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1.
Health Serv Res ; 2020 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32133652

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the temporal trend of socioeconomic and rural-urban disparities and geographical variation in the utilization of antenatal care (ANC) services in India before and throughout the Millennium Development Goals era. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: For this temporal analysis, secondary data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys between 1998 and 2015 (Waves 2, 3, and 4) were used. STUDY DESIGN: We analyzed the trend in inequality for at least one and four ANC visits to a health care professional (ANC1+ and ANC4+, respectively) by education, wealth, and residence type. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to assess the temporal trend and the relative contribution of communities and states to the overall variation in ANC1+ and ANC4+. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION METHODS: Data on utilization of ANC services for the last birth of women aged 15-49 years during the three or five years preceding the survey (depending on the survey year) were used. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Educational and wealth inequality in ANC1+ and ANC4+ worsened between 1998 and 2005 and improved between 2005 and 2015 (for ANC4+, OR [95% CI] = 0.22 [0.19-0.25] in Wave 2; OR [95% CI] = 0.19 [0.17-0.22] in Wave 3; and OR [95% CI] = 0.38 [0.36-0.40] in Wave 4 for the poorest). Rural-urban inequality showed a consistent decline (for ANC4+, OR [95% CI] = 0.59 [0.54-0.64] in Wave 2; OR [95% CI] = 0.63 [0.59-0.68] in Wave 3; and OR [95% CI] = 0.82 [0.79-0.85] in Wave 4 for rural area). The relative contribution of the community to the total geographic variation in the utilization of ANC services increased more than four times during the study period. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ANC services remains disproportionately lower among women with low socioeconomic status. Efforts to directly target these women are necessary to tackle inequality in ANC utilization in India.

2.
Matern Child Nutr ; : e12978, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32141172

RESUMO

A quarter of 400 million urban Indian residents are poor. Urban poor women are as undernourished as or worse than rural women but urban averages mask this disparity. We present the spectrum of malnutrition and their determinants for more than 26,000 urban women who gave birth within 5 years from the last two rounds of Demographic Health Survey 2006 and 2016. Among urban mothers in the lowest quartile by wealth index (urban poor), 12.8% (95% CI [11.3%, 14.5%]) were short or with height < 145 cm; 20.6% (95% CI [19%, 22.3%]) were thin or with body mass index < 18.5 kg/m2 ; 57.4% (95% CI [55.5%, 59.3%]) had any anaemia (haemoglobin < 12 g/dL), whereas 32.4% (95% CI [30.5%, 34.3%]) had moderate to severe anaemia; and 21.1% (95% CI [19.3%, 23%]) were obese (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 ). Decadal gains were significant for thinness reduction (17p.p.) but obesity increased by 12 p.p. Belonging to a tribal household increased odds of thinness by 1.5 (95% CI [1.06, 2.18]) times among urban poor mothers compared with other socially vulnerable groups. Secondary education reduced odds of thinness (0.61; 95% CI [0.48, 0.77]) and higher education of short stature (0.41; 95% CI [0.18, 0.940]). Consuming milk/milk products, pulses/beans/eggs/meats, and dark green leafy vegetables daily reduced the odds of short stature (0.52; 95% CI [0.35, 0.78]) and thinness (0.72; 95% CI [0.54, 0.98]). Urban poor mothers should be screened for nutritional risks due to the high prevalence of all forms of malnutrition and counselled or treated as per risk.

3.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol ; 32: 100306, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32007280

RESUMO

Drug- and alcohol-poisoning deaths remain current public health problems. Studies to date have typically focused on individual-level predictors of drug overdose deaths, and there remains a limited understanding of the spatiotemporal patterns and predictors of the joint outcomes. We use a hierarchical Bayesian spatiotemporal multivariate Poisson regression model on data from (N = 167) ZIP-codes between 2009 and 2014 in New York City to examine the spatiotemporal patterns of the joint occurrence of drug (opioids) and alcohol-poisoning deaths, and the covariates associated with each outcome. Results indicate that rates of both outcomes were highly positively correlated across ZIP-codes (cross-correlation: 0.57, 95% credible interval (CrI): 0.29, 0.77). ZIP-codes with a higher prevalence of heavy drinking had higher alcohol-poisoning deaths (relative risk (RR):1.63, 95% CrI: 1.26, 2.05) and drug-poisoning deaths (RR: 1.29, 95% CrI: 1.03, 1.59). These spatial patterns may guide public health planners to target specific areas to address these co-occurring epidemics.

