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1.
J Small Anim Pract ; 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491792

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for urinary bacterial growth in dogs with confirmed congenital portosystemic shunts on which a quantitative urine culture was performed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-six dogs were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Medical records were reviewed from 1997 through 2019. Variables of interest included age, sex and sexual status, clinical signs for a urinary tract infection, blood urea concentration, urinalysis abnormalities, ultrasound abnormalities of the urinary tract, and previous treatment. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed. RESULTS: The median age of the dogs was one year (range: 0.2-11.0 years). Urinary tract ultrasound abnormalities (cystic calculi and cystic debris) were reported in 50 dogs (75.7%). Abnormalities on urinalysis included pyuria in nine dogs (13.6%), bacteriuria in 13 dogs (19.7%), and haematuria in 26 dogs (39.4%). The median urine specific gravity was 1.021 (range: 1.004-1.052). Sixteen dogs (24.2%) had a positive quantitative urine culture. Based on multivariable analysis, bacteriuria (Odds ratio, 116; 95% CI, 9.6-1393; P = < 0.001) was the only variable significantly associated with a significantly increased odds for a positive quantitative urine culture. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Clinical and subclinical bacteriuria can occur in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts. In this group of dogs, bacteriuria was a risk factor for urinary bacterial growth.

2.
J Small Anim Pract ; 61(4): 211-215, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32065388

RESUMO

Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in canine practice and the diagnostic path is often characterised by numerous diagnostic tests and stepwise empirical treatments, often applied before gastrointestinal endoscopy/mucosal biopsies. These include dietary interventions (novel protein, hydrolysed protein diet), parasiticides and still, in many cases, antibacterials. Indiscriminate use of antibacterial drugs risks detrimental consequences for both the individual patient (antimicrobial resistance, long-term disruption of intestinal bacterial populations, potential worsening of gastrointestinal signs) and the general public. For that reason, in this Perspective essay we advocate use of antibacterials only after histopathologic evaluation of gastrointestinal biopsies or, for those cases in which endoscopy is not possible, after other therapeutic trials, such as diet/pre-probiotics or anti-inflammatory drugs have proven unsuccessful. They should be reserved, after appropriate dietary trials, for those canine chronic diarrhoeic patients with signs of true primary infection (i.e. signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome or evidence of adherent-invasive bacteria) that justify antibacterial use.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Trato Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/veterinária , Cães
3.
Exp Parasitol ; 206: 107768, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539540

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis due to Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease. Although aminosidine can be an effective treatment, current therapeutic recommendations do not advocate its use, mainly due to concerns regarding the potential nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of this drug. The aim of this randomized, blinded, controlled study was to evaluate the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine-allopurinol combination and compare it with that of meglumine antimonate-allopurinol combination in non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis. Forty dogs with leishmaniosis were randomly assigned to be treated with either aminosidine at 15 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group A) or with meglumine antimonate at 100 mg/kg, subcutaneously, once daily for 28 days (group B). In addition to either drug, dogs in both groups were administered allopurinol at 10 mg/kg per os twice daily for 2 months. Kidney function was evaluated through measurement of serum creatinine, urea nitrogen, inorganic phosphorus, and cystatin-c concentrations and complete urinalysis, including protein-to-creatinine ratio, at baseline and after 14, 28, and 60 days from the beginning of the treatment. At the same time points, vestibular and auditory functions were evaluated through neurological examination and brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) recordings of wave I, wave V, inter-wave I-V latencies, and minimum hearing thresholds. None of the dogs developed clinicopathological evidence of kidney disease during the study. Serum creatinine concentration increased >0.3 mg/dl over baseline in 2 dogs in group A and in 5 dogs in group B. Parameters of kidney function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and the only difference between the two groups was the lower concentration of serum creatinine in group A. None of the dogs developed peripheral vestibular syndrome or hearing impairment. At the end of the study, parameters of auditory function were not significantly different or were improved compared to baseline and there were no differences between the two groups. The results of this study show that the nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity of aminosidine, when administered to non-azotemic dogs with leishmaniosis at 15 mg/kg subcutaneously once daily for 28 days along with allopurinol, is minimal and does not differ from that of meglumine antimonate.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/efeitos adversos , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Audição/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Paromomicina/efeitos adversos , Alopurinol/administração & dosagem , Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos , Creatinina/sangue , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Método Duplo-Cego , Combinação de Medicamentos , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Feminino , Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente , Perda Auditiva/veterinária , Injeções Subcutâneas/veterinária , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Antimoniato de Meglumina/administração & dosagem , Antimoniato de Meglumina/efeitos adversos , Antimoniato de Meglumina/uso terapêutico , Exame Neurológico/veterinária , Paromomicina/administração & dosagem , Paromomicina/uso terapêutico , Distribuição Aleatória , Vestíbulo do Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 215: 109904, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31420068

