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1.
Hypertens Res ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477871

RESUMO

A reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has been described as a predictor of heart failure (HF). However, the increased risk across eGFR categories has not been fully evaluated, which is especially relevant in older individuals in whom both the prevalence of HF and decreased eGFR are higher. Furthermore, this association has not been studied in Mediterranean populations, where coronary heart disease (CHD), a frequent cause of HF, has a low prevalence. We performed a retrospective cohort study using the electronic medical records from primary and hospital settings in northeastern Spain. We included 125,053 individuals ≥60 years old with the determination of creatinine and without diagnosis or previous admission due to HF. The eGFR was calculated according to the CKD-EPI formula and classified by clinical categories. The association between eGFR, as a continuous and categorical variable, and the risk of admission due to HF was assessed by Cox proportional risk analysis, considering death as a competitive risk. During a median follow-up of 38.8 months, 2,176 individuals (1.74%) were hospitalized due to HF. The unadjusted admission rates were 4.02, 13.0, 26.0, and 48.6 per 1000 person-years for eGFR > 60, 45-59, 30-44, and 15-29 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios (95% confidence interval; reference eGFR 60-89) were 1.38 (95% CI 1.23-1.55), 2.02 (95% CI 1.76-2.32) and 3.46 (95% CI 2.78-4.31). In this Mediterranean community-based cohort of individuals ≥60 years old without previous HF, the risk of admission due to HF gradually increased with decreasing eGFR.

2.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31288988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Bariatric surgery (BS) leads to several changes in nutritional habits that can be attributed to different mechanisms. Some of these changes could be achievable with a preoperative nutritional intervention. The objective was to evaluate dietary modifications during the preoperative and postoperative periods of BS. METHODS: Prospective observational study of patients who underwent BS between 2010 and 2014 at the Hospital del Mar; 60 consecutive patients were included. Food consumption was measured by a validated food-frequency questionnaire at inclusion in the bariatric surgery program, after preoperative nutritional intervention, and one year after surgery. Generalized estimating equation models were used to assess differences in food group intake during follow up. RESULTS: Energy intake significantly decreased from inclusion to 1 year of surgery (p=0.003). After the preoperative intervention and prior to surgery, there was an increase in intake of nuts, vegetables, poultry and rabbit, fruit, fish and skimmed milk products and a decrease in bread, soft drinks and pastry. At one year post-surgery, a continued decrease in the consumption of bread and soft drinks and an increase in nuts was observed (linear non-quadratic trend). Consumption of fruit, pastry, fish and skimmed milk products remained stable showing a linear and quadratic trend. Vegetables and poultry and rabbit increased in the preoperative period and decreased after surgery, showing a quadratic but not linear trend. CONCLUSIONS: a preoperative nutritional intervention in morbidly obese patients can associate favorable dietary changes that are mostly maintained one year after bariatric surgery.

3.
Environ Res ; 176: 108550, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260916

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Limited evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms may partially mediate the adverse effects of air pollution on health. Our aims were to identify new genomic loci showing differential DNA methylation associated with long-term exposure to air pollution and to replicate loci previously identified in other studies. METHODS: A two-stage epigenome-wide association study was designed: 630 individuals from the REGICOR study were included in the discovery and 454 participants of the EPIC-Italy study in the validation stage. DNA methylation was assessed using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. NOX, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, PMcoarse, traffic intensity and traffic load exposure were measured according to the ESCAPE protocol. A systematic review was undertaken to identify those cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpGs) associated with air pollution in previous studies and we screened for them in the discovery study. RESULTS: In the discovery stage of the epigenome-wide association study, 81 unique CpGs were associated with air pollution (p-value <10-5) but none of them were validated in the replication sample. Furthermore, we identified 15 CpGs in the systematic review showing differential methylation with a p-value fulfilling the Bonferroni criteria and 1673 CpGs fulfilling the false discovery rate criteria, all of which were related to PM2.5 or NO2. None of them was replicated in the discovery study, in which the top hits were located in an intergenic region on chromosome 1 (cg10893043, p-value = 6.79·10-5) and in the LRRC45 and PXK genes (cg05088605, p-value = 2.15·10-04; cg16560256, p-value = 2.23·10-04). CONCLUSIONS: Neither new genomic loci associated with long-term air pollution were identified, nor previously identified loci were replicated. Continued efforts to test this potential association are warranted.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357534

RESUMO

The consumption of antioxidant-rich foods such as virgin olive oil (VOO) promotes high-density lipoprotein (HDL) anti-atherogenic capacities. Intake of functional VOOs (enriched with olive/thyme phenolic compounds (PCs)) also improves HDL functions, but the gene expression changes behind these benefits are not fully understood. Our aim was to determine whether these functional VOOs could enhance the expression of cholesterol efflux-related genes. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled trial, 22 hypercholesterolemic subjects ingested for three weeks 25 mL/day of: (1) a functional VOO enriched with olive oil PCs (500 mg/kg); (2) a functional VOO enriched with olive oil (250 mg/kg) and thyme PCs (250 mg/kg; FVOOT), and; (3) a natural VOO (olive oil PCs: 80 mg/kg, control intervention). We assessed whether these interventions improved the expression of cholesterol efflux-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions. The FVOOT intervention upregulated the expression of CYP27A1 (P = 0.041 and P = 0.053, versus baseline and the control intervention, respectively), CAV1 (P = 0.070, versus the control intervention), and LXRß, RXRα, and PPARß/δ (P = 0.005, P = 0.005, and P = 0.038, respectively, relative to the baseline). The consumption of a functional VOO enriched with olive oil and thyme PCs enhanced the expression of key cholesterol efflux regulators, such as CYP27A1 and nuclear receptor-related genes.

5.
Atherosclerosis ; 287: 93-99, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247347

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to determine whether circulating sLRP1 levels are associated with future coronary events and improve the predictive capacity of the REGICOR (Registre Gironí del Cor) risk function. METHODS: We conducted a case-cohort study based on the follow-up of the REGICOR population-based cohort. Of the 5,404 participants aged between 35 and 74 years, without previous history of cardiovascular disease, 117 subjects with angina or fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction were included, and 512 individuals were randomly selected as a subcohort (including 14 patients who presented coronary events). sLRP1 levels were measured in basal plasma samples by commercial ELISA. Hazard ratio (HR) was estimated with Cox models adjusted for potential confounding factors. Discrimination and reclassification were analyzed with the c-index and the net reclassification index (NRI), respectively. A Mendelian randomization approach was used to explore the causality of the association between sLRP1 and coronary artery disease (CAD). RESULTS: The group of participants who presented a CAD event showed higher levels of sLRP1 than the subcohort (2.45 [0.43; 8.31] vs. 2.07 [0.40; 6.65] µg/mL, p < 0.001). sLRP1 was significantly associated with CAD events even after adjustment for confounding factors (adjusted HR per standard deviation = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.01-1.67, p = 0.039). sLRP1 did not increase the predictive capacity or improve cardiovascular risk stratification of the REGICOR function. The LRP1 genetic variants associated with CAD risk were not related to sLRP1 concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma sLRP1 is independently associated with the incidence of coronary events, but it does not improve the predictive capacity of the REGICOR risk function.

6.
Eur J Haematol ; 102(6): 509-515, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30972815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and a cardiovascular (CV) risk score named FRESCO for predicting anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (AIC) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). METHODS: A total of 130 consecutive DLBCL patients treated in first-line with anthracycline-containing immunochemotherapy. Competitive risk between NT-proBNP, FRESCO, and time to AIC was considered. RESULTS: Cumulative incidence of AIC was 12.2% and 17.5% at 1 and 5 years, respectively. Median time to development cardiotoxicity was 6.4 months, with half of the cases showing heart failure and the other half silent AIC. Both NT-proBNP levels and FRESCO score were independently associated with higher risk of AIC (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Patients with NT-proBNP ≥600 pg/mL or those with FRESCO ≥4.5% had 3.97 or 2.54 times higher risk of AIC than those with lower values (P = 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively). According to the previous cutoffs, three groups of patients with a significantly different risk of AIC could be identified (P < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy is associated with increased risk of silent and overt AIC. Baseline NT-proBNP levels and FRESCO CV risk score are accurate predictors of AIC and can identify groups of patients at different risk, in which personalized cardiologic evaluation should be offered.

7.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 68, 2019 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30700322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To apply a systems pathology-based approach to the quantification of nuclear Active ß-catenin and human leukocyte antigen class I, and assess the biomarker involvement in a cohort of prostate tumor patients. RESULTS: The systems pathology approach applied allows a precise quantification of the marker expression in the different cell compartments as well as the determination of the areas that coexpress two markers. Our data shows that the accumulation of ß-catenin in the nuclear compartment is significantly decreased in the adjacent normal areas when compared to tumor of the same patients (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the application of this novel multiple immunofluorescence assay demonstrates that the upregulation of Active ß-catenin is a relatively common feature of prostate tumor development, and further supports the activation of the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway in prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , beta Catenina/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Imunofluorescência , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Regulação para Cima
8.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709697

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Individuals with mild to moderately decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR=30-59 mL/min/1.73 m2) are considered at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). No studies have compared this risk in eGFR=30-59, diabetes mellitus (DM), and coronary heart disease (CHD) in regions with a low incidence of CHD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of 122 443 individuals aged 60-84 years from a region with a low CHD incidence with creatinine measured between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011. We identified hospital admissions due to CHD (myocardial infarction, angina) or CVD (CHD, stroke, or transient ischemic attack) from electronic medical records up to December 31, 2013. We estimated incidence rates and Cox regression adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio (sHR) including competing risks in patients with eGFR=30-59, DM and CHD, or combinations, compared with individuals without these diseases. RESULTS: The median follow-up was 38.3 [IQR, 33.8-42.7] months. Adjusted sHR for CHD in individuals with eGFR=30-59, DM, eGFR=30-59 plus DM, previous CHD, CHD plus DM, and CHD plus eGFR=30-59 plus DM, were 1.34 (95%CI, 1.04-1.74), 1.61 (95%CI, 1.36-1.90), 1.96 (95%CI, 1.42-2.70), 4.33 (95%CI, 3.58-5.25), 7.05 (5.80-8.58) and 7.72 (5.72-10.41), respectively. The corresponding sHR for CVD were 1.25 (95%CI, 1.06-1.46), 1.56 (95%CI, 1.41-1.74), 1.83 (95%CI, 1.50-2.23), 2.86 (95%CI, 2.48-3.29), 4.54 (95%CI, 3.93-5.24), and 5.33 (95%CI, 4.31-6.60). CONCLUSIONS: In 60- to 84-year-olds with eGFR=30-59, similarly to DM, the likelihood of being admitted to hospital for CHD and CVD was about half that of individuals with established CHD. Thus, eGFR=30-59 does not appear to be a coronary-risk equivalent. Individuals with CHD and DM, or eGFR=30-59 plus DM, should be prioritized for more intensive risk management.

10.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(11): 910-916, nov. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178945

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: La inclusión de biomarcadores en las funciones de riesgo clásicas puede mejorar la estimación del riesgo. Los objetivos del estudio son determinar la asociación entre las concentraciones de apolipoproteína A1 (apoA1), apolipoproteína B (apoB), albúmina y 25-OH-vitamina D circulantes y la incidencia de eventos coronarios y analizar si estos biomarcadores mejoran la capacidad predictiva de la función REGICOR. Métodos: Estudio de cohorte de casos. De una cohorte inicial de 5.404 participantes con edades entre los 35 y los 74 años y 5 años de seguimiento, se seleccionó a todos los que presentaron un evento coronario (n = 117) y una subcohorte elegida al azar de 667 participantes. Finalmente, se incluyó a 105 casos y 651 participantes de la subcohorte con muestra biológica disponible. Los eventos de interés fueron la aparición de angina, infarto de miocardio mortal o no mortal y muerte por enfermedad coronaria. Resultados: Los casos eran de más edad, tenían mayores proporciones de varones y factores de riesgo clásicos y concentraciones de apoB, y menores concentraciones de apoA1, cociente apoA1/apoB, 25-OH-vitamina D y albúmina que el grupo control. Al ajustar por los factores de riesgo clásicos, el único biomarcador que mantuvo la asociación con eventos coronarios fue la albúmina plasmática (HR = 0,73; p = 0,002). Además, las concentraciones de albúmina permitieron reclasificar correctamente a un número significativo de participantes, especialmente en la categoría de riesgo moderado (mejora neta en la reclasificación = 32,3; p = 0,048). Conclusiones: La albúmina plasmática se asocia independiente e inversamente con el riesgo de eventos coronarios y mejora la capacidad predictiva de la función de riesgo REGICOR


Introduction and objectives: New biomarkers could improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions. The aims of this study were to determine the association between circulating levels of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB), albumin, and 25-OH-vitamin D and coronary events and to analyze whether these biomarkers improve the predictive capacity of the Framingham-REGICOR risk function. Methods: A case-cohort study was designed. From an initial cohort of 5404 individuals aged 35 to 74 years with a 5-year follow-up, all the participants who had a coronary event (n = 117) and a random group of the cohort (subcohort; n = 667) were selected. Finally, 105 cases and 651 individuals representative of the cohort with an available biological sample were included. The events of interest were angina, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary deaths. Results: Case participants were older, had a higher proportion of men and cardiovascular risk factors, and showed higher levels of apoB and lower levels of apoA1, apoA1/apoB ratio, 25-OH-vitamin D and albumin than the subcohort. In multivariate analyses, plasma albumin concentration was the only biomarker independently associated with coronary events (HR, 0.73; P = .002). The inclusion of albumin in the risk function properly reclassified a significant proportion of individuals, especially in the intermediate risk group (net reclassification improvement, 32.3; P = .048). Conclusions: Plasma albumin levels are inversely associated with coronary risk and improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Albumina Sérica/análise , Apolipoproteínas A/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia
11.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(9): 718-725, sept. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178777

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Los objetivos son determinar las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad, y la mortalidad poblacional y hospitalaria por infarto agudo de miocardio (IAM) de la población mayor de 74 años, la variabilidad en las características clínicas y el tratamiento de los pacientes hospitalizados, y los cambios en las tasas de incidencia y mortalidad, en la letalidad hospitalaria y en el tratamiento del IAM por grupos de edad entre 1996-1997 y 2007-2008. Métodos: Registro poblacional de IAM en Girona (Cataluña) que incluyó a pacientes con IAM mayores de 34 años. Resultados: La tasa de incidencia aumentó con la edad en varones y mujeres, respectivamente, de 169 y 28 casos/100.000/año en el grupo de 35-64 años a 2.306 y 1.384 casos/100.000/año en el de 85-94 años. La letalidad poblacional también aumentó con la edad, del 19% en el grupo de 35-64 años al 84% en el de 85-94 años. Se observó un descenso en la letalidad poblacional en el segundo periodo analizado, explicado por un descenso en la letalidad hospitalaria. El uso de procedimientos invasivos y fármacos de eficacia demostrada disminuyó con la edad, aunque aumentó en el segundo periodo en todos los grupos de edad hasta los 84 años. Conclusiones: La incidencia, la mortalidad y la letalidad hospitalaria del IAM aumentaron exponencialmente con la edad. Todavía se observan diferencias en el uso de procedimientos invasivos y fármacos de eficacia demostrada entre grupos de edad