4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e1921437, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32074290

RESUMO

Importance: Preventing unwanted pregnancy through adequate use of contraceptives among adolescent girls is essential for improving maternal and child health and social well-being. Objective: To estimate the levels and trends of contraceptive use in adolescent girls (age 15-19 years) compared with adult women (age 20-34 years). Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used data from 261 Demographic and Health Surveys or Multiple Cluster Indicator Surveys conducted in 103 low- and middle-income countries between 2000 and 2017. Modern contraceptive use in 90 countries and unmet need for family planning in 73 countries for adolescent girls and adult women were assessed at country and aggregate levels. Data analyses for this study were conducted between March 2019 and December 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Modern contraceptive use and unmet need for family planning, estimated between adolescent girls and adult women for absolute inequality and relative inequality (defined as the ratio in service use between adult women and adolescent girls). Inequalities by wealth and place of residence in each age group were also assessed. Results: A total of 832 673 adolescent girls and 2 156 268 adult women were included in the analysis. Adolescent girls were significantly less likely to use modern contraceptives (31.6% [95% CI, 30.3% to 32.8%] vs 43.5% [95% CI, 42.4% to 44.7%]; absolute inequality, 11.9 percentage points [PPs] [95% CI, 11.7 to 12.1 PPs]; relative inequality, 1.38 PPs [95% CI, 1.36 to 1.40 PPs]) and more likely to have an unmet need for family planning (50.8% [95% CI, 49.0% to 52.5%] vs 36.4% [95% CI, 34.9% to 35.8%]; absolute inequality, -14.4 PPs [95% CI, -15.8 to -15.0 PPs]; relative inequality, 0.72 PPs [95% CI, 0.69 to 0.75 PPs]). Contraceptive use generally improved over time (aggregate-level use of contraceptives increased from 17.8% [95% CI, 16.6% to 19.0%] in 2000-2006 to 27.2% [95% CI, 26.6% to 27.8%] in 2013-2017 for adolescents and from 30.9% [95% CI, 29.8% to 32.0%] in 2000-2006 to 40.3% [95% CI, 39.8% to 40.8%] in 2013-2017 for adult women), but inequalities between adolescents and adult women persisted. Aggregate-level prevalence of unmet need for family planning decreased only among adult women (from 45.8% [95% CI, 44.9% to 46.7%] in 2000-2006 to 38.0% [95% CI, 37.3% to 38.7%] in 2013-2017). For adolescents, the prevalence remained at approximately 52% over time. The inequality between the 2 age groups therefore significantly increased from 7.5 PPs (95% CI, 6.5 to 8.4 PPs) in 2000 to 2006 to 14.0 PPs (95% CI, 13.4 to 14.6 PPs) in 2013 to 2017. An increasing gap between adolescent girls and adult women was found in 18 countries for modern contraceptive use and in 20 countries for unmet need for family planning. In India, for example, both age groups had increased percentage of unmet need for family planning over time, from 16.2% (95% CI, 15.9% to 16.6%) in 2006 to 29.8% (95% CI, 29.6% to 30.1%) in 2015 for adult women and from 23.9% (95% CI, 23.0% to 24.9%) to 64.5% (95% CI, 63.3% to 65.7%) among adolescents. Thus, inequality increased from 7.7 PPs (95% CI, 7.2 to 8.2 PPs) in 2006 to 34.7 PPs (95% CI, 34.2 to 35.1 PPs) in 2015. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite a growing focus on contraception in the past decade with initiatives such as Family Planning 2020, adolescent girls continue to lag behind adult women in contraceptive use. There is a pressing need to develop age-appropriate strategies for increasing access and maintaining contraceptive use in sexually active adolescent girls.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906293

