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1.
Eur J Cancer ; 119: 1-10, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab is an approved treatment for stage III melanoma based on a significantly prolonged recurrence-free survival (RFS). At a median follow-up of 5.3 years, RFS, distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) were each significantly prolonged in the ipilimumab group compared with the placebo group, despite a 53.3% (ipilimumab) versus 4.6% (placebo) treatment discontinuation rate due to adverse events. We present now long-term follow-up results of this European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 18071 trial. PATIENTS, METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 99 sites randomised 951 patients with stage III cutaneous melanoma (excluding lymph node metastasis ≤1 mm or in-transit metastasis) with adequate resection of lymph nodes to receive intravenous infusions of ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo, every 3 weeks for 4 doses, then every 3 months for up to 3 years. The RFS, DMFS and OS, as reported by the local investigators, were assessed by the intention-to-treat analysis. Among 431 patients randomised at 63 sites and who were still alive at the analysis reported in 2016, recent follow-up information could be obtained for 264 patients. The median OS follow-up was 6.9 years. The RFS (hazard ratio [HR] 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.63-0.88; P < 0.001), DMFS (HR 0.76, 0.64-0.90; P = 0.002) and OS (HR 0.73, 0.60-0.89; P = 0.002) benefit observed in the ipilimumab group was durable with an 8.7% absolute difference at 7 years for OS. The benefit was consistent across subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant therapy with ipilimumab prolongs RFS, DMFS and OS significantly. The benefit is sustained long term and consistent across subgroups.

2.
Eur J Cancer ; 116: 148-157, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Joint Committee on Cancer-8 (AJCC) classification of melanoma was implemented in January 2018. It was based on data gathered when checkpoint inhibitors were not used as adjuvant therapy in stage III melanoma. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 1325/KEYNOTE-054 double-blind phase III trial evaluated pembrolizumab vs placebo in AJCC-7 stage IIIA (excluding lymph node metastasis ≤1 mm), IIIB or IIIC (without in-transit metastasis) patients after complete lymphadenectomy. PATIENTS, METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients (n = 1019) were randomised 1:1 to pembrolizumab 200 mg or placebo every 3 weeks (total of 18 doses, ∼1 year). At 1.25-year median follow-up, pembrolizumab prolonged relapse-free survival (RFS) in the total population (1-year RFS rate: 75.4% vs 61.0%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.57; logrank P < 0.0001) and consistently in the AJCC-7 subgroups. Prognostic and predictive values of AJCC-8 for RFS were evaluated in this study. Patient distribution according to the AJCC-8 stage subgroups was 8% (IIIA), 34.7% (IIIB), 49.7% (IIIC), 3.7% (IIID) and 3.8% (unknown). AJCC-8 classification was strongly associated with RFS (HRs for stage IIIB, IIIC and IIID vs IIIA were 4.0, 5.7 and 12.2, respectively) but showed no predictive importance for the treatment comparison regarding RFS (test for interaction: P = 0.68). The 1-year RFS rate for pembrolizumab vs placebo and the HRs (99% confidence interval) within each AJCC-8 subgroup were as follows: stage IIIA (92.7% vs 92.5%; 0.76 [0.11-5.43]), IIIB (79.0% vs 65.5%; 0.59 [0.35-0.99]), IIIC (73.6% vs 53.9%; 0.48 [0.33-0.70]) and IIID (50.0% vs 33.3%; 0.69 [0.24-2.00]). CONCLUSIONS: AJCC-8 staging had a strong prognostic importance for RFS but no predictive importance: the RFS benefit of pembrolizumab was observed across AJCC-8 subgroups in resected high-risk stage III melanoma patients.

4.
Br J Haematol ; 186(5): 741-753, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31124581

RESUMO

Outcomes in childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) are steadily improving due to intensive therapy. Between 1989 and 2008, 599 children with newly diagnosed T-ALL were enrolled in two successive European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer - Children's Leukaemia Group trials (58881 and 58951), both based on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster protocol and without cranial irradiation. In the latter trial induction chemotherapy was intensified. The most important randomizations were Medac Escherichia coli asparaginase versus Erwinia asparaginase in trial 58881, and dexamethasone (6 mg/m2 /day) versus prednisolone (60 mg/m2 /day) and prolonged versus conventional asparaginase duration in trial 58951. 8-year event-free survival (EFS) increased from 65·1% to 74·0% in trial 58951. Improvement was most profound for patients with white blood cell (WBC) counts <100 × 109 /l and "good responders" to prephase. Medac E. coli asparaginase was associated with longer EFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0·54, P = 0·0015] and overall survival (HR 0·51, P = 0·0018). Induction therapy with dexamethasone did not improve EFS compared to prednisolone. Remarkably, intensification of central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy in trial 58951 resulted in fewer bone marrow relapses, while the incidence of CNS relapses remained low. In summary, we showed that adequate asparaginase therapy, intensified induction treatment and intensification of CNS-directed chemotherapy can result in an improvement of outcome in T-ALL patients with good prephase response and initial WBC counts <100 × 109 /l, representing approximately 50% of T-ALL patients.

7.
Haematologica ; 2018 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523055

RESUMO

Monosomal karyotype (MK) confers a poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we determined the impact of the type of remission-induction chemotherapy and the impact of having a donor in younger AML patients with a MK included in two phase III trials. In the first trial, patients were randomized to receive either daunorubicin (DNR), mitoxantrone (MTX), or idarubicin (IDA) in addition to standard-dose cytarabine (SDAC) and etoposide for induction chemotherapy. In the second trial, patients were randomized between either SDAC or high dose cytarabine (HiDAC) induction, both with DNR and etoposide. In both trials, patients who achieved a complete remission with (CR) or without (CRi) complete hematological recovery received an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) if they had a donor or an autologous HSCT (auto-HSCT) otherwise. In comparison to patients with intermediate risk cytogenetics without MK (n=1584) and with adverse cytogenetics without MK (n=218), MK+ patients (n=188) were more likely not to achieve a CR/CRi (odds ratio=2.85, 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.10-3.88) and had shorter overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio, HR=2.44, 95% CI: 2.08-2.88) and OS from CR/CRi (HR=2.73, 95% CI: 2.17-3.45). There was no impact of the type of anthracycline or of SDAC vs HiDAC on outcomes in MK+ patients. Among MK+ patients who achieved a CR/CRi, HLA-identical related donor availability was associated with longer survival from CR/CRi (HR=0.59, 95% CI: 0.37-0.95). In summary, these data suggest no benefit of HiDAC in MK+ patients but better OS associated with allo-HSCT.

8.
Haematologica ; 2018 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30171030

RESUMO

Hematologic responses to hypomethylating agents in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia patients are often delayed. Fetal hemoglobin is a potential novel biomarker for response: recently, we could demonstrate that its elevation prior to decitabine treatment was associated with superior outcome. We now asked whether early fetal hemoglobin induction during decitabine treatment also had prognostic value, and investigated the potential of decitabine for in vitro induction of erythroid differentiation and fetