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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150502

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Management of inflammatory complications of chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is challenging. The aim of this study was to assess safety, with a focus on infections, and effectiveness of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) blockers in CGD patients. METHODS: A retrospective, single-center cohort study of CGD patients treated by anti-TNF-α agents at Necker-Enfants Malades University Hospital (Paris, France) and registered at the French National Reference Center for Primary Immunodeficiencies (CEREDIH). RESULTS: Between 2006 and 2019, 14 (X-linked: n = 10, 71.4%; autosomal-recessive: n = 4, 28.6%) CGD patients with gastrointestinal (n = 12, 85.7%), pulmonary (n = 10, 71.4%), cutaneous (n = 3, 21.4%), and/or genitourinary (n = 2, 14.3%) inflammatory manifestations received one or more doses of infliximab because of steroid-dependent (n = 7, 50%), refractory (n = 4, 28.6%) inflammatory disease or as first-line drug (n = 2, 14.3%; missing data, n = 1). All patients received adequate antimicrobial prophylaxis. Infliximab achieved complete (n = 2, 14.3%) or partial (n = 9, 64.3%) response in 11 (78.6%) patients. Seven (50%) patients were switched to adalimumab. During anti-TNF-α treatment, 11 infections (pneumonia, adenitis, invasive candidiasis, each n = 2; intra-abdominal abscess, bacteremic salmonellosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa-related folliculitis, cat-scratch disease, proven pulmonary mucormycosis, each n = 1) occurred in 7 (50%) patients. All infectious complications had a favorable outcome. Anti-TNF-α treatment was definitively stopped because of infection in two patients. Nine (64.3%) patients finally underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. No death occurred during follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-TNF-α treatment could improve the outcome of severe inflammatory complications in CGD patients, but increases their risk of infections. We suggest that anti-TNF-α treatment might be of short-term benefit in selected CGD patients with severe inflammatory complications awaiting hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

2.
J Immunol ; 205(11): 2979-2987, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115853

RESUMO

Mutations in two genes can result in activated PI3Kδ syndrome (APDS), a rare immunodeficiency disease with limited therapeutic options. Seletalisib, a potent, selective PI3Kδ inhibitor, was evaluated in patients with APDS1 and APDS2. In the phase 1b study (European Clinical Trials Database 2015-002900-10) patients with genetic and clinical confirmation of APDS1 or APDS2 received 15-25 mg/d seletalisib for 12 wk. Patients could enter an extension study (European Clinical Trials Database 2015-005541). Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, with exploratory efficacy and immunology endpoints. Seven patients (median age 15 years; APDS1 n = 3; APDS2 n = 4) received seletalisib; five completed the phase 1b study. For the extension study, four patients entered, one withdrew consent (week 24), three completed ≥84 wk of treatment. In the phase 1b study, patients had improved peripheral lymphadenopathy (n = 2), lung function (n = 1), thrombocyte counts (n = 1), and chronic enteropathy (n = 1). Overall, effects were maintained in the extension. In the phase 1b study, percentages of transitional B cells decreased, naive B cells increased, and senescent CD8 T cells decreased (human cells); effects were generally maintained in the extension. Seletalisib-related adverse events occurred in four of seven patients (phase 1b study: hepatic enzyme increased, dizziness, aphthous ulcer, arthralgia, arthritis, increased appetite, increased weight, restlessness, tendon disorder, and potential drug-induced liver injury) and one of four patients had adverse events in the extension (aphthous ulcer). Serious adverse events occurred in three of seven patients (phase 1b study: hospitalization, colitis, and potential drug-induced liver injury) and one of four patients had adverse events in the extension (stomatitis). Patients with APDS receiving seletalisib had improvements in variable clinical and immunological features, and a favorable risk-benefit profile was maintained for ≤96 wk.

4.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32812031

RESUMO

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) preferentially infects epithelial cells and B lymphocytes and sometimes T and NK lymphocytes. Persistence of EBV-infected cells results in severe lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs). Diagnosis of EBV-driven T or NK cell LPD and chronic active EBV diseases (CAEBV) is difficult, often requiring biopsies. Herein, we report a flow-FISH cytometry assay that detects cells expressing EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs), allowing rapid identification of EBV-infected cells among PBMCs. EBV-infected B, T, and/or NK cells were detectable in various LPD conditions. Diagnosis of CAEBV in 22 patients of Caucasian and African origins was established. All exhibited circulating EBV-infected T and/or NK cells, highlighting that CAEBV is not restricted to native American and Asian populations. Proportions of EBV-infected cells correlated with blood EBV loads. We showed that EBV-infected T cells had an effector memory activated phenotype, whereas EBV-infected B cells expressed plasma cell differentiation markers. Thus, this method achieves accurate and unambiguous diagnoses of different forms of EBV-driven LPD and represents a powerful tool to study their pathophysiological mechanisms.

5.
J Clin Apher ; 2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854142

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation of cytokine-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) is increasingly used to treat patients with hematologic disorders. Different types of vascular access have been exploited for the apheresis procedure, including peripheral veins (PV) and central venous catheter (CVC). In some cases, PV access is unavailable. There are few published data on the efficiency and quality of harvesting with different types of vascular access. This study brings out complications and morbidity of this procedure linked to these different access. METHODS: We performed a comparative, retrospective, single-center study of hematopoietic stem cell collection using these two types of vascular access. We compared the efficiency and complication rate for 617 adults apheresis sessions in 401 patients and healthy donors, for PBSC collection via PV or CVC between 2010 and 2016. The quality of the HSC product was evaluated in terms of the total CD34 + count and neutrophil contamination. RESULTS: The PV and CVC groups did not differ significantly in terms of the quality of the apheresis product, mean ± SD CD34 + cells collected in PV group was 383.1 ± 402.7 × 10e6 and 298.8 ± 372.7 × 10e6 and the level of neutrophil contamination was 21.0 ± 17.8% in the PV group and 20.6 ± 18.4% in the CVC group. The complication rate did not differ between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The type of vascular access for apheresis hematopoietic stem cell harvesting must be determined by trained staff. Successful harvesting can be performed via PV then CVC is not needed or not available.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(23): 2647-2657, 2020 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574117

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We report a multicenter controlled trial comparing renal recovery and tolerance profile of doublet versus triplet bortezomib-based regimens in patients with initial myeloma cast nephropathy (CN) and acute kidney injury (AKI) without need for dialysis. METHODS: After symptomatic measures and high-dose dexamethasone, patients were randomly assigned to receive bortezomib plus dexamethasone (BD), or BD plus cyclophosphamide (C-BD). In patients with < 50% reduction of serum free light chains (sFLCs) after 3 cycles, chemotherapy was reinforced with either cyclophosphamide (BD group) or thalidomide (C-BD group). RESULTS: Ninety-two patients were enrolled in each group. At random assignment, characteristics of the 2 groups were similar, including median age (68 years) and serum creatinine level (305.5 and 273.5 µmol/L in BD and C-BD group, respectively). At 3 months, renal response rate (primary end point) was not different (41 v 47 responders in the BD and C-BD groups, respectively; relative risk [RR], 0.87; P = .46). Very good partial response (free light chain reduction ≥ 90%) or more was achieved in 36 and 47 patients, respectively (RR, 0.76; P = .10). After 1 cycle of chemotherapy, 69 in the BD group and 67 patients in the C-BD group had achieved sFLC level ≤ 500 mg/L. Serious adverse events were recorded in 30 and 40 patients, respectively. At 12 months, 19 patients had died (9 in the BD group v 10 in the C-BD group), including 10 (6 in the BD group and 4 in the C-BD group) from myeloma progression and 3 (0 in the BD group and 3 in the C-BD group) from infection. Within median follow-up of 27 months, 43 and 42 patients switched to new therapy, respectively. Overall, 50 patients (24 in the BD group and 26 in the C-BD group) had died. CONCLUSION: This randomized study did not show any benefit of C-BD compared with BD on renal recovery of patients with initial CN not requiring dialysis. Adding cyclophosphamide did not sufficiently improve the efficacy-toxicity balance. Patients with myeloma with AKI are fragile, and indication for doublet or triplet regimen should be adapted to frailty.

9.
Leukemia ; 2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555298

RESUMO

Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) carries a poor prognosis even in indolent subtypes. We performed targeted deep sequencing combined with mapping of HTLV-1 proviral integration sites of 61 ATL patients of African and Caribbean origin. This revealed mutations mainly affecting TCR/NF-kB (74%), T-cell trafficking (46%), immune escape (29%), and cell cycle (26%) related pathways, consistent with the genomic landscape previously reported in a large Japanese cohort. To examine the evolution of mutational signatures upon disease progression while tracking the viral integration architecture of the malignant clone, we carried out a longitudinal study of patients who either relapsed or progressed from an indolent to an aggressive subtype. Serial analysis of relapsing patients identified several patterns of clonal evolution. In progressing patients, the longitudinal study revealed NF-kB/NFAT mutations at progression that were present at a subclonal level at diagnosis (allelic frequency < 5%). Moreover, the presence in indolent subtypes of mutations affecting the TCR/NF-kB pathway, whether clonal or subclonal, was associated with significantly shorter time to progression and overall survival. Our observations reveal the clonal dynamics of ATL mutational signatures at relapse and during progression. Our study defines a new subgroup of indolent ATLs characterized by a mutational signature at high risk of transformation.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(5): 752-762, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562208

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the CYBB gene (located on Xp21.1). Patients with large deletions on chromosome Xp21.1 can present with the McLeod phenotype and also Duchenne muscular dystrophy or retinitis pigmentosa. The objective of the present study was to describe a series of French patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from the medical records of 8 patients with CGD and the McLeod phenotype registered at the French National Reference Center for blood types. RESULTS: The median age at diagnosis of CGD was 1.2 years, the median age at diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype was 4.5 years, and the median length of follow-up was 15.2 years. Four patients displayed allo-immunization, with anti-KEL20 and anti-XK1 (formerly known as anti-KL) antibodies. Five of the 6 patients with available blood smears had acanthocytosis. Neuropsychiatric, muscle-related, and ocular manifestations were present in 4, 2, and 1 of the patients, respectively. Three of the 4 patients having undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are alive. Overall, 5 patients are alive, and 3 are alive and well. CONCLUSION: This is the largest yet descriptive study of a series of patients with X-linked CGD and the McLeod phenotype. Although this disease combination is rare, the timely, accurate diagnosis of the McLeod phenotype is critical because of the serious post-transfusion complications. However, HSCT can be considered in these patients.

11.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 56, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429979

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peripheral T cell lymphomas form a heterogeneous group with a usually dismal prognostic. The place of allogeneic stem cell transplantation to treat PTCL is debated. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), relapse, and transplant-related mortality (TRM) and associated variables in 285 adults with non-primary cutaneous PTCL (PCTL-NOS (39%), angioimmunoblastic T cell lymphomas (29%), anaplastic T cell lymphomas (15%), and other subtypes (17%)), who received alloSCT in 34 centers between 2006 and 2014. RESULTS: AlloSCT was given as part of front-line therapy (n = 138) to 93 patients in first complete response (CR) and 45 in first partial response (PR), and of salvage therapy (n = 147) to 116 patients for second or more CR/PR and 31 for progressive disease. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) was given to 172 patients (62%), while 107 (38%) received myeloablative conditioning (MAC). The median follow-up was 72.4 months. The 2- and 4-year OS were 65% and 59%, respectively, and the cumulative incidence of relapse was 18% after 1 year and 19% after 2 years. TRM was 21% at 1 year, 24% after 2 years, and 28% after 4 years. In multivariate analysis, grade III-IV acute GvHD (HR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.53-4.31; p = 0.00036), low Karnofsky score < 80% (HR = 5.14, 95% CI 2.02-13.06; p = 0.00058), and progressive disease status before transplant (HR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.25-3.89; p = 0.0062) were significantly associated with a reduced OS. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrate in the largest retrospective cohort of non-cutaneous PTCL so far reported that alloSCT after RIC or MAC is an effective strategy, even in chemoresistant patients.