RESUMO

In India, assembly constituencies (ACs), represented by elected officials, are the primary geopolitical units for state-level policy development. However, data on social indicators are traditionally reported and analyzed at the district level, and are rarely available for ACs. Here, we combine village-level data from the 2011 Indian Census and AC shapefiles to systematically derive AC-level estimates for the first time. We apply this methodology to describe the distribution of 11 education infrastructures-ranging from pre-primary school to senior secondary school-across rural villages in 3773 ACs. We found high variability in access to higher education infrastructures and low variability in access to lower education variables. For 40.3% (25th percentile) to 79.7% (75th percentile) of villages in an AC, the nearest government senior secondary school was >5 km away, whereas the nearest government primary school was >5 km away in just 0% (25th percentile) to 1.9% (75th percentile) of villages in an AC. The states of Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, and Bihar showed the greatest within-state variation in access to education infrastructures. We present a novel analysis of access to education infrastructure to inform AC-level policy, and demonstrate how geospatial and Census data can be leveraged to derive AC-level estimates for any population health and development indicators collected in the Census at the village level.

6.
Int J Legal Med ; 2020 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31930464

RESUMO

Current estimates suggest that approximately 20% of women and 11% of men have been victims of intimate partner violence. Risk identification tools for repeated domestic violence currently exist and have typically been designed by police and judicial authorities, based on the criminal history of the perpetrator. A follow-up cohort study of 238 cases of intimate partner violence (judicially processed and officially judged as DV according to Montenegrin Criminal Act) was conducted by reviewing randomly selected court files. The results showed that certain perpetrator characteristics (unemployment, lack of regret, other violent criminal history, and history of being beaten by a family member) and victim characteristics (nonqualified education and predictions of future harm) were associated with reassault. Relationship characteristics such as different ethnicity, poor socioeconomic status, difference in incomes, living in a rental property, alcohol and drug use, and unprocessed previous history of physical violence were also associated with repeated violence. A risk identification tool for repeated intimate violence was computed based on the significant variables, with a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 89%. This study demonstrates a new tool for repeated intimate partner violence prediction in patriarchal societies, widespread in Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The majority of factors associated with reassault in this sample have been shown to be predictive for repeated intimate partner violence in previous studies. The applicability of our tool in egalitarian societies should be investigated in order to see whether the combination of these factors is universal or specific to patriarchal societies.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0228435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999768

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal mental health is becoming recognized as a global health priority. Mental distress among mothers of young children may be exacerbated by exposure to adversity. Social capital may buffer the impact of adversity on mental distress during the postnatal period and beyond. This paper examines the relationship between adversity, cognitive social capital and mental distress among mothers of young children in three low and middle-income countries. METHODS: This study uses data from the Young Lives study on 5,485 women from Ethiopia, India, and Vietnam. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between exposure to stressful life events (SLEs) and mental distress in women between 6 months and 1.5 years post-partum. Logistic and linear regression was used to examine the potential for effect modification by social capital. RESULTS: The proportion of women with mental distress during the period between 6-18 months following the birth of a child in the sample was 32.6% in Ethiopia, 30.5% in India and 21.1% in Vietnam. For each additional SLE to which a woman was exposed, the odds of MMD increased by 1.28 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.36; p<0.001) in Ethiopia, 1.17 (1.11, 1.25; p<0.001) in India, and 1.98 (1.75, 2.25; p<0.001) in Vietnam. Exposure to family SLEs was significantly associated with MMD in all three countries with odds ratios of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.30, 2.38; p<0.001), 1.62 (95% CI: 1.12, 2.33; p<0.01 in India), 1.93 (95% CI: 1.27, 2.92; p<0.01), respectively. In Ethiopia and India, economic SLEs were also significantly associated with MMD after adjustment (Ethiopia OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.52; p<0.01 and India OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.01, 2.05; p<0.05), while in India, crime SLEs (OR: 1.93; 95% CI: 1.27, 2.92; p<0.01) were associated with MMD. Cognitive social capital was found to modify the association between SLEs and symptomology of mental distress in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that adversity may increase the risk of maternal mental distress in three LMICs, while social capital may buffer its effect.