Introduction and objectives: Our aims were to determine acute myocardial infarction (AMI) incidence and mortality rates, and population and in-hospital case-fatality in the population older than 74 years; variability in clinical characteristics and AMI management of hospitalized patients, and changes in the incidence and mortality rates, case-fatality, and management by age groups from 1996 to 1997 and 2007 to 2008. Methods: A population-based AMI registry in Girona (Catalonia, Spain) including individuals with suspected AMI older than 34 years. Results: The incidence rate increased with age from 169 and 28 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 2306 and 1384 cases/100 000 per year in the group aged 85 to 94 years, in men and women, respectively. Population case-fatality also increased with age, from 19% in the group aged 35 to 64 years to 84% in the group aged 85 to 94 years. A lower population case-fatality was observed in the second period, mainly explained by a lower in-hospital case-fatality. The use of invasive procedures and effective drugs decreased with age but increased in the second period in all ages up to 84 years. Conclusions: Acute myocardial infarction incidence, mortality, and case-fatality increased exponentially with age. There is still a gap in the use of invasive procedures and effective drugs between younger and older patients


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Incidência , Mortalidade , Mortalidade , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , Fatores de Risco , Biomarcadores/análise , Infarto do Miocárdio/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Eur J Pediatr ; 177(10): 1531-1539, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30027297

RESUMO

Results of community-based childhood obesity intervention programs do not provide strong evidence for their effectiveness. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the Thao-Child Health Program (TCHP), a community-based, multisetting, multistrategy intervention program for healthy weight development and lifestyle choices. In four Catalan cities, a total of 2250 children aged 8 to 10 years were recruited. Two cities were randomly selected for the TCHP intervention, and two cities followed usual health care policy. Children were selected from 41 elementary schools. Weight, height, and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 15 months. Physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet were measured with validated questionnaires. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) models were fitted to determine the intervention's effect on body mass index (BMI) z-score, waist-to-height ratio, Mediterranean diet adherence, and physical activity. Fully adjusted models revealed that the intervention had no significant effect on the BMI z-score, incidence of general and abdominal obesity, Mediterranean diet adherence, and physical activity. Waist-to-height ratio was significantly lower in controls than in the intervention group at follow-up (p < 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The TCHP did not improve weight development, diet quality, and physical activity in the short term. What is Known: • There is inconsistent evidence for the efficacy of school-based childhood obesity prevention programs. • There is little evidence on the efficacy of childhood obesity intervention programs in other settings. What is New: • This paper contributes information about the efficacy of a multisetting and multistrategy Community Based Intervention (CBI) program that uses the municipality as its unit of randomization. • This CBI had no effect on the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity in the short term.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade Pediátrica/prevenção & controle , Antropometria , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Exercício , Feminino , Seguimentos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Incidência , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Características de Residência , Espanha
13.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(6): 450-457, jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178557

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos: Los individuos con tasa de filtrado glomerular estimada (TFGe) disminuida tienen mayor riesgo de muerte por todas las causas (MT) y cardiovascular; se debate si los sujetos mayores con TFGe entre 45 y 59 ml/min/1,73 m2 también tienen un riesgo aumentado. Se evaluó la asociación entre la TFGe y la MT y los eventos cardiovasculares (ECV) en individuos de edad 60-74 y ≥ 75 años en un área de baja incidencia de enfermedad coronaria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de cohortes utilizando registros electrónicos de atención primaria y hospital. Se incluyó a 130.233 individuos de 60 o más años con una determinación de creatinina entre el 1 de enero de 2010 y el 31 de diciembre de 2011 y una TFGe según la fórmula de la Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration. Las asociaciones independientes entre la TFGe y la MT y el ingreso por ECV se evaluaron mediante modelos de regresión de Cox y Fine-Gray respectivamente. Resultados: Media de edad, 70 años; el 56,1% eran mujeres. El 13,5% tenía una TFGe < 60 (el 69,7%, TFGe 45-59). Durante una mediana de seguimiento de 38,2 meses, 6.474 participantes fallecieron y 3.746 presentaron ECV. Tanto para la MT como para los ECV, las HR ajustadas de los participantes de 75 o más años fueron significativas con TFGe < 60. Con TFGe 45-59, para MT fueron HR = 1,61; IC95%, 1,37-1,89 y HR = 1,19; IC95%, 1,10-1,28 en los grupos de edad de 60-74 y ≥ 75 años respectivamente, y para ECV, HR = 1,28; IC95%, 1,08-1,51 y HR = 1,12; IC95%, 0,99-1,26. Conclusiones: En un área de baja incidencia de enfermedad coronaria, el riesgo de muerte y ECV fue de mayor a menor TFGe. A edades ≥ 75 años, la categoría de TFGe 45-59, en el límite significativo de ECV, incluyó a muchos individuos sin riesgo adicional significativo