RESUMO

During immune activation, CD25 is expressed by T cells, and its soluble form (sCD25) is released into the extracellular matrix and the bloodstream. In humans, serum sCD25 concentrations are used as a surrogate marker for autoimmune diseases, malignancies, and transplant rejection. However, a canine-specific assay for the measurement of sCD25 in dog serum has not previously been described. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop and analytically validate a radioimmunoassay to measure sCD25 in canine serum, to establish a reference interval for canine sCD25, and to test the clinical utility of this assay with serum samples for dogs with various diseases. A competitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed and analytically validated. Analytical validation consisted of lower limit of detection (LLOD), dilutional parallelism, spiking recovery, and intra- and inter-assay variability using pooled surplus canine serum samples. A reference interval was established in healthy dogs and serum samples from dogs with various types of neoplasia, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease and serum samples with an increased C-reactive protein concentration (CRP) were analyzed to test the clinical utility of the assay. LLOD was calculated to be 0.5 ng/mL. The mean (±SD) observed-to-expected ratio (O/E) for serial dilutions was 101.7 ±â€¯14.0%, and the mean (± SD) O/E for spiking recovery was 93.2 ±â€¯4.2%. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for intra-assay variability were ≤12.5% (mean ±â€¯SD: 7.5 ±â€¯4.2%), and inter-assay CVs were ≤15.7% (mean ±â€¯SD: 11 ±â€¯4.4%). A reference interval (RI) for canine sCD25 of 1.2-4.2 ng/mL was established from a population of 112 clinically healthy dogs. Dogs with neoplasia and dogs with suspected small intestinal disease had decreased concentrations of serum sCD25 when compared to healthy dogs (p < 0.0001, respectively). However, the majority of clinical samples used in this study were within the reference interval. Median concentrations of serum sCD25 were 1.9 ng/mL for healthy dogs. Dogs with cancer, IBD, liver disease, suspected pancreatitis, or suspected small intestinal disease, as well as sera with an increased serum CRP concentration, had median serum sCD25 concentrations of 1.6 ng/mL, 2.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ng/mL, 1.7 ng/mL, 1.5 ng/mL, and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. Thus, the RIA described here is linear, accurate, precise, and reproducible for measuring sCD25 in canine serum. However, this assay shows little clinical utility of sCD25 as a biomarker for dogs with inflammatory, autoimmune, and/or neoplastic conditions.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães/sangue , Subunidade alfa de Receptor de Interleucina-2/sangue , Radioimunoensaio/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Humanos , Radioimunoensaio/métodos , Valores de Referência , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
5.
Vet J ; 243: 8-14, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30606444

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to compare the effects of parenteral (PE) versus oral (PO) cobalamin supplementation on serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (HCY) concentrations in dogs with hypocobalaminaemia. Thirty-six dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations below 285ng/L (reference interval (RI): 244-959ng/L) were treated with PO (0.25-1.0mg daily) or PE cobalamin (0.25-1.2mg/injection) using a block-randomized schedule. Serum MMA and HCY concentrations were analysed at day 0, 28 and 90 after start of supplementation. There was no significant difference between the PO and PE group regarding serum MMA or HCY concentrations at any time point. Median (range, P comparing baseline and 28 days, P comparing 28days and 90 days) serum MMA concentrations (nmol/L; RI 415-1193) were 932 (566-2468) in the PO and 943 (508-1900) in the PE group at baseline, respectively, 705 (386-1465, P<0.0001) and 696 (377-932, P<0.0001) after 28 days, and 739 (450-1221, P=0.58) and 690 (349-1145, P=0.76) after 90 days. Serum HCY concentrations (median (range), P comparing baseline and 28 days, P comparing 28days and 90 days, µmol/L; RI 5.9-31.9) in the PO and PE groups were 12.2 (3.3-62.2) and 8.4 (3.7-34.8) at baseline, 12.5 (5.0-45.0, P=0.61) and 8.0 (3.8-18.3, P=0.28) after 28 days, and 17.7 (7.3-60.0 P=0.07) and 12.4 (6.3-33.1, P=0.0007) after 90 days, respectively. Oral and parenteral cobalamin supplementation had the same effect on serum MMA concentrations in this group of dogs.


