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2.
Br J Haematol ; 2019 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215036

RESUMO

The treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains a challenge. Among salvage chemotherapy regimens, the clofarabine and cytarabine (CLARA) combination has been widely evaluated and has a favourable safety/efficacy balance. Predictive factors of efficacy in patients with R/R AML are unclear, particularly the impact of AML-related gene mutations. We report our single-centre experience on 34 R/R AML patients treated with CLARA, with a focus on the genetic characterization of our cohort. CLARA yielded a 47% response rate among this poor-prognosis AML population, while two patients (5·8%) died due to treatment-related toxicity. The two-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 29·4% and 35·3%, respectively. Nine patients (26%) had long-term response with a median follow-up of 39·5 months among the responders, of whom six underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adverse karyotype did not correlate with response or survival, and secondary AML were more frequent among responders to CLARA, suggesting that this combination may successfully salvage R/R AML patients regardless of adverse prognostic markers. We also observed that a low mutational burden and absence of splice mutations correlated with prolonged survival after CLARA, suggesting that extensive genotyping may have prognostic implications in R/R AML.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050087

RESUMO

Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a recessive disorder caused by biallelic pathogenic variants of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). This disease is characterized by progressive ataxia, telangiectasia, immune deficiency, predisposition to malignancies, and radiosensitivity. However, hypomorphic variants may be discovered associated with very atypical phenotypes, raising the importance of evaluating their pathogenic effects. In this study, multiple functional analyses were performed on lymphoblastoid cell lines from 36 patients, comprising 49 ATM variants, 24 being of uncertain significance. Thirteen patients with atypical phenotype and presumably hypomorphic variants were of particular interest to test strength of functional analyses and to highlight discrepancies with typical patients. Western-blot combined with transcript analyses allowed the identification of one missing variant, confirmed suspected splice defects and revealed unsuspected minor transcripts. Subcellular localization analyses confirmed the low level and abnormal cytoplasmic localization of ATM for most A-T cell lines. Interestingly, atypical patients had lower kinase defect and less altered cell-cycle distribution after genotoxic stress than typical patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the pathogenic effects of the 49 variants, highlighted the strength of KAP1 phosphorylation test for pathogenicity assessment and allowed the establishment of the Ataxia-TeLangiectasia Atypical Score to predict atypical phenotype. Altogether, we propose strategies for ATM variant detection and classification.

5.
Haematologica ; 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097628

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for sickle-cell anemia, but the place of myeloablative conditioning remains to be defined. The aim of the present study was to analyze long-term outcomes, including chimerism, sickle-cell anemia-related events and biological data (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, HbS%), and fertility, in a French series of 234 SCA-patients younger than 30 years who received (1988-2012) a matched-sibling-donor stem cell transplantation following standardized myeloablative conditioning (Busulfan, Cyclophosphamide and rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin). Since the first report of the series (1988-2004), 151 new consecutive patients with sickle-cell anemia were similarly transplanted. Considering death, non-engraftment or rejection (donor cells<5%) as events, the 5-year event-free survival was 97.9% (95% confidence interval:95.5-100%), confirming at least 95% chance of cure since year 2000. In the overall cohort (n=234, median follow-up of 7.9 years), event-free survival was not associated with age, but chronic-graft-vs-host disease was independently associated with recipien's age>15 (hazard ratio=4.37,P=0.002) and lower (5-15 vs 20 mg/kg) anti-thymocyte globulin dose (hazard ratio=4.55,P=0.001). At one year, 44% of patients had mixed chimerism (5-95% donor cells), but those prepared with anti-thymocyte globulin had no graft rejection. No events related to sickle cell anemia occurred in patients with mixed chimerism, even those with 15-20% donor cells, but hemolytic anemia stigmata were observed with donor cells<50%. Currently, myeloablative transplantation with matched-sibling donor has a higher event-free survival (98%) in patients younger than 30 than that reported for non-myeloablative conditioning (88%). Nevertheless, the risk of chronic graft-vs-host disease in older patients and need for fertility preservation might be indications in patients older than 15 for a non-myeloablative conditioning.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770870

RESUMO

Several approaches have been developed to overcome historical barriers associated with poor outcomes in the setting of HLA-haploidentical allogeneic transplantation (HaploSCT). Here, we examine the outcome of patients with various hematological disorders undergoing HaploSCT with high-dose, post-transplantation cyclophosphamide. We performed a retrospective study on 381 patients from 30 centers between January 2013 and December 2015. At the last follow-up, a total of 1058 infectious episodes were diagnosed, affecting 90.3% of the cohort. Median time to first infection was 13 days for bacterial, 32 days for viral and 20 days for fungal infections. Around 41% of these infections were of bacterial origin and 35% of viral origin, among which 48.8% of patients presented CMV reactivation. Median of GVHD relapse-free survival, progression-free survival and overall survival were 7.1 months, 19.9 months and 33.5 months, respectively. HSCT procedure was the primary or contributing cause of death (55.6%), followed by relapse of the original disease (34.2%). Infections accounted for 45.7% of the HSCT-related deaths. The present multicenter data on a large cohort of patients receiving HaploSCT with PTCy confirmed the feasibility of the procedure with an acceptable incidence of infectious complications, not different as compared to other haploidentical platforms or HLA-matched transplantation.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 143(6): 2238-2253, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CD40 ligand (CD40L) deficiency, an X-linked primary immunodeficiency, causes recurrent sinopulmonary, Pneumocystis and Cryptosporidium species infections. Long-term survival with supportive therapy is poor. Currently, the only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). OBJECTIVE: We performed an international collaborative study to improve patients' management, aiming to individualize risk factors and determine optimal HSCT characteristics. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on 130 patients who underwent HSCT for CD40L deficiency between 1993-2015. We analyzed outcome and variables' relevance with respect to survival and cure. RESULTS: Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 78.2%, 58.1%, and 72.3% 5 years after HSCT. Results were better in transplantations performed in 2000 or later and in children less than 10 years old at the time of HSCT. Pre-existing organ damage negatively influenced outcome. Sclerosing cholangitis was the most important risk factor. After 2000, superior OS was achieved with matched donors. Use of myeloablative regimens and HSCT at 2 years or less from diagnosis associated with higher OS and DFS. EFS was best with matched sibling donors, myeloablative conditioning (MAC), and bone marrow-derived stem cells. Most rejections occurred after reduced-intensity or nonmyeloablative conditioning, which associated with poor donor cell engraftment. Mortality occurred mainly early after HSCT, predominantly from infections. Among survivors who ceased immunoglobulin replacement, T-lymphocyte chimerism was 50% or greater donor in 85.2%. CONCLUSION: HSCT is curative in patients with CD40L deficiency, with improved outcome if performed before organ damage development. MAC is associated with better OS, EFS, and DFS. Prospective studies are required to compare the risks of HSCT with those of lifelong supportive therapy.

11.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(8): 677-687, 2019 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657736

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a distinct mature T-cell malignancy caused by chronic infection with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 with diverse clinical features and prognosis. ATL remains a challenging disease as a result of its diverse clinical features, multidrug resistance of malignant cells, frequent large tumor burden, hypercalcemia, and/or frequent opportunistic infection. In 2009, we published a consensus report to define prognostic factors, clinical subclassifications, treatment strategies, and response criteria. The 2009 consensus report has become the standard reference for clinical trials in ATL and a guide for clinical management. Since the last consensus there has been progress in the understanding of the molecular pathophysiology of ATL and risk-adapted treatment approaches. METHODS: Reflecting these advances, ATL researchers and clinicians joined together at the 18th International Conference on Human Retrovirology-Human T-Lymphotropic Virus and Related Retroviruses-in Tokyo, Japan, March, 2017, to review evidence for current clinical practice and to update the consensus with a new focus on the subtype classification of cutaneous ATL, CNS lesions in aggressive ATL, management of elderly or transplantation-ineligible patients, and treatment strategies that incorporate up-front allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation and novel agents. RESULTS: As a result of lower-quality clinical evidence, a best practice approach was adopted and consensus statements agreed on by coauthors (> 90% agreement). CONCLUSION: This expert consensus highlights the need for additional clinical trials to develop novel standard therapies for the treatment of ATL.

12.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 55-64, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552536

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare but severe demyelinating disease caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) in immunocompromised patients. We report a series of patients with primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) who developed PML. METHODS: Retrospective observational study including PID patients with PML. Clinical, immunological, imaging features, and outcome are provided for each patient. RESULTS: Eleven unrelated patients with PIDs developed PML. PIDs were characterized by a wide range of syndromic or genetically defined defects, mostly with combined B and T cell impairment. Genetic diagnosis was made in 7 patients. Before the development of PML, 10 patients had recurrent infections, 7 had autoimmune and/or inflammatory manifestations, and 3 had a history of malignancies. Immunologic investigations showed CD4+ lymphopenia (median 265, range 50-344) in all cases. Six patients received immunosuppressive therapy in the year before PML onset, including prolonged steroid therapy in 3 cases, rituximab in 5 cases, anti-TNF-α therapy, and azathioprine in 1 case each. Despite various treatments, all but 1 patient died after a median of 8 months following PML diagnosis. CONCLUSION: PML is a rare but fatal complication of PIDs. Many cases are secondary to immunosuppressive therapy warranting careful evaluation before initiation subsequent immunosuppression during PIDs.

13.
Gut ; 2018 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30448772

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Primary GI T-cell lymphoproliferative diseases (T-LPD) are heterogeneous entities, which raise difficult diagnosis and therapeutic challenges. We have recently provided evidences that lymphomas complicating coeliac disease (CD) arise from innate-like lymphocytes, which may carry NK receptors (NKRs). DESIGN: NKRs expression was compared by flow cytometry in intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) from CD, type I or type II refractory CD (RCD). NKp46 was next assessed by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded biopsies from 204 patients with CD, RCDI, RCDII or GI T-cell lymphomas and from a validation cohort of 61 patients. The cytotoxic properties of an anti-NKp46 monoclonal antibody conjugated to pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) was tested ex vivo in human primary tumour cells isolated from fresh duodenal biopsies. RESULTS: NKp46 (but not CD94, NKG2A, NKG2C, NKG2D) was significantly more expressed by malignant RCDII IEL than by normal IEL in CD and RCDI. In paraffin biopsies, detection of >25 NKp46+ IEL per 100 epithelial cells discriminated RCDII from CD and RCDI. NKp46 was also detected in enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphomas (EATL, 24/29) and in monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphomas (MEITL, 4/4) but not in indolent T-LPD (0/15). Treatment with anti-NKp46-PBD could efficiently and selectively kill human NKp46+ primary IEL ex vivo. CONCLUSION: NKp46 is a novel biomarker useful for diagnosis and therapeutic stratification of GI T-LPD. Strong preclinical rationale identifies anti-NKp46-PBD as a promising therapy for RCDII, EATL and MEITL.

15.
Curr Res Transl Med ; 2018 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206045

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We developed a prognostic scoring system to evaluate the prognosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients surviving more than 100 days allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after (allo-HCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a landmark analysis on a derivation cohort of 393 cases to identify prognostic factors for 3-year overall survival. Potential predictor variables included demographic and clinical data, transplantation modalities and early post-transplant complications. The scoring system was tested against a validation cohort which included 391 patients. RESULTS: Complications occurring before day 100 such as relapse [HR = 6.7; 95%CI, 4.5-10.0] (4 points), lack of platelet recovery [HR, 3.6; 95%CI, 2.2-5.8] (2 points), grade-II acute GVHD [HR = 1.7; 95%CI, 1.2-2.5] (1 point) and grade-III/IV [HR = 2.6; 95%CI, 1.8 -3.8] (2 points) were the only independent predictors of 3-year OS. The 3-year OS associated with low (0), intermediate (1-3) and high (≥4) risk scores was respectively 70%, 46% and 6%. The model performed consistently in both cohorts, with good calibration. CONCLUSION: This post-transplant scoring system is a powerful predictor of outcome after allo-HCT for MDS, and can provide useful guidance for clinicians. Additional studies are required to evaluate this scoring system for other hematologic malignancies.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906526