8.
J Urban Health ; 97(1): 1-25, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938975

RESUMO

Despite a proliferation of research on neighborhood effects on health, how neighborhood economic development, in the form of gentrification, affects health and well-being in the USA is poorly understood, and no systematic assessment of the potential health impacts has been conducted. Further, we know little about whether health impacts differ for residents of neighborhoods undergoing gentrification versus urban development, or other forms of neighborhood socioeconomic ascent. We followed current guidelines for systematic reviews and present data on the study characteristics of the 22 empirical articles that met our inclusion criteria and were published on associations between gentrification, and similar but differently termed processes (e.g., urban regeneration, urban development, neighborhood upgrading), and health published between 2000 and 2018. Our results show that impacts on health vary by outcome assessed, exposure measurement, the larger context-specific determinants of neighborhood change, and analysis decisions including which reference and treatment groups to examine. Studies of the health impacts of gentrification, urban development, and urban regeneration describe similar processes, and synthesis and comparison of their results helps bridge differing theoretical approaches to this emerging research. Our article helps to inform the debate on the impacts of gentrification and urban development for health and suggests that these neighborhood change processes likely have both detrimental and beneficial effects on health. Given the influence of place on health and the trend of increasing gentrification and urban development in many American cities, we discuss how future research can approach understanding and researching the impacts of these processes for population health.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; 23(2): 231-242, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303181

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether disparities in energy consumption and insufficient energy intake in India have changed over time across socio-economic status (SES). DESIGN: This cross-sectional, population-based survey study examines the relationship between several SES indicators (i.e. wealth, education, caste, occupation) and energy consumption in India at two time points almost 20 years apart. Household food intake in the last 30 d was assessed in 1993-94 and in 2011-12. Average dietary energy intake per person in the household (e.g. kilocalories) and whether the household consumed less than 80 % of the recommended energy intake (i.e. insufficient energy intake) were calculated. Linear and relative risk regression models were used to estimate the relationship between SES and average energy consumed per day per person and the relative risk of consuming an insufficient amount of energy. SETTING: Rural and urban areas across India. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of households. RESULTS: Among rural households, there was a positive association between SES and energy intake across all four SES indicators during both survey years. Similar results were seen for energy insufficiency vis-à-vis recommended energy intake levels. Among urban households, wealth was associated with energy intake and insufficiency at both time points, but there was no educational patterning of energy insufficiency in 2011-12. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest little overall change in the SES patterning of energy consumption and percentage of households with insufficient energy intake from 1993-94 to 2011-12 in India. Policies in India need to improve energy intake among low-SES households, particularly in rural areas.

10.
Public Health ; 180: 102-108, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31881463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the geographic inequalities in life expectancy (LE) and the probability of survival up to 40 and 60 years in Brazil between 1991 and 2010, to partition the variance of these indicators by including municipalities, states, and macroregions in the analysis, and to test the association between municipal socio-economic and health services indicators with life expectancy. STUDY DESIGN: Multilevel analysis. METHODS: Census data from 1991, 2000, and 2010 were used to calculate the outcomes and the socio-economic variables. Municipalities were separated into centiles according to their values in each outcome. Absolute and relative differences were calculated for each year. Multilevel linear regression models were performed, taking into account three levels: regions, states, and municipalities. Municipal socio-economic and health services variables were included in the model with the 2010 data. RESULTS: All 5545 Brazilian counties showed improvement in the three indicators, but the magnitude varied significantly across the country. The highest gains in LE were observed in the North and Northeast regions. The gap in LE between the 1st and 99th percentile decreased from 19.6 years to 12.2 years. The relative difference also fell, from 1.37 to 1.18. Most counties' socio-economic and health services indicators were associated with the outcomes and explained 86.7%, 31.2%, and 32.4% of the variation in LE attributable to regions, states, and counties, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The average life expectancy increased between 1991 and 2010. Concomitantly, a reduction in geographic disparities was observed. The counties' socio-economic and health services variables explained much of the variation of the outcomes in 2010.