Assuntos
Administração Oral , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Homocisteína/sangue , Infusões Parenterais/veterinária , Ácido Metilmalônico/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Doenças do Cão/etiologia , Cães , Feminino , Enteropatias/complicações , Enteropatias/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Distribuição Aleatória , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/etiologia
6.
Vet J ; 236: 68-71, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871753

RESUMO

Serum canine α1-proteinase inhibitor (cα1-PI) concentrations were evaluated in dogs with pancreatitis (n=24), exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI; n=29), chronic hepatitis (CH; n=11) or proteinuric chronic kidney disease (CKD-P; n=61) to determine whether systemic proteinase/proteinase-inhibitor balance is altered in these conditions. Dogs with CKD-P had significantly lower cα1-PI concentrations than dogs with pancreatitis, EPI or CH; 16% of dogs with CKD-P had serum cα1-PI concentrations below the reference interval. Serum and urine cα1-PI concentrations were inversely correlated in dogs with CKD-P, but not in dogs with CH. This suggests that renal loss of cα1-PI contributes to decreased serum concentrations in dogs with CKD-P, while hepatic cα1-PI synthesis with CH either is not compromised or is counterbalanced by extrahepatic production.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Hepatite Crônica/veterinária , Pancreatopatias/veterinária , Inibidores de Proteases/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/veterinária , Animais , Cães , Feminino , Hepatite Crônica/sangue , Masculino , Pancreatopatias/sangue , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/sangue
7.
Vet J ; 232: 27-32, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29428088

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies of parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation protocols in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations. It was hypothesised that both treatments would increase serum cobalamin concentrations significantly. Fifty-three dogs with chronic enteropathies and serum cobalamin concentrations<285ng/L (reference interval 244-959ng/L) were enrolled. Dogs were randomised to treatment with either daily oral cobalamin tablets (0.25-1.0mg cyanocobalamin daily according to body weight) or parenteral cobalamin (0.4-1.2mg hydroxycobalamin according to body weight). Serum cobalamin concentrations were analysed 28±5days and 90±15days after initiation of supplementation. After 28 days, all dogs had serum cobalamin concentrations within the reference interval or above. In the parenteral group (n=26), median (range) cobalamin concentrations were 228 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 2107 (725-10,009) ng/L after 28days and 877 (188-1267) ng/L after 90 days. In the oral group (n=27), median (range) serum cobalamin concentrations were 245 (150-285) ng/L at inclusion, 975 (564-2385) ng/L after 28days and 1244 (738-4999) ng/L after 90 days. In both groups, there were significant differences in serum cobalamin concentrations between baseline and 28 days, and between 28days and 90days (P<0.001). In conclusion, both parenteral and oral cobalamin supplementation effectively increase serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs with chronic enteropathies and low cobalamin concentrations.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Enteropatias/veterinária , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/veterinária , Vitamina B 12/administração & dosagem , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Administração Oral , Animais , Cães , Injeções/métodos , Injeções/veterinária , Enteropatias/complicações , Peritônio/efeitos dos fármacos , Valores de Referência , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina B 12/tratamento farmacológico
8.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 65(1): 215-217, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28834190

RESUMO

The population and range of feral pigs in the United States are rapidly expanding, yet key knowledge gaps exist regarding their role in the ecology and transmission of foodborne pathogens. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding among feral pigs throughout Texas and to identify risk factors for positive status. Faecal samples were collected from feral pigs in Texas from February 2014 through May 2015, and target organisms were detected using PCR assays. The prevalence of C. jejuni shedding was 1.6% (6/370), and the prevalence of C. coli shedding was 3.5% (13/370). C. coli shedding was significantly more common (p = .008) among female pigs than among male pigs. Feral pigs may represent a source of human campylobacteriosis.