12.
Retrovirology ; 17(1): 5, 2020 03 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is an aggressive mature lymphoid proliferation associated with poor prognosis. Standard of care includes chemotherapy and/or the combination of zidovudine and interferon-alpha. However, most patients experience relapse less than 6 months after diagnosis. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment, but is only feasible in a minority of cases. We previously showed in a mouse model that Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) targets ATL leukemia initiating cells. RESULTS: As2O3 consolidation was given in 9 patients with ATL (lymphoma n = 4; acute n = 2; and indolent n = 3), who were in complete (n = 4) and partial (n = 3) remission, in stable (n = 1) and in progressive (n = 1) disease. Patients received up to 8 weeks of As2O3 at the dose of 0.15 mg/kg/day intravenously in combination with zidovudine and interferon-alpha. One patient in progression died rapidly. Of the remaining eight patients, three with indolent ATL subtype showed overall survivals of 48, 53 and 97 months, and duration of response to As2O3 of 22, 25 and 73 months. The other 5 patients with aggressive ATL subtype had median OS of 36 months and a median duration of response of 10 months. Side effects were mostly hematological and cutaneous (one grade 3) and reversible with dose reduction of AZT/IFN and/or As2O3 discontinuation. The virus integration analysis revealed the regression of the predominant malignant clone in one patient with a chronic subtype. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that consolidation with As2O3 could be an option for patients with ATL in response after induction therapy and who are not eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(4)2020 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218280

RESUMO

Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive disease with late diagnosis and no efficacious treatment. The Hippo-Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) signaling pathway has emerged as a target for the development of new therapeutic interventions in cancers. However, the role of the Hippo-targeted therapy has not been addressed in advanced gallbladder cancer (GBC). This study aimed to evaluate the expression of the major Hippo pathway components mammalian Ste20-like protein kinase 1 (MST1), YAP1 and transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ) and examined the effects of Verteporfin (VP), a small molecular inhibitor of YAP1-TEA domain transcription factor (TEAD) protein interaction, in metastatic GBC cell lines and patient-derived organoids (PDOs). Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that advanced GBC patients had high nuclear expression of YAP1. High nuclear expression of YAP1 was associated with poor survival in GBC patients with subserosal invasion (pT2). Additionally, advanced GBC cases showed reduced expression of MST1 compared to chronic cholecystitis. Both VP treatment and YAP1 siRNA inhibited the migration ability in GBC cell lines. Interestingly, gemcitabine resistant PDOs with high nuclear expression of YAP1 were sensitive to VP treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that key components of the Hippo-YAP1 signaling pathway are dysregulated in advanced gallbladder cancer and reveal that the inhibition YAP1 may be a candidate for targeted therapy.

14.
Blood ; 135(13): 1058-1061, 2020 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005988
16.
Haematologica ; 105(1): 91-101, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097628

RESUMO

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation remains the only curative treatment for sickle cell anemia (SCA), but the place of myeloablative conditioning in the procedure remains to be defined. The aim of the present study was to analyze long-term outcomes, including chimerism, SCA-related events and biological data (hemoglobin, reticulocytes, HbS%), and fertility in a French series of 234 SCA patients under 30 years of age who, from 1988 to 2012, received a matched-sibling-donor stem cell transplantation following standardized myeloablative conditioning [busulfan, cyclophosphamide and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (ATG)]. Since the first report of the series (1988-2004), 151 new consecutive patients with SCA have been similarly transplanted. Considering death, non-engraftment or rejection (donor cells <5%) as events, the 5-year event-free survival was 97.9% (95% confidence interval: 95.5-100%), confirming, since the year 2000, an at least 95% chance of cure. In the overall cohort (n=234, median follow up 7.9 years), event-free survival was not associated with age, but chronic-graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) was independently associated with recipient's age >15 years (hazard ratio=4.37; P=0.002) and lower (5-15 vs 20 mg/kg) ATG dose (hazard ratio=4.55; P=0.001). At one year, 44% of patients had mixed chimerism (5-95% donor cells), but those prepared with ATG had no graft rejection. No events related to SCA occurred in patients with mixed chimerism, even those with 15-20% donor cells, but hemolytic anemia stigmata were observed with donor cells <50%. Myeloablative transplantation with matched-sibling donor currently has a higher event-free survival (98%) in patients under 30 years of age than that reported for non-myeloablative conditioning (88%). Nevertheless, the risk of cGvHD in older patients and the need to preserve fertility might be indications for a non-myeloablative conditioning.