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: V(D)J recombination ensures the diversity of the adaptive immune system. Although its complete defect causes severe combined immunodeficiency (ie, T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency), its suboptimal activity is associated with a broad spectrum of immune manifestations, such as late-onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The earliest molecular diagnosis of these patients is required to adopt the best therapy strategy, particularly when it involves a myeloablative conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at developing biomarkers based on analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) α repertoire to assist in the diagnosis of patients with primary immunodeficiencies with V(D)J recombination and DNA repair deficiencies. METHODS: We used flow cytometric (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis to quantify TCR-Vα7.2-expressing T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and developed PROMIDISα, a multiplex RT-PCR/next-generation sequencing assay, to evaluate a subset of the TCRα repertoire in T lymphocytes. RESULTS: The combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PROMIDISα analyses revealed specific signatures in patients with V(D)J recombination-defective primary immunodeficiencies or ataxia telangiectasia/Nijmegen breakage syndromes. CONCLUSION: Analysis of the TCRα repertoire is particularly appropriate in a prospective way to identify patients with partial immune defects caused by suboptimal V(D)J recombination activity, a DNA repair defect, or both. It also constitutes a valuable tool for the retrospective in vivo functional validation of variants identified through exome or panel sequencing. Its broader implementation might be of interest to assist early diagnosis of patients presenting with hypomorphic DNA repair defects inclined to experience acute toxicity during prehematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning.

17.
Blood ; 132(12): 1318-1331, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914977

RESUMO

Congenital neutropenias (CNs) are rare heterogeneous genetic disorders, with about 25% of patients without known genetic defects. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the SRP54 gene, encoding the signal recognition particle (SRP) 54 GTPase protein, in 3 sporadic cases and 1 autosomal dominant family. We subsequently sequenced the SRP54 gene in 66 probands from the French CN registry. In total, we identified 23 mutated cases (16 sporadic, 7 familial) with 7 distinct germ line SRP54 mutations including a recurrent in-frame deletion (Thr117del) in 14 cases. In nearly all patients, neutropenia was chronic and profound with promyelocytic maturation arrest, occurring within the first months of life, and required long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy with a poor response. Neutropenia was sometimes associated with a severe neurodevelopmental delay (n = 5) and/or an exocrine pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme supplementation (n = 3). The SRP54 protein is a key component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the co-translational targeting of secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We showed that SRP54 was specifically upregulated during the in vitro granulocytic differentiation, and that SRP54 mutations or knockdown led to a drastically reduced proliferation of granulocytic cells associated with an enhanced P53-dependent apoptosis. Bone marrow examination of SRP54-mutated patients revealed a major dysgranulopoiesis and features of cellular ER stress and autophagy that were confirmed using SRP54-mutated primary cells and SRP54 knockdown cells. In conclusion, we characterized a pathological pathway, which represents the second most common cause of CN with maturation arrest in the French CN registry.

