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1.
Nat Mater ; 2020 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157191

RESUMO

Atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) metals may be key ingredients in next-generation quantum and optoelectronic devices. However, 2D metals must be stabilized against environmental degradation and integrated into heterostructure devices at the wafer scale. The high-energy interface between silicon carbide and epitaxial graphene provides an intriguing framework for stabilizing a diverse range of 2D metals. Here we demonstrate large-area, environmentally stable, single-crystal 2D gallium, indium and tin that are stabilized at the interface of epitaxial graphene and silicon carbide. The 2D metals are covalently bonded to SiC below but present a non-bonded interface to the graphene overlayer; that is, they are 'half van der Waals' metals with strong internal gradients in bonding character. These non-centrosymmetric 2D metals offer compelling opportunities for superconducting devices, topological phenomena and advanced optoelectronic properties. For example, the reported 2D Ga is a superconductor that combines six strongly coupled Ga-derived electron pockets with a large nearly free-electron Fermi surface that closely approaches the Dirac points of the graphene overlayer.

2.
Nature ; 578(7793): 75-81, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025010

RESUMO

Complex-oxide materials exhibit a vast range of functional properties desirable for next-generation electronic, spintronic, magnetoelectric, neuromorphic, and energy conversion storage devices1-4. Their physical functionalities can be coupled by stacking layers of such materials to create heterostructures and can be further boosted by applying strain5-7. The predominant method for heterogeneous integration and application of strain has been through heteroepitaxy, which drastically limits the possible material combinations and the ability to integrate complex oxides with mature semiconductor technologies. Moreover, key physical properties of complex-oxide thin films, such as piezoelectricity and magnetostriction, are severely reduced by the substrate clamping effect. Here we demonstrate a universal mechanical exfoliation method of producing freestanding single-crystalline membranes made from a wide range of complex-oxide materials including perovskite, spinel and garnet crystal structures with varying crystallographic orientations. In addition, we create artificial heterostructures and hybridize their physical properties by directly stacking such freestanding membranes with different crystal structures and orientations, which is not possible using conventional methods. Our results establish a platform for stacking and coupling three-dimensional structures, akin to two-dimensional material-based heterostructures, for enhancing device functionalities8,9.

3.
Langmuir ; 35(13): 4726-4735, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844287

RESUMO

Graphene has been recognized as an enhanced platform for biosensors because of its high electron mobility. To integrate active membrane proteins into graphene-based materials for such applications, graphene's surface must be functionalized with lipids to mimic the biological environment of these proteins. Several studies have examined supported lipids on various types of graphene and obtained conflicting results for the lipid structure. Here, we present a correlative characterization technique based on fluorescence measurements in a Raman spectroscopy setup to study the lipid structure and dynamics on epitaxial graphene. Compared to other graphene variations, epitaxial graphene is grown on a substrate more conducive to production of electronics and offers unique topographic features. On the basis of experimental and computational results, we propose that a lipid sesquilayer (1.5 bilayer) forms on epitaxial graphene and demonstrate that the distinct surface features of epitaxial graphene affect the structure and diffusion of supported lipids.

4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 10(47): 40831-40837, 2018 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30384598

RESUMO

The utilization of alkali salts, such as NaCl and KI, has enabled the successful growth of large single domain and fully coalesced polycrystalline two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenide layers. However, the impact of alkali salts on photonic and electronic properties is not fully established. In this work, we report alkali-free epitaxy of MoS2 on sapphire and benchmark the properties against alkali-assisted growth of MoS2. This study demonstrates that although NaCl can dramatically increase the domain size of monolayer MoS2 by 20 times, it can also induce strong optical and electronic heterogeneities in as-grown, large-scale films. This work elucidates that utilization of NaCl can lead to variation in growth rates, loss of epitaxy, and high density of nanoscale MoS2 particles (4 ± 0.7/µm2). Such phenomena suggest that alkali atoms play an important role in Mo and S adatom mobility and strongly influence the 2D/sapphire interface during growth. Compared to alkali-free synthesis under the same growth conditions, MoS2 growth assisted by NaCl results in >1% tensile strain in as-grown domains, which reduces photoluminescence by ∼20× and degrades transistor performance.

5.
Nanotechnology ; 29(47): 47LT02, 2018 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30207301

RESUMO

The experimental realization of two-dimensional (2D) gallium nitride (GaN) has enabled the exploration of 2D nitride materials beyond boron nitride. Here we demonstrate one possible pathway to realizing ultra-thin nitride layers through a two-step process involving the synthesis of naturally layered, group-III chalcogenides (GIIIC) and subsequent annealing in ammonia (ammonolysis) that leads to an atomic-exchange of the chalcogen and nitrogen species in the 2D-GIIICs. The effect of nitridation differs for gallium and indium selenide, where gallium selenide undergoes structural changes and eventual formation of ultra-thin GaN, while indium selenide layers are primarily etched rather than transformed by nitridation. Further investigation of the resulting GaN films indicates that ultra-thin GaN layers grown on silicon dioxide act as effective 'seed layers' for the growth of 3D GaN on amorphous substrates.

6.
Nat Mater ; 15(11): 1166-1171, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27571451

RESUMO

The spectrum of two-dimensional (2D) and layered materials 'beyond graphene' offers a remarkable platform to study new phenomena in condensed matter physics. Among these materials, layered hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), with its wide bandgap energy (∼5.0-6.0 eV), has clearly established that 2D nitrides are key to advancing 2D devices. A gap, however, remains between the theoretical prediction of 2D nitrides 'beyond hBN' and experimental realization of such structures. Here we demonstrate the synthesis of 2D gallium nitride (GaN) via a migration-enhanced encapsulated growth (MEEG) technique utilizing epitaxial graphene. We theoretically predict and experimentally validate that the atomic structure of 2D GaN grown via MEEG is notably different from reported theory. Moreover, we establish that graphene plays a critical role in stabilizing the direct-bandgap (nearly 5.0 eV), 2D buckled structure. Our results provide a foundation for discovery and stabilization of 2D nitrides that are difficult to prepare via traditional synthesis.

7.
Sci Rep ; 6: 23708, 2016 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27025461

RESUMO

Most III-nitride semiconductors are grown on non-lattice-matched substrates like sapphire or silicon due to the extreme difficulty of obtaining a native GaN substrate. We show that several layered transition-metal dichalcogenides are closely lattice-matched to GaN and report the growth of GaN on a range of such layered materials. We report detailed studies of the growth of GaN on mechanically-exfoliated flakes WS2 and MoS2 by metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy. Structural and optical characterization show that strain-free, single-crystal islands of GaN are obtained on the underlying chalcogenide flakes. We obtain strong near-band-edge emission from these layers, and analyse their temperature-dependent photoluminescence properties. We also report a proof-of-concept demonstration of large-area growth of GaN on CVD MoS2. Our results show that the transition-metal dichalcogenides can serve as novel near-lattice-matched substrates for nitride growth.

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