Assuntos
Derrame de Bactérias , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Fezes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/epidemiologia , Texas/epidemiologia
9.
Benef Microbes ; 9(1): 101-110, 2018 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29065705

RESUMO

Chronic constipation (CC) and idiopathic megacolon (IMC) occur frequently in cats. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a multi-strain probiotic (SLAB51™) in constipated cats (n=7) and in patients with megacolon and constipation (n=3). Ten pet cats with a diagnosis of chronic constipation, non-responsive to medical management received orally 2×1011 bacteria daily for 90 days. For microbiota analysis, selected bacterial groups were analysed by qPCR. Histological samples in megacolons were evaluated for interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), enteric neurons, and neuronal apoptosis. Biopsies were compared at baseline (T0) and after the end of treatment (T1), and with those obtained from healthy control tissues (archived material from five healthy cats). Constipated cats displayed significantly lower ICC, and cats with idiopathic megacolon had significantly more apoptotic enteric neurons than controls. After treatment with SLAB51™, significant decreases were observed for feline chronic enteropathy activity index (FCEAI) (P=0.006), faecal consistency score, and mucosal histology scores (P<0.001). In contrast, a significant increase of ICC was observed after probiotic therapy. Lactobacillus spp. and Bacteroidetes were increased significantly after treatment (comparing constipated cats before and after treatment, and control healthy cats to constipated cats after treatment), but no other differences in microbiota were found between healthy controls and constipated cats. Treatment with SLAB51™ in cats with chronic constipation and idiopathic megacolon showed significant clinical improvement after treatment, and histological parameters suggest a potential anti-inflammatory effect of SLAB51™, associated with a reduction of mucosal infiltration, and restoration of the number of interstitial cells of Cajal.


Assuntos
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Constipação Intestinal/veterinária , Megacolo/veterinária , Probióticos/farmacologia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gatos , Colo/microbiologia , Colo/patologia , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Megacolo/tratamento farmacológico , Megacolo/patologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Projetos Piloto
10.
Vet Comp Oncol ; 16(1): E169-E175, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29152844

RESUMO

Malignant lymphoma B-cell type is the most common canine haematopoietic malignancy. Changes in intestinal microbiota have been implicated in few types of cancer in humans. The aim of this prospective and case-control study was to determine differences in faecal microbiota between healthy control dogs and dogs with multicentric lymphoma. Twelve dogs affected by multicentric, B-cell, stage III-IV lymphoma, and 21 healthy dogs were enrolled in the study. For each dog, faecal samples were analysed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for selected bacterial groups. Alpha diversity was significant lower in lymphoma dogs. Principal coordinate analysis plots showed different microbial clustering (P = .001) and linear discriminant analysis effect size revealed 28 differentially abundant bacterial groups in lymphoma and control dogs. The qPCR analysis showed significant lower abundance of Faecalibacterium spp. (q < .001), Fusobacterium spp. (q = .032), and Turicibacter spp. (q = .043) in dogs with lymphoma compared with control dogs. On the contrary, Streptococcus spp. was significantly higher in dogs with lymphoma (q = .041). The dysbiosis index was significantly higher (P < .0001) in dogs with lymphoma. In conclusion, both sequencing and qPCR analyses provided a global overview of faecal microbial communities and showed significant differences in the microbial communities of dogs presenting with multicentric lymphoma compared with healthy control dogs.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Linfoma/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Cães , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Linfoma/microbiologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA/veterinária
11.
Benef Microbes ; 9(2): 247-255, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022381