11.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(12): e00057919, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800782

RESUMO

This study aims to quantify the overall importance of schools in explaining the individual variance of tobacco use and to test the association between characteristics of the school environment and its vicinity with the experimentation and current use of cigarettes. We analyzed data from 102,072 Brazilian adolescents interviewed in the 2015 National School Health Survey (PeNSE). Multilevel logistic regression models were performed to estimate the between-schools variance and to test the association between school-level variables and the use of tobacco. Violence in the vicinity of the school and presence of teachers or students smoking on school premises were the school-level characteristics. The analyses were adjusted by individual covariates and stratified by gender. Around 12.5% of the individual variance in ever smoking was explained by between-school variation among girls (9.2% among boys). The figures were even higher for current smoking (14.9% girls; 12.2% boys) and current use of other tobacco products (27.7% girls; 17.8% boys). In general, the use of tobacco was associated with the existence of violence in the vicinity of the schools and was higher among students whose schools reported that students and teachers (teachers only for use of other tobacco products among girls) smoke on school premises. Tobacco use on school premises and the safety of the neighborhood where the school is located are associated with some smoking behaviors among adolescents. Such findings reinforce the necessity to effectively consider interventions in the school environment and neighborhood to fight smoking among adolescents.

12.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800913

RESUMO

We analyzed data from the National School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) carried out in Brazil in 2015 (n = 102,072 adolescents) to estimate how much of the individual variance in the prevalence of health behaviors is attributable to the school level. Multilevel logistic regression models were calculated to estimate the variance partitional coefficient (VPC) of the use of drugs, intake of unhealthy food, leisure physical activity and weight-related behaviors. The between-schools variance was significant in all tested models. The highest VPCs were observed when the use of drugs was analyzed (15%-20% of the total variance of smoking and use of illegal drugs). Lower, but still significant, values were observed in the other outcomes. The school context plays an important role in the adolescents' health and should be considered in the design of public policies and actions in public health.


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Peso Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Setor Privado , Setor Público , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190052, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826108

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to investigate the association of four different risk factors for chronic diseases and accumulation of these health behaviors with area-level education, regardless of individual-level characteristics in Brazil. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil including 1,720 adults in 2009/2010. The simultaneous occurrence of tobacco smoking, abusive drinking, unhealthy eating habits, and physical inactivity was investigated. Using multilevel models, we tested whether area-level education was associated with each risk factor and with the co-occurrence of them after controlling sociodemographic individual-level variables. RESULTS: We observed a between-group variance of 7.79, 7.11, 6.84 and 1.08% for physical inactivity, problematic use of alcohol, unhealthy eating habits, and smoking, respectively. The between-group variance for the combination of four behaviors was 14.2%. Area-level education explained a significant proportion of the variance observed in physical inactivity and unhealthy eating habits. Residents of low educational level neighborhoods showed a 2.40 (95%CI 1.58 - 3.66) times higher chance of unhealthy eating and 1.78 (95%CI 1.19 - 2.67) times higher chance of physical inactivity. The likelihood of individuals with two or three/four risk factors was simultaneously higher among residents of low educational level neighborhoods. CONCLUSION: Public policies should consider the area-level characteristics, including education to control risk factors for chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multinível , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Data Brief ; 27: 104486, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31720318

RESUMO

In this article, we describe the dataset used in our study entitled "The interaction between district-level development and individual-level socioeconomic gradients of cardiovascular disease risk factors in India: A cross-sectional study of 2.4 million adults", recently published in Social Science & Medicine, and present supplementary analyses. We used data from three different household surveys in India, which are representative at the district level. Specifically, we analyzed pooled data from the District-Level Household Survey 4 (DLHS-4) and the second update of the Annual Health Survey (AHS), and separately analyzed data from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4). The DLHS-4 and AHS sampled adults aged 18 years or older between 2012 and 2014, while the NFHS-4 sampled women aged 15-49 years and - in a subsample of 15% of households - men aged 15-54 years in 2015 and 2016. The measures of individual-level socio-economic status that we used in both datasets were educational attainment and household wealth quintiles. The measures of district-level development, which we calculated from these data, were i) the percentage of participants living in an urban area, ii) female literacy rate, and iii) the district-level median of the continuous household wealth index. An additional measure of district-level development that we used was Gross Domestic Product per capita, which we obtained from the Planning Commission of the Government of India for 2004/2005. Our outcome variables were diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and current smoking. The data were analyzed using both district-level regressions and multilevel modelling.

15.
Health Place ; : 102237, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740125

RESUMO

Despite substantial debate about the impacts of gentrification on cities, neighborhoods, and their residents, there is limited evidence to demonstrate the implications of gentrification for health. We examine the impacts of gentrification on several health measures using a unique individual-level longitudinal data set. We employ data from the Resilience in Survivors of Hurricane Katrina (RISK) project, a study of low-income parents, predominantly non-Hispanic Black single mothers, who participated in a New Orleans-based study before and after Hurricane Katrina. After Katrina, all participants were displaced, at least temporarily, from New Orleans, and had little or no control over neighborhood placement immediately following the storm. This near-random displacement after Katrina created a natural experiment. We employ a quasi-experimental intent to treat design to assess the causal effects of gentrification on health in the RISK population. We do not find evidence of significant main effects of being displaced to a gentrified neighborhood on BMI, self-rated health, or psychological distress. The analysis employs a quasi-experimental design and has several additional unique features--homogeneous population, limited selection bias, and longitudinal data collection-- that improve our ability to draw causal conclusions about the relationship between gentrification and health. However, the unique context of displacement by natural disaster may limit the generalizability of our findings to other circumstances or residents experiencing gentrification.

16.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(11): 923-928, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maternal recall of birthweight is a convenient and cost-effective way to obtain birthweight measurements when official records are unavailable. It is important to assess the validity of maternal recall of birthweight before using these measurements to draw conclusions about a population. METHODS: This is secondary analysis of data from a previous cohort study. We analyzed actual and reported birthweights of 200 mother-and-child pairs from Southern India. We validated maternal report of birthweight by generating correlation coefficients, summary statistics, and Bland-Altman plots. We ran simulations to evaluate how misclassification as low or normal birthweight changed with the mean birthweight of the cohort. RESULTS: Reported birthweight was strongly correlated with actual birthweight (r=0.80, P<0.001); 55%, 78.5%, and 93% of subjects reported values within 50 g, 250 g, and 500 g, respectively of actual birthweight. None of sociodemographic covariates was significantly associated with the accuracy of maternal recall of birthweight. 7.5% of children were misclassified as either low or normal birthweight by reported birthweight. Simulations revealed that increasing the reported and actual birthweights by 500g reduces the misclassification rate from 7.5% to 1.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal recall is a sufficiently accurate measure of actual birthweight. However, the distribution of actual birthweight in the population must be taken into consideration when classifying babies as low or normal birthweight, especially in populations where mean birthweight is close to 2500g.

17.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 16540, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719548

RESUMO

We analyzed a sample of 112714 children from the 2015-2016 Indian National Fertility and Health Survey with available data on hemoglobin. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to establish associations between parent anemia, household characteristics and nutritional intake of children. Linear regression analysis was also conducted to see the link between the household characteristic and childhood nutritional intake on one hand and hemoglobin levels on the other hand. A number of socio-demographic factors, namely maternal age, type of residence and maternal education, as well as wealth index, among others correlate with incidence of childhood anemia. For instance, whereas 52.9% of children in the richest households were anemic, 63.2% of children in the poorest household were anemic (p < 0.001). Mean Vitamin A intake in the last six months was 0.63 (0.626-0.634) which was 0.18% of the recommended intake. Mean iron intake, from sources other than breast milk, in the last 24 hours was 0.29 (0.286-0.294) and 2.42% of the recommended daily intake. Fifty-nine percent (58.5%) of the children surveyed were anemic (Hb level: 9.75 g/dL [9.59-9.91]). Children with anemia were more prone to being iron deficient (odds ratio [OR]: 0.981 (0.961-1.001), Vitamin A deficient (OR: 0.813 (0.794-0.833)), and have lower maternal hemoglobin level (OR: 1.992 (1.957-2.027)). Combining nutritional supplementation and food-fortification programmes with reduction in maternal anemia and family poverty may yield optimal improvement of childhood anemia in India.

