adolescents predominated with risk factors of age, sex, and some functional gastrointestinal disorders.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Ansiedade , Associação , Estudos Transversais , Gastroenteropatias , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Análise Multivariada
4.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 71(2): 163-177, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126324

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo: realizar una búsqueda sistemática de la literatura para evaluar la aceptabilidad y seguridad de la copa menstrual como producto de higiene genital femenina. Materiales y métodos: se realizó búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine y Google Scholar, desde 1966 hasta julio de 2019. Se utilizaron los términos: "Menstrual" AND "Cup" OR "Copa" AND "Menstrual". Se incluyeron estudios cuantitativos, cualitativos y mixtos, series y reportes de caso publicados en inglés y español que hubieran evaluado la copa menstrual en mujeres en edad reproductiva. Los estudios fueron selecciona- dos y los datos fueron extraídos por dos evaluadores de manera independiente. Como resultado primario se evaluó la aceptabilidad y seguridad. La síntesis de información se presenta de manera narrativa. Resultados: se encontraron 737 títulos para revisión inicial. Finalmente, se incluyeron 38 estudios. La copa menstrual tiene una aceptabilidad que varía entre el 35 y el 90 %. Del 10 al 45 % la encontraron difícil de usar. Fue descrita como más cómoda comparada con el tampón y la toalla higiénica de fabricación industrial. La continuidad de su uso está entre el 48 y el 94 %. En cuanto a la seguridad se presentó un caso de síndrome de choque tóxico, uno de atrapamiento mecánico, uno de alergia al producto y mayor riesgo de expulsión en usuarias del dispositivo intrauterino. Conclusión: la copa menstrual es una alternativa cómoda, segura y eficiente para la higiene mens- trual. Se requieren más estudios controlados alea- torizados y cohortes prospectivas a largo plazo para determinar el riesgo de complicaciones por una exagerada colonización bacteriana o menstruación retrógrada.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a systematic review of the literature and assess the acceptability and safety of the menstrual cup as a feminine hygiene product. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, PopLine and Google Scholar databases for publications be- tween 1966 and July 2019. The terms ("Menstrual" AND "Cup") OR ("Copa" AND "Menstrual") were used. Quantitative, qualitative and mixed studies were included, as well as case series and case reports published in English and Spanish assessing the menstrual cup in women in childbearing age. The studies were selected and the data extracted by two reviewers working independently. Acceptability and safety were assessed as the primary result. The summary of the information is presented in narrative form. Results: Overall, 737 titles were found for initial review and, in the end, 38 studies were included in this work. The acceptability of the menstrual cup ranges between 35 % and 90 %. Between 10 to 45 % of women found it difficult to use. It was described as more comfortable when compared to tampons and pads. Continued use of the cup ranges between 48 and 94 %. In terms of safety, there was one case of toxic shock syndrome, one case of mechanical entrapment, and another case of allergy; and a higher risk of expulsion was found among intrauterine device users. Conclusion: The menstrual cup appears to be a comfortable, safe and efficient option for menstrual hygiene. Further randomized controlled studies and long-term prospective cohort studies are needed in order to determine the risk of complications due to excess bacterial colonization or retrograde menstruation.


Assuntos
Produtos de Higiene Menstrual , Produtos de Higiene Feminina , Ciclo Menstrual
5.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(2): 122-129, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1093036