RESUMO

Spermine (SPM) and its precursor putrescine (PUT), regulated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and diamino-oxidase (DAO), are polyamines required for cell growth and proliferation. Only a few studies have investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumour inhibitory properties of probiotics on mucosal polyamine levels. We investigated the effects of a high concentration multistrain probiotic for human use on colonic polyamine biosynthesis in dogs. Histological sections (inflammatory bowel disease, n=10; polyposis, n=5) were assessed after receiving 112 to 225×109 lyophilised bacteria daily for 60 days at baseline (T0) and 30 days after treatment end (T90). Histology scores, expression of PUT, SPM, ODC and DAO, and a clinical activity index (CIBDAI) were compared at T0 and T90. In polyps, cellular proliferation (Ki-67 expression), and apoptosis (caspase-3 protein expression) were also evaluated. After treatment, in inflammatory bowel disease significant decreases were observed for CIBDAI (P=0.006) and histology scores (P<0.001); PUT, SPM and ODC expression increased (P<0.01). In polyps, a significant decrease in polyamine levels, ODC activity, and Ki-67, and a significant increase in caspase-3 positivity and DAO expression (P=0.005) was noted. Our results suggest potential anti-proliferative and anti-inflammatory effects of the probiotic mixture in polyps and inflammation, associated with reduced mucosal infiltration and up-regulation of PUT, SPM, and ODC levels.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Pólipos do Colo/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Probióticos/uso terapêutico , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/genética , Amina Oxidase (contendo Cobre)/metabolismo , Animais , Caspase 3/genética , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Colo/metabolismo , Colo/patologia , Pólipos do Colo/tratamento farmacológico , Pólipos do Colo/microbiologia , Pólipos do Colo/patologia , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Antígeno Ki-67/genética , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Ornitina Descarboxilase/genética , Ornitina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Putrescina/biossíntese , Espermina/biossíntese , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
FEMS Microbiol Ecol ; 93(11)2017 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29040443

RESUMO

Recent studies have identified various bacterial groups that are altered in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CE) compared to healthy dogs. The study aim was to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to confirm these findings in a larger number of dogs, and to build a mathematical algorithm to report these microbiota changes as a dysbiosis index (DI). Fecal DNA from 95 healthy dogs and 106 dogs with histologically confirmed CE was analyzed. Samples were grouped into a training set and a validation set. Various mathematical models and combination of qPCR assays were evaluated to find a model with highest discriminatory power. The final qPCR panel consisted of eight bacterial groups: total bacteria, Faecalibacterium, Turicibacter, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Blautia, Fusobacterium and Clostridium hiranonis. The qPCR-based DI was built based on the nearest centroid classifier, and reports the degree of dysbiosis in a single numerical value that measures the closeness in the l2 - norm of the test sample to the mean prototype of each class. A negative DI indicates normobiosis, whereas a positive DI indicates dysbiosis. For a threshold of 0, the DI based on the combined dataset achieved 74% sensitivity and 95% specificity to separate healthy and CE dogs.