18.
J Epidemiol ; 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complex etiology of child growth failure and anemia - commonly used indicators of child undernutrition - involving proximate and distal risk factors at multiple levels is generally recognized. However, their independent and joint effects are often assessed with no clear conceptualization of inferential targets. METHODS: We utilized hierarchical linear modeling and a nationally representative sample of 139,116 children aged 6-59 months from India (2015-2016) to estimate the extent to which a comprehensive set of 27 covariates explained the within- and between-population variation in height-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and hemoglobin level. RESULTS: Most of the variation in child anthropometry and hemoglobin measures was attributable to within-population differences (80-85%), whereas between-population differences (including communities, districts, and states) accounted for only 15-20%. The proximate and distal covariates explained 0.2%-7.5% of within-population variation and 2.1%-34.0% of between-population variation depending on the indicator of interest. Substantial heterogeneity was observed in the magnitude of within-population variation, and the fraction explained, in child anthropometry and hemoglobin measures across the 36 states/union territories of India. CONCLUSIONS: Policies and interventions aimed at reducing between-population inequalities in child undernutrition may require a different set of components than those concerned with within-population inequalities. Both are needed to promote the health of the general population as well as high-risk children.

19.
Soc Sci Med ; 241: 112574, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Neighborhood characteristics are increasingly recognized as important determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, longitudinal studies on the health impacts of neighborhood characteristics are rare. We sought to investigate whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) during birth, childhood and adulthood is associated with CVD risk factors in adulthood. METHODS: Using longitudinal data from the New England Family Study (n = 671) with 46-years of follow-up, participants' home addresses were geocoded at birth (mean age = 1.6 months), childhood (mean age = 7.1 years), and adulthood (mean age = 44.2 years) across Massachusetts and Rhode Island in the US from 1961 to 2007. We used multilevel models to evaluate associations of NSES across the life-course with systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) in adulthood, adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, mother's race, individual SES, and parental SES. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, one standard deviation higher NSES at birth was associated with a 1.9 mmHg lower SBP (95% CI: 3.8, -0.1) and 1.3 mmHg lower DBP (95%CI: 2.6,-0.03) in adulthood; while one standard deviation of higher NSES at adulthood was associated with 0.87 kg/m2 lower BMI (95%CI: 1.7, -0.1). CONCLUSIONS: We found that living in a socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood early in life and in adulthood was associated with blood pressure and BMI, respectively, two established risk factors for CVD. Our findings support a longitudinal association between exposure to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods in early life and CVD risk factors in adulthood.

20.
Prev Med ; 129: 105872, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644897

RESUMO

The association between numeracy proficiency and health outcomes has been the subject of several studies. However, it is not known if this association is independent of educational attainment and literacy proficiency. In this study, we used logistic regression to model numeracy proficiency as a predictor of self-rated poor health after accounting for educational attainment and literacy proficiency. The prevalence of self-rated poor health among 166,863 adults aged 16-65 years from 33 high- and upper middle-income countries was 24%. Compared to those with the highest numeracy proficiency (level 4), the odds ratio of self-rated poor health for those with the lowest numeracy proficiency (level 1) was 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.7) and attenuated to 1.8 (95% CI 1.5-2.1) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1, 2.0), respectively, after sequential addition of self-education and literacy proficiency. For those who were assessed to have low levels of both numeracy and literacy proficiency, the odds ratio of self-rated poor health was 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5), relative to those who had high levels of both numeracy and literacy proficiencies. Numeracy and literacy proficiencies show both independent and interdependent correlations with poor self-rated health. Further, these associations varied by sociodemographic characteristics and across countries. Policies aimed at improving numeracy and literacy may be beneficial in preventing adverse health outcomes.

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