RESUMO

Resumen Introducción: el lupus eritematoso sistémico (LES) presenta diferentes manifestaciones clínicas, un de estas es la nefropatia lúpica (NL), que se asocia con progresión a enfermedad renal crónica (ERC) avanzada y mortalidad. Objetivo: determinación de las características clínicas y epidemiológicas de la NL en Santander. Métodos: estudio observacional descriptivo tipo serie de casos en pacientes con NL evaluados por primera vez, entre enero de 2017 a enero 2018, en consulta de nefroprevención. Según criterios de inclusión y exclusión se definieron variables cualitativas y cuantitativas. Se revisaron historias clínicas y el análisis de datos se realizó por medio de SPSS®. Resultados: se estudiaron 14 pacientes (85 % mujeres), la edad promedio de diagnóstico de NL fue de 36 años, con ERC 1 y 2 (72 %) y con proteinuria A3 (85 %). Se obtuvo biopsia renal en 64 %, con resultado concluyente en el 50 %, la clase histopatológica IV de NL fue la más común. La terapia de mantenimiento más frecuente fue corticoide en monoterapia (36 %), seguido de la combinación de corticoide y micofenolato (29 %). Conclusión: la NL predomina en mujeres jóvenes, en estadios tempranos de ERC con altos grados de proteinuria, por lo que se debe realizar una evaluación minuciosa en búsqueda de NL a todos los pacientes con LES, mediante programas de detección y seguimiento nefrológico temprano. El grado histopatológico IV fue el más frecuente, similar a lo reportado en Latinoamérica. Existen dificultades administrativas y técnicas en la toma de biopsias renales, se debe hacer énfasis en la necesidad de su realización, por su primordial importancia para definir el tratamiento.


Abstract Introduction: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) has different clinical manifestations, being very relevant lupus nephropathy (NL) because is associated with progression to advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mortality. Objective: Determination of the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the NL in Santander. Methods: A descriptive observational study of a series of cases in patients with NL diagnosis, evaluated between January 2017 and 2018 for the first time in a nephroprotection consultation. Qualitative and quantitative variables are defined according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Electronic medical records were reviewed, and data analysis was performed through SPSS®. Results: 14 patients (85% women) were studied. The average age of diagnosis of NL was 36 years, mostly with stages of CKD 1 and 2 (72%) with proteinuria A3 (85%).Biopsy renal was performed in the 64%, a conclusive result in the 50%, being the histopathological grade IV of NL the most common. The most frequent maintenance therapy was corticosteroid alone (35.7%), followed by the combination of corticosteroid and mycophenolate (28.5%). Conclusion: NL predominates in young women, and presenting in early stages of CKD, with high degrees of proteinuria, so a thorough evaluation should be performed in search of NL in all patients with SLE through early nephrological screening and monitoring programs. The histopathological grade IV found is like that reported in Latin America. There are administrative and technical difficulties in the performance of renal biopsies, emphasis should be placed on the realization of this procedure because it takes a primary role in defining the treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Biópsia , Nefropatias , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico , Proteinúria , Colômbia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 25(11): 3609-3624, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310673

RESUMO

As countries advance in greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting for climate change mitigation, consistent estimates of aboveground net biomass change (∆AGB) are needed. Countries with limited forest monitoring capabilities in the tropics and subtropics rely on IPCC 2006 default ∆AGB rates, which are values per ecological zone, per continent. Similarly, research into forest biomass change at a large scale also makes use of these rates. IPCC 2006 default rates come from a handful of studies, provide no uncertainty indications and do not distinguish between older secondary forests and old-growth forests. As part of the 2019 Refinement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, we incorporate ∆AGB data available from 2006 onwards, comprising 176 chronosequences in secondary forests and 536 permanent plots in old-growth and managed/logged forests located in 42 countries in Africa, North and South America and Asia. We generated ∆AGB rate estimates for younger secondary forests (≤20 years), older secondary forests (>20 years and up to 100 years) and old-growth forests, and accounted for uncertainties in our estimates. In tropical rainforests, for which data availability was the highest, our ∆AGB rate estimates ranged from 3.4 (Asia) to 7.6 (Africa) Mg ha-1  year-1 in younger secondary forests, from 2.3 (North and South America) to 3.5 (Africa) Mg ha-1  year-1 in older secondary forests, and 0.7 (Asia) to 1.3 (Africa) Mg ha-1  year-1 in old-growth forests. We provide a rigorous and traceable refinement of the IPCC 2006 default rates in tropical and subtropical ecological zones, and identify which areas require more research on ∆AGB. In this respect, this study should be considered as an important step towards quantifying the role of tropical and subtropical forests as carbon sinks with higher accuracy; our new rates can be used for large-scale GHG accounting by governmental bodies, nongovernmental organizations and in scientific research.