Assuntos
Bactérias/classificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Disbiose/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Microbiota/genética , Algoritmos , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Cães , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Microbiota/fisiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
13.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(4): 1056-1061, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28626891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical usefulness of serum 3-BrY concentrations for subclassifying dogs with food-responsive diarrhea (FRD) and steroid-responsive diarrhea (SRD) has not been studied. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To compare serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with FRD, dogs with SRD, and healthy control dogs. ANIMALS: 38 dogs with FRD, 14 dogs with SRD, and 46 healthy dogs. METHODS: Prospective study. Measurement of 3-BrY concentration in serum samples was performed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. RESULTS: There was no association of peripheral eosinophilia in dogs with FRD, SRD, and healthy control dogs (P = 0.069). There was no significant correlation between peripheral eosinophil counts and serum 3-BrY concentrations (ρ = -0.15, P = 0.13). Serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with SRD (median [range] = 3.27, 0.9-26.23 µmol/L) were significantly higher than in dogs with FRD (median [range] = 0.99, 0.62-8.82 µmol/L; P = 0.007) or in healthy dogs (median [range] = 0.62, 0.62-1.79 µmol/L; P < 0.001). Also, serum 3-BrY concentrations in dogs with FRD were significantly higher than in healthy dogs (P = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum 3-BrY concentrations (ρ = 0.17, P = 0.23). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Measurement of serum 3-BrY concentrations, but not the peripheral eosinophil count, is helpful for detecting dogs with SRD and FRD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Tirosina/análogos & derivados , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/dietoterapia , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/veterinária , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tirosina/sangue
14.
J Vet Intern Med ; 31(1): 109-116, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27864850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Folate and cobalamin are essential cofactors for homocysteine (HCY) metabolism. Hyperhomocysteinemia, a multifactorial condition, may reflect B vitamin deficiency and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, thrombosis, and neurodegenerative and chronic gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Hyperhomocysteinemia has been reported in Greyhounds with suspected chronic enteropathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequencies of and the association between hypofolatemia and hyperhomocysteinemia in Greyhounds. ANIMALS: Data and serum samples from 559 Greyhounds. METHODS: Nested case-control study. The frequency of hypofolatemia in Greyhounds was determined by a laboratory database search. The relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia (measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) and hypocobalaminemia and hypofolatemia was evaluated, and its frequency compared between healthy Greyhounds and Greyhounds with thrombosis or chronic diarrhea. RESULTS: Hypofolatemia was identified in 172 of 423 (41%) Greyhounds and was more common in hypo- than in normocobalaminemic dogs (49% vs. 35%; P = .0064). Hyperhomocysteinemia was detected in 53 of 78 (68%) of Greyhounds, being more common in hypo- than in normofolatemic dogs (88% vs. 59%; P = .0175). All healthy Greyhounds, 21 of 30 (70%) of dogs with chronic diarrhea and 6 of 8 (75%) of those with thrombosis, were hyperhomocysteinemic. Serum HCY concentrations were inversely correlated with serum folate concentration (ρ = -0.28; P = .0386) and were positively associated with serum albumin concentration (ρ = 0.66; P = .0022). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Hyperhomocysteinemia occurs frequently in the Greyhound population. Its association with hypofolatemia suggests decreased intracellular availability of B vitamins, but the functional implications warrant further investigation. Hyperhomocysteinemia in Greyhounds potentially may serve as a spontaneous canine model to further investigate hyperhomocysteinemia in humans.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/veterinária , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/veterinária , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/sangue , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/complicações , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/epidemiologia , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/sangue , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Ohio/epidemiologia , Linhagem , Inquéritos e Questionários , Texas/epidemiologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue
15.
J Vet Intern Med ; 30(6): 1790-1797, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27641602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Little information is available about the clinical presentation and response to treatment of cats with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI). OBJECTIVES: To describe the signalment, clinical signs, concurrent diseases, and response to treatment of cats with EPI. ANIMALS: One hundred and fifty cats with EPI. METHODS: Retrospective case series. RESULTS: Questionnaires were sent to 261 veterinarians, and 150 (57%) were returned with data suitable for statistical analysis. The median age of the cats with EPI was 7.7 years. The median body condition score was 3 of 9. Ninety-two of 119 cats (77%) had hypocobalaminemia, and 56 of 119 cats (47%) had increased and 6 of 119 cats (5%) had decreased serum folate concentrations. Clinical signs included weight loss (91%), unformed feces (62%), poor hair coat (50%), anorexia (45%), increased appetite (42%), lethargy (40%), watery diarrhea (28%), and vomiting (19%). Eighty-seven cats (58%) had concurrent diseases. Treatment response was reported to be good in 60%, partial in 27%, and poor in 13% of 121 cats. Trypsin-like immunoreactivity <4 µg/L was associated with a positive response to treatment (OR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5-7.0; P = .004). Also, cobalamin supplementation improved the response to treatment (OR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.4-6.6; P = .006). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in cats often has a different clinical presentation than in dogs. The age range for EPI in cats is wide, and many cats can be ≤5 years of age. Most cats respond well to appropriate treatment for EPI, and cobalamin supplementation appears to be necessary for a good response.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Pancreática Exócrina/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Tripsina/metabolismo , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina B 12/uso terapêutico
16.
J Vet Intern Med ; 30(4): 1031-45, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27296565