18.
Haematologica ; 103(8): 1278-1287, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29724903

RESUMO

Heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations strongly predispose to leukemia, immunodeficiency, and/or lymphoedema. We describe a series of 79 patients (53 families) diagnosed since 2011, made up of all patients in France and Belgium, with a follow up of 2249 patients/years. Median age at first clinical symptoms was 18.6 years (range, 0-61 years). Severe infectious diseases (mycobacteria, fungus, and human papilloma virus) and hematologic malignancies were the most common first manifestations. The probability of remaining symptom-free was 8% at 40 years old. Among the 53 probands, 24 had missense mutations including 4 recurrent alleles, 21 had nonsense or frameshift mutations, 4 had a whole-gene deletion, 2 had splice defects, and 2 patients had complex mutations. There were significantly more cases of leukemia in patients with missense mutations (n=14 of 34) than in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations (n=2 of 28). We also identify new features of the disease: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy related to the JC virus, and immune/inflammatory diseases. A revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score allowed a distinction to be made between a stable disease and hematologic transformation. Chemotherapy is of limited efficacy, and has a high toxicity with severe infectious complications. As the mortality rate is high in our cohort (up to 35% at the age of 40), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the best choice of treatment to avoid severe infectious and/or hematologic complications. The timing of HSCT remains difficult to determine, but the earlier it is performed, the better the outcome.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 378(16): 1479-1493, 2018 04 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Donor availability and transplantation-related risks limit the broad use of allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation in patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia. After previously establishing that lentiviral transfer of a marked ß-globin (ßA-T87Q) gene could substitute for long-term red-cell transfusions in a patient with ß-thalassemia, we wanted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of such gene therapy in patients with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia. METHODS: In two phase 1-2 studies, we obtained mobilized autologous CD34+ cells from 22 patients (12 to 35 years of age) with transfusion-dependent ß-thalassemia and transduced the cells ex vivo with LentiGlobin BB305 vector, which encodes adult hemoglobin (HbA) with a T87Q amino acid substitution (HbAT87Q). The cells were then reinfused after the patients had undergone myeloablative busulfan conditioning. We subsequently monitored adverse events, vector integration, and levels of replication-competent lentivirus. Efficacy assessments included levels of total hemoglobin and HbAT87Q, transfusion requirements, and average vector copy number. RESULTS: At a median of 26 months (range, 15 to 42) after infusion of the gene-modified cells, all but 1 of the 13 patients who had a non-ß0/ß0 genotype had stopped receiving red-cell transfusions; the levels of HbAT87Q ranged from 3.4 to 10.0 g per deciliter, and the levels of total hemoglobin ranged from 8.2 to 13.7 g per deciliter. Correction of biologic markers of dyserythropoiesis was achieved in evaluated patients with hemoglobin levels near normal ranges. In 9 patients with a ß0/ß0 genotype or two copies of the IVS1-110 mutation, the median annualized transfusion volume was decreased by 73%, and red-cell transfusions were discontinued in 3 patients. Treatment-related adverse events were typical of those associated with autologous stem-cell transplantation. No clonal dominance related to vector integration was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Gene therapy with autologous CD34+ cells transduced with the BB305 vector reduced or eliminated the need for long-term red-cell transfusions in 22 patients with severe ß-thalassemia without serious adverse events related to the drug product. (Funded by Bluebird Bio and others; HGB-204 and HGB-205 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01745120 and NCT02151526 .).


Assuntos
Terapia Genética , Globinas beta/genética , Talassemia beta/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Antígenos CD34 , Criança , Transfusão de Eritrócitos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Vetores Genéticos , Hemoglobinas/análise , Hemoglobinas/genética , Humanos , Lentivirus/genética , Masculino , Mutação , Transplante Autólogo , Adulto Jovem , Talassemia beta/genética
20.
J Clin Microbiol ; 56(6)2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29563199

RESUMO

The diagnosis of nocardiosis, a severe opportunistic infection, is challenging. We assessed the specificity and sensitivity of a 16S rRNA Nocardia PCR-based assay performed on clinical samples. In this multicenter study (January 2014 to April 2015), patients who were admitted to three hospitals and had an underlying condition favoring nocardiosis, clinical and radiological signs consistent with nocardiosis, and a Nocardia PCR assay result for a clinical sample were included. Patients were classified as negative control (NC) (negative Nocardia culture results and proven alternative diagnosis or improvement at 6 months without anti-Nocardia treatment), positive control (PC) (positive Nocardia culture results), or probable nocardiosis (positive Nocardia PCR results, negative Nocardia culture results, and no alternative diagnosis). Sixty-eight patients were included; 47 were classified as NC, 8 as PC, and 13 as probable nocardiosis. PCR results were negative for 35/47 NC patients (74%). For the 12 NC patients with positive PCR results, the PCR assay had been performed with respiratory samples. These NC patients had chronic bronchopulmonary disease more frequently than did the NC patients with negative PCR results (8/12 patients [67%] versus 11/35 patients [31%]; P = 0.044). PCR results were positive for 7/8 PC patients (88%). There were 13 cases of probable nocardiosis, diagnosed solely using the PCR results; 9 of those patients (69%) had lung involvement (consolidation or nodule). Nocardia PCR testing had a specificity of 74% and a sensitivity of 88% for the diagnosis of nocardiosis. Nocardia PCR testing may be helpful for the diagnosis of nocardiosis in immunocompromised patients but interpretation of PCR results from respiratory samples is difficult, because the PCR assay may also detect colonization.

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