Introduction and objectives: Individuals with a decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) are at increased risk of all-cause (ACM) and cardiovascular mortality; there is ongoing debate about whether older individuals with eGFR 45 to 59 mL/min/1.73 m2 are also at increased risk. We evaluated the association between eGFR and ACM and cardiovascular events (CVE) in people aged 60 to 74 and ≥ 75 years in a population with a low coronary disease incidence. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using primary care and hospital electronic records. We included 130 233 individuals aged ≥ 60 years with creatinine measurement between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011; eGFR was estimated by using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration creatinine equation. The independent association between eGFR and the risk of ACM and hospital admission due to CVE were determined with Cox and Fine-Gray regressions, respectively. Results: The median was age 70 years, and 56.1% were women; 13.5% had eGFR < 60 (69.7% eGFR 45-59). During a median follow-up of 38.2 months, 6474 participants died and 3746 had a CVE. For ACM and CVE, the HR in older individuals became significant at eGFR < 60. Fully adjusted HR for ACM in the eGFR 45 to 59 category were 1.61; 95%CI, 1.37-1.89 and 1.19; 95%CI, 1.10-1.28 in 60- to 74-year-olds and ≥ 75-year-olds, respectively; for CVE HR were 1.28; 95%CI, 1.08-1.51 and 1.12; 95%CI, 0.99-1.26. Conclusions: In a region with low coronary disease incidence, the risk of death and CVE increased with decreasing eGFR. In ≥ 75-year-olds, the eGFR 45 to 59 category, which had borderline risk for CVE, included many individuals without significant additional risk


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Retrospectivos , Testes de Função Renal/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 71(11): 910-916, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764762

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: New biomarkers could improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions. The aims of this study were to determine the association between circulating levels of apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB), albumin, and 25-OH-vitamin D and coronary events and to analyze whether these biomarkers improve the predictive capacity of the Framingham-REGICOR risk function. METHODS: A case-cohort study was designed. From an initial cohort of 5404 individuals aged 35 to 74 years with a 5-year follow-up, all the participants who had a coronary event (n = 117) and a random group of the cohort (subcohort; n = 667) were selected. Finally, 105 cases and 651 individuals representative of the cohort with an available biological sample were included. The events of interest were angina, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction and coronary deaths. RESULTS: Case participants were older, had a higher proportion of men and cardiovascular risk factors, and showed higher levels of apoB and lower levels of apoA1, apoA1/apoB ratio, 25-OH-vitamin D and albumin than the subcohort. In multivariate analyses, plasma albumin concentration was the only biomarker independently associated with coronary events (HR, 0.73; P = .002). The inclusion of albumin in the risk function properly reclassified a significant proportion of individuals, especially in the intermediate risk group (net reclassification improvement, 32.3; P = .048). CONCLUSIONS: Plasma albumin levels are inversely associated with coronary risk and improve the predictive capacity of classic risk functions.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/sangue , Apolipoproteínas B/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade/tendências , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 6853, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29717161

RESUMO

We examined the clinical utility of two multi-locus genetic risk scores (GRSs) previously validated in Europeans among persons of African (AFR; n = 2,089), Latino (LAT; n = 4,349) and East-Asian (EA; n = 4,804) ancestry. We used data from the GERA cohort (30-79 years old, 68 to 73% female). We utilized two GRSs with 12 and 51 SNPs, respectively, and the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) to estimate 10-year CHD risk. After a median 8.7 years of follow-up, 450 incident CHD events were documented (95 in AFR, 316 in LAT and 39 EA, respectively). In a model adjusting for principal components and risk factors, tertile 3 vs. tertile 1 of GRS_12 was associated with 1.86 (95% CI, 1.15-3.01), 1.52 (95% CI, 1.02-2.25) and 1.19 (95% CI, 0.77-1.83) increased hazard of CHD in AFR, LAT and EA, respectively. Inclusion of the GRSs in models containing the FRS did not increase the C-statistic but resulted in net overall reclassification of 10% of AFR, 7% LAT and EA and in reclassification of 13% of AFR and EA as well as 10% LAT in the intermediate FRS risk subset. Our results support the usefulness of incorporating genetic information into risk assessment for primary prevention among minority subjects in the U.S.

16.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696401

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although evidence indicates that both physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) reduce the risk of all-cause mortality, a little is known about optimal intensities of physical activity and their combined effect with MedDiet in older adults. We assessed the separate and combined associations of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and MedDiet adherence with all-cause mortality. METHODS: We prospectively studied 7356 older adults (67 ± 6.2 years) at high vascular risk from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study. At baseline and yearly thereafter, adherence to the MedDiet and LTPA were measured using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: After 6.8 years of follow-up, we documented 498 deaths. Adherence to the MedDiet and total, light, and moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were inversely associated with all-cause mortality (p < 0.01 for all) in multiple adjusted Cox regression models. The adjusted hazard of all-cause mortality was 73% lower (hazard ratio 0.27, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.38, p < 0.001) for the combined category of highest adherence to the MedDiet (3rd tertile) and highest total LTPA (3rd tertile) compared to lowest adherence to the MedDiet (1st tertile) and lowest total LTPA (1st tertile). Reductions in mortality risk did not meaningfully differ between total, light intensity, and moderate-to-vigorous LTPA. CONCLUSIONS: We found that higher levels of LTPA, regardless of intensity (total, light and moderate-to-vigorous), and greater adherence to the MedDiet were associated separately and jointly with lower all-cause mortality. The finding that light LTPA was inversely associated with mortality is relevant because this level of intensity is a feasible option for older adults.

17.
Rev. esp. cardiol. (Ed. impr.) ; 71(4): 274-282, abr. 2018. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171755

RESUMO

Introducción y objetivos. Estudiar la validez de la función SCORE original de bajo riesgo sin y con colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad y SCORE calibrada en población española. Métodos. Análisis agrupado con datos individuales de 12 estudios de cohorte de base poblacional. Se incluyó a 30.919 participantes de 40-64 años sin enfermedades cardiovasculares en el momento del reclutamiento, que se siguieron durante 10 años para la mortalidad cardiovascular contemplada en el proyecto SCORE. La validez de las funciones se analizó mediante el área bajo la curva ROC (discriminación) y el test de Hosmer-Lemeshow (calibración), respectivamente. Resultados. Se dispuso de 286.105 personas/año. La mortalidad a 10 años por causas cardiovasculares fue del 0,6%. La razón de casos esperados/observados fue de 9,1, 6,5 y 9,1 en varones y de 3,3, 1,3 y 1,9 en mujeres con las funciones SCORE original de bajo riesgo sin y con colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de alta densidad y SCORE calibrada, respectivamente; diferencias estadísticamente significativas con el test de calibración de Hosmer-Lemeshow entre la mortalidad predicha con SCORE y la observada (p < 0,001 en ambos sexos y en todas las funciones). Las áreas bajo la curva ROC con SCORE original fueron 0,68 en varones y 0,69 en mujeres. Conclusiones. Todas las versiones de las funciones SCORE disponibles en España sobreestiman significativamente la mortalidad cardiovascular observada en la población española. A pesar de la aceptable capacidad de discriminación, la predicción del número de acontecimientos cardiovasculares mortales (calibración) fue significativamente imprecisa (AU)


Introduction and objectives. To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Methods. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Results. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. Conclusions. All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Doença das Coronárias/epidemiologia , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Hipercolesterolemia/epidemiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3191, 2018 Feb 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29453342

RESUMO

The effect of circulating biomarkers in predicting coronary artery disease (CAD) is not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the relationship with CAD and the predictive capacity of nine biomarkers of inflammation (TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1, CRP), oxidation (GHS-Px), and metabolism (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin). This was a case-cohort study, within the REGICOR population-cohorts (North-Eastern Spain), of 105 CAD cases and 638 individuals randomly selected from a cohort of 5,404 participants aged 35-74 years (mean follow-up = 6.1 years). Biomarkers' hazard ratio (HR)/standard deviation was estimated with Cox models adjusted for age, sex, and classical risk factors. Discrimination improvement and reclassification were analyzed with the c-index and the Net reclassification index (NRI). GHS-Px (adjusted HRs = 0.77; 95%CI:0.60-0.99), insulin (1.46; 1.08-1.98), leptin (1.40; 1.03-1.90), IL-6 (1.34; 1.03-1.74), and TNF-α (1.80; 1.26-2.57) were significantly associated with CAD incidence. In the model adjusted for all biomarkers, TNF-α (1.87;1.31-2.66) and insulin (1.59;1.16-2.19) were independently associated with CAD. This final model, compared to a model without biomarkers, showed a c-index difference of 1.3% (-0.7, 3.2) and a continuous NRI of 33.7% (2.6, 61.9). TNF-α and insulin are independently associated with CAD incidence and they improve reclassification when added to a model including classical risk factors.

19.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 38(3): 645-652, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29326313

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to decipher whether age-independent cardiovascular risk is associated with DNA methylation at 5'-cytosine-phosphate-guanine-3' (CpG) level and to determine whether these differential methylation signatures are associated with the incidence of cardiovascular events. APPROACH AND RESULTS: We designed a 2-stage, cross-sectional, epigenome-wide association study. Age-independent cardiovascular risk calculation was based on vascular age and on the residuals of the relationship between age and cardiovascular risk. Blood DNA methylomes from 2 independent populations were profiled using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. The discovery stage of these studies was performed in the REGICOR cohort (REgistre GIroní del COR; n=645). Next, we validated the initial findings in the Framingham Offspring Study (n=2542). Eight CpGs located in 4 genes (AHRR, CPT1A, PPIF, and SBNO2) and 3 intergenic regions showed differential methylation in association with age-independent cardiovascular risk (P≤1.17×10-7). These CpGs explained 12.01% to 15.16% of the variability of age-independent cardiovascular risk in REGICOR and 7.51% to 8.53% in Framingham Offspring Study. Four of them were only related to smoking, 3 were related to smoking and body mass index, and 1 to diabetes mellitus, triglycerides levels, and body mass index (P≤7.81×10-4). In addition, we developed methylation risk scores based on these CpGs and observed an association between these scores and cardiovascular disease incidence (hazard ratio=1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.16-1.51). CONCLUSIONS: Age-independent cardiovascular risk was related to different DNA methylation profiles, with 8 CpGs showing differential methylation patterns. Most of these CpGs were associated with smoking, and 3 of them were also related to body mass index. Risk scores based on these differential methylation patterns were associated with cardiovascular events and could be useful predictive indices.

20.
Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) ; 71(4): 274-282, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566245

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. METHODS: Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. RESULTS: Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P < .001 in both sexes and with all functions). The area under the ROC curve with the original SCORE was 0.68 in men and 0.69 in women. CONCLUSIONS: All versions of the SCORE functions available in Spain significantly overestimate the cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Adulto , Idoso , Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Doença das Coronárias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/normas , Distribuição por Sexo , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
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