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The term triaditis designates the concurrent presence of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cholangitis, and pancreatitis in cats. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: The histopathology of concurrent, but often subclinical, inflammatory processes in the small intestine, liver, and pancreas of cats is poorly described. We aimed to investigate the frequency of enteritis, cholangitis, pancreatitis, or some combination of these in symptomatic and asymptomatic cats, compare clinicopathological features, and correlate histopathological with laboratory findings. ANIMALS: Domestic cats (27 symptomatic, 20 asymptomatic, and 8 normal). METHODS: Prospective study. Physical examination, laboratory variables (CBC, serum biochemistry profile, serum thyroxine concentration, serum feline trypsin-like immunoreactivity [fTLI], feline lipase immunoreactivity [fPLI, as measured by Spec fPL(®) ], urinalysis, and fecal analysis), imaging, and histopathological examinations were conducted. Feline liver, pancreas, and small intestine were biopsied during laparotomy. RESULTS: Inflammatory lesions were detected in 47 cats (27 symptomatic, 20 asymptomatic). In total, 20 cats had histopathologic lesions of IBD (13/47, 27.7%), cholangitis (6/47, 12.8%), or pancreatitis (1/47, 2.1%) alone, or inflammation involving >1 organ (27/47, 57.4%). More specifically, 16/47 cats (34.0%) had concurrent lesions of IBD and cholangitis, 3/47 (6.4%) of IBD and pancreatitis, and 8/47 cats (17%) of triaditis. Triaditis was identified only in symptomatic cats (8/27, 29.6%). A mild, positive correlation was detected between the severity (score) of IBD lesions and the number of comorbidities (rho = +0.367, P = .022). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Histopathological evidence of IBD or IBD with comorbidities was detected in both symptomatic and asymptomatic cats. The possibility of triaditis should be considered in symptomatic cats with severe IBD.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/patologia , Colangite/veterinária , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Pancreatite/veterinária , Animais , Gatos , Colangite/complicações , Colangite/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Fígado Gorduroso/veterinária , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/complicações , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/patologia , Pancreatite/complicações , Pancreatite/patologia
17.
J Anim Sci ; 94(6): 2247-61, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27285902

RESUMO

Recent molecular studies have revealed a complex microbiota in the dog intestine. Convincing evidence has been reported linking changes in microbial communities to acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation, especially in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The most common microbial changes observed in intestinal inflammation are decreases in the bacterial phyla Firmicutes (i.e., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and ) and Bacteroidetes, with concurrent increases in Proteobacteria (i.e., ). Due to the important role of microbial-derived metabolites for host health, it is important to elucidate the metabolic consequences of gastrointestinal dysbiosis and physiological pathways implicated in specific disease phenotypes. Metagenomic studies have used shotgun sequencing of DNA as well as phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt) to characterize functional changes in the bacterial metagenome in gastrointestinal disease. Furthermore, wide-scale and untargeted measurements of metabolic products derived by the host and the microbiota in intestinal samples allow a better understanding of the functional alterations that occur in gastrointestinal disease. For example, changes in bile acid metabolism and tryptophan catabolism recently have been reported in humans and dogs. Also, metabolites associated with the pentose phosphate pathway were significantly altered in chronic gastrointestinal inflammation and indicate the presence of oxidative stress in dogs with IBD. This review focuses on the advancements made in canine metagenomics and metabolomics and their implications in understanding gastrointestinal disease as well as the development of better treatment approaches.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães/microbiologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/veterinária , Intestinos/microbiologia , Metagenômica , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Inflamação , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Metabolômica , Filogenia
18.
J Small Anim Pract ; 57(9): 459-64, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27271454