Assuntos
Árvores , Clima Tropical , África , Ásia , Biomassa , Carbono , Florestas , América do Sul
7.
rev. udca actual. divulg. cient ; 22(1): e1182, Ene-Jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094769

RESUMO

RESUMEN Los temas de la acuicultura en los que se requiere innovación e investigación están orientados al mejoramiento y al conocimiento genético de especies nativas. En este sentido, el presente estudio se concentró en estimar heredabilidades, correlaciones genéticas y fenotípicas para características de crecimiento, canal, calidad y espinas intramusculares derechas (EIMD), en cachama blanca (Piaractus brachypomus). La progenie de 12 hembras y 24 machos por fertilización artificial de una hembra por dos machos, es decir, doce familias de hermanos medios, fueron analizados por medio del paquete estadístico SAS 9.4 (SAS®, 2014). Se asumió un modelo lineal general univariado, con inclusión de los efectos fijos, como factores de entorno, estanque y edad y factores genéticos, como efectos aleatorios. Las heredabilidades, en general, para las variables de crecimiento, mostraron valores de medios a altos; para las variables de la canal presentaron valores bajos a medios; para las variables de calidad fueron bajos y, de particular interés para la EIMD, la magnitud de la estima fue de 0,11 ± 0,15. Las correlaciones estuvieron, generalmente, cercanas a la unidad entre características de crecimiento. Estas fueron significativamente positivas para peso corporal, a 180 días de edad, con la mayoría de variables, a diferencia con las variables de calidad, la correlación para rendimiento en canal con EIMD de -0,99 fue encontrada significativamente negativa. Los resultados del estudio destacan el potencial para mejorar características de crecimiento, de canal y de calidad, a través de la explotación de la variación genética aditiva observada.


ABSTRACT The topics of aquaculture in which innovation and research are required are directed towards the improvement and genetic knowledge of native species. In this sense the present study concentrated on the estimation of heritabilities, genetic and phenotypic correlations for growth, carcass, quality and right intramuscular spines (RIMS) in white cachama (Piaractus brachypomus). The progeny of 12 females and 24 males by artificial fertilization of a female by two males, that is to say twelve half-sib families, were analyzed by means of the statistical package SAS 9.4 (SAS®, 2014), assumed an univariate general linear model with inclusion of Fixed effects such as environmental factors, pond and age as fixed effects and genetic factors as random effects. Heritabilities in general for growth variables showed medium to high values; for carcass variables, presented low to medium values; And for the quality variables were low; For the RIMS the magnitude of the estimate was 0,11 ± 0,15. The correlations were generally close to unity between growth characteristics. These were significantly positive for body weight at 180 days of age with most variables unlike quality variables; the correlation for channel performance with RIMS of -0.99 was found to be significantly negative. The results of the study highlight the potential to improve growth, carcass and quality traits through the exploitation of the additive genetic variation observed in this study.

8.
Curr HIV Res ; 16(6): 416-424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have developed methodologies for predicting the number of CD4+ cells from the total leukocyte and lymphocytes count based on mathematical methodologies, obtaining percentages of effectiveness prediction higher than 90% with a value of less than 5000 leukocytes. OBJECTIVE: To improve the methodology probabilities prediction in 5000-9000 leukocytes ranges. METHOD: from sets A, B, C and D defined in a previous study, and based on CD4+ prediction established on the total number of leukocytes and lymphocytes, induction was performed using data from 10 patients with HIV, redefining the sets A and C that describe the lymphocytes behavior relative to leukocytes. Subsequently, we evaluated with previous research prediction probabilities parameters from a sample of 100 patients, calculating the belonging probability to each sample and organized in predetermined ranges leukocytes, of each of the sets defined, their unions and intersections. Then the same procedure was performed with the new sets and the probability values obtained with the refined method were compared with respect to previously defined, by measures of sensitivity (SENS) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV) for each range. RESULTS: probabilities with values greater than 0.83 were found in five of the nine ranges inside the new sets. The probability for the set A∪C increased from 0.06 to 0.18 which means increases between 0.06 and 0.09 for the intersection (A∪C) ∩ (B∪D), making evident the prediction improvement with new sets defined. CONCLUSION: The results show that the new defined sets achieved a higher percentage of effectiveness to predict the CD4+ value cells, which represents a useful tool that can be proposed as a substitute for clinical values obtained by the flow cytometry.


Assuntos
Contagem de Linfócito CD4/métodos , Técnicas Citológicas/métodos , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Modelos Teóricos , Bioestatística , Humanos
9.
Intensive Care Med ; 34(9): 1662-8, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18542920

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Blood O(2) saturation and lactate concentration gradients from superior vena cava (SVC) to pulmonary artery (PA) occur in critically ill patients. These gradients (DeltaSO(2) and Delta[Lac]) may be positive or negative. We tested the hypothesis that positive DeltaSO(2) and Delta[Lac] are associated with improved survival in critically ill patients. DESIGN AND SETTING: Multinational, prospective observational study conducted in six medical and surgical ICUs. PATIENTS: Consecutive sample of 106 adults requiring insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC). Average age was 59.5 +/- 15.5 years, APACHE II score was 15.5 +/- 6.7 (mean +/- SD). Main outcome measure was 28-day mortality. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: We drew blood samples from the proximal and distal ports of PACs every 6 h from the time of PAC insertion (Initial measurement) until its removal (Final measurement). Samples were analyzed for SO(2), [Lac], glucose concentration and blood gases. Hemodynamic measurements were obtained after blood samples. We monitored patients for 30.9 +/- 11.0 h. Overall mortality rate was 25.5%. More survivors had mean and final DeltaSO(2) > or = 0 and Delta[Lac] > or = 0 than decedents (p < 0.01; p < 0.05 respectively). On the average, DeltaSO(2) and Delta[Lac] were positive in survivors and negative in decedents. Survival odds ratios for final measurements of DeltaSO(2) > or = 0 and Delta[Lac] > or = 0 were 19.22 and 7.70, respectively (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A strong association exists between positive DeltaSO(2) and Delta[Lac] and survival in critically ill patients. Whether therapy aimed at increasing DeltaSO(2) and Delta[Lac] results in improved ICU survival remains to be determined.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/mortalidade , Lactatos/sangue , Oxigênio/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Sepse/sangue , Sepse/mortalidade , APACHE , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Estado Terminal/classificação , Feminino , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Análise de Sobrevida
10.
Anest. analg. reanim ; 16(2): 76-81, dic. 2000. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-694166

RESUMO

Se propone evaluar, por primera vez en nuestro medio, el dispositivo colorimétrico desechable Colibri para detección de CO2 espirado, que se basa en la utilización de una membrana pH sensible que cambia de color cuando el CO2 exhalado reacciona con el agua para formar ácido carbónico. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: confirmar la intubación orotraqueal mediante dicho dispositivo, verificar la correlación entre la escala de colores con los valores de CO2 espirado obtenidos por capnometría convencional y comparar la latencia de medida de ambos métodos. Se estudió una población de 39 pacientes a los que se realizó anestesia general con intubación orotraqueal (IOT) para procedimientos quirúrgicos de coordinación, ASA 1 y 2, con edades comprendidas entre 17 y 85 años. Se midió simultáneamente el CO2 espirado mediante Colibri TechnologyMR y capnometría convencional, al momento de la intubación y a los 20 minutos. Se confirmó en 38 pacientes la IOT virando el dispositivo del azul al amarillo, lo que se correspondió con valores de PetCO2 entre 23 y 39 mmHg. Se detectó intubación esofágica en un paciente. Se realizó la correlación de valores de ambos métodos mediante 74 mediciones simultáneas de PetCO2. De este trabajo surge que tanto la sensibilidad como especificidad diagnóstica para detectar la posición del tubo orotraqueal mediante el Colibri fueron de 100%. Se confirmó en todos los casos la correlación existente entre la escala de colores provista por el fabricante con los valores capnográficos y se comprobó que para el Colibri no hubo latencia para la detección de CO2 espirado, verificándose cambio de color a la primera ventilación.

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