17.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 275, 2019 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31801528

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a heterogeneous disease depending on etiology. It represents the most frequent non-infectious pulmonary complication of primary immunodeficiencies (PID). We investigated whether bronchiectasis associated with PID had a distinct course in comparison to bronchiectasis of other causes. METHODS: Retrospective single-center study of adult patients diagnosed with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis with more than 5 years of follow-up and at least 4 pulmonary functional tests available at one year apart. They were divided into three groups: PID- related bronchiectasis, idiopathic/post infectious-related bronchiectasis and other causes of bronchiectasis. Respiratory functional data and clinical outcomes were compared. RESULTS: Of 329 patients with bronchiectasis diagnosed in Foch Hospital (Suresnes, France), 98 patients fulfilled the selected criteria (20 PID-related cases, 39 idiopathic or post-infectious cases, and 39 cases with other causes). Median time of follow-up was 9.5 years. Groups were similar concerning initial characteristics (female 70.4%, never smokers 59.2%, mild severity bronchiectasis according to the FACED score and median FEV1 at diagnosis 73.5% predicted values [Q1-Q3: 53.75-90.5]), except PID patients who were younger (median age of 51.5 vs 62 years, p = 0.02). Eighty-five percent of PID patients received immunoglobulin substitution (median trough level was measured at 10.5 g/dl [10;10.92]). Global median FEV1 annual decline was 25.03 ml/year [8.16;43.9] and 19.82 ml/year [16.08;48.02] in the PID patients group. Forty-five percent of patients had bacterial colonization, pneumoniae occurred in 56% of patients and median exacerbation annual rate was 0.8 [0.3-1.4]. Hemoptysis occurred in 31.6% of patients. Global mortality rate was 11.2%. We did not record any significant difference for all clinical and functional outcomes between patients with PID and other etiologies. The median decline in FEV1 was similar in the three groups. CONCLUSIONS: The course of PID-related bronchiectasis was similar to bronchiectasis of other causes. Provided that patients receive immunoglobulin replacement, the course of PID-related bronchiectasis seems to be independent of the underlying immune disorder.


Assuntos
Bronquiectasia/diagnóstico , Bronquiectasia/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/diagnóstico , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Fibrose Cística , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida , Centros de Atenção Terciária
19.
Rev Prat ; 69(6): 659-665, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626429

RESUMO

Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) include rare and heterogeneous syndromes due to genetic abnormalities involving the immune system. In the registry of the French National Reference Center for Primary Immune Deficiencies (CEREDIH), the median age of clinical onset is 2 years, but 25% of patients develop the first symptoms after 15 years. A diagnosis of PID should be considered in the presence of an unusual association of infections, autoimmune pathologies, granulomatous disease, polyclonal lymphoproliferation or atypical lymphoma. PID management currently benefits from new antibiotic prophylaxis, the improvement of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation procedure and the development of gene therapy. In addition, the understanding of the pathophysi ological mechanisms led to new treatments targeting the pathways implicated by the genetic defects. In this review, we briefly recall the classification of PID. We illustrate the problem of PID in adults with clinical cases and then summarize the main principles of management in adults PID patients.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Terapia Genética , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Sistema de Registros
20.
Br J Haematol ; 187(1): 65-72, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215036

RESUMO

The treatment of relapsed/refractory (R/R) acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) remains a challenge. Among salvage chemotherapy regimens, the clofarabine and cytarabine (CLARA) combination has been widely evaluated and has a favourable safety/efficacy balance. Predictive factors of efficacy in patients with R/R AML are unclear, particularly the impact of AML-related gene mutations. We report our single-centre experience on 34 R/R AML patients treated with CLARA, with a focus on the genetic characterization of our cohort. CLARA yielded a 47% response rate among this poor-prognosis AML population, while two patients (5·8%) died due to treatment-related toxicity. The two-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 29·4% and 35·3%, respectively. Nine patients (26%) had long-term response with a median follow-up of 39·5 months among the responders, of whom six underwent haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Adverse karyotype did not correlate with response or survival, and secondary AML were more frequent among responders to CLARA, suggesting that this combination may successfully salvage R/R AML patients regardless of adverse prognostic markers. We also observed that a low mutational burden and absence of splice mutations correlated with prolonged survival after CLARA, suggesting that extensive genotyping may have prognostic implications in R/R AML.

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