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To describe serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations in dogs with hepatic disease and to determine whether there is a relationship between the concentration of either and the severity of hepatic necroinflammation. METHODS: Serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were measured in 46 dogs undergoing hepatic biopsy. Dogs were divided into three groups: congenital portosystemic shunts, chronic hepatitis and hepatic neoplasia. The histological severity of hepatic necroinflammation was scored. RESULTS: C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were greater than the upper limit of the reference intervals in 39 and 26% of dogs, respectively. There was no association of disease group with C-reactive protein (P=0·1733) or S100A12 (P=0·1513) concentrations. There was a positive correlation between serum C-reactive protein concentration and hepatic necroinflammatory activity (rs =0·428, P=0·006). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Increased serum C-reactive protein and S100A12 concentrations were observed in a subpopulation of dogs with various types of hepatic diseases, suggesting acute-phase inflammation and activation of phagocytic cells, respectively. Dogs with higher hepatic necroinflammatory activity scores tended to have higher serum C-reactive protein concentrations. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding in a larger group of dogs.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteínas Sanguíneas/metabolismo , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Hepatopatias/sangue , Proteína S100A12/sangue , Animais , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Cães , Feminino , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
19.
J Vet Intern Med ; 30(4): 1056-64, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27279352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fecal calprotectin and immunoglobulin A (IgA) are markers of intestinal inflammation and immunity in adult dogs. HYPOTHESIS: Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations in puppies are not influenced by fecal moisture in puppies but by enteropathogen shedding. ANIMALS: Three hundred and twenty-four puppies. METHODS: Fecal consistency was assessed by gross examination. Fecal moisture was evaluated before and after lyophilization. Canine parvovirus and coronavirus were detected in feces by qPCR and qRT-PCR respectively. Giardia intestinalis antigen was quantified by ELISA. The standard McMaster flotation technique was used to detect eggs and oocysts in feces. Fecal calprotectin and IgA concentrations were quantified by in-house radioimmunoassays. RESULTS: For each marker (IgA and calprotectin), a strong positive correlation was observed between concentration in fresh feces and concentration in fecal dry matter. 75.6% of the puppies were found to be infected by at ≥1 of the enteropathogens evaluated. Fecal calprotectin concentration was significantly influenced by age (P = .001), with higher concentrations in younger puppies, but not by viral (P = .863) or parasitic infection (P = .791). Fecal IgA concentration was significantly influenced by enteropathogen shedding (P = .01), with a lower fecal IgA concentration in puppies shedding at ≥1 enteropathogen compared to puppies without any enteropathogen shedding, but not by age. CONCLUSIONS: Fecal calprotectin and IgA are of no diagnostic value to detect presence of enteropathogens in clinically healthy puppies or puppies with abnormal feces, but could help to better understand the maturation of digestive tract.


Assuntos
Tamanho Corporal/genética , Cães/fisiologia , Fezes/química , Imunoglobulina A/química , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/química , Desmame , Envelhecimento , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cães/anatomia & histologia , Cães/genética , Complexo Antígeno L1 Leucocitário/metabolismo
20.
J Vet Intern Med ; 30(3): 779-86, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27062346

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic proton pump inhibitor administration has been associated with electrolyte and cobalamin deficiency, disrupted bone homeostasis, hypergastrinemia, and rebound acid hypersecretion in humans. It is unknown if this occurs in cats. OBJECTIVES: Prolonged oral omeprazole results in altered bone mineral density or content, serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations in healthy cats. ANIMALS: Six healthy adult DSH cats. METHODS: In a within subjects, before and after design, cats received placebo followed by omeprazole (0.83-1.6 mg/kg PO q12h) for 60 days each. Analysis of serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations was performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Bone density and content were evaluated on days 0 and 60 of each intervention. Continuous data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA (α = 0.006). On day 60 of omeprazole administration, continuous intragastric pH monitoring was performed in 2 cats to evaluate the effects of abrupt withdrawal of omeprazole. RESULTS: No significant changes were detected between treatments for any variables, except serum gastrin, which was significantly higher during omeprazole treatment in comparison to placebo (P = 0.002). Evidence of gastric hyperacidity was seen in both cats in which intragastric pH monitoring was performed following cessation of omeprazole. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Although further studies with larger populations of cats will be needed to draw any definitive conclusions, these preliminary results suggest that prolonged PPI treatment results in hypergastrinemia and abrupt PPI withdrawal might result in RAH in cats.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Gatos , Omeprazol/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cálcio/sangue , Estudos Controlados Antes e Depois , Feminino , Determinação da Acidez Gástrica/veterinária , Gastrinas/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Vitamina B 12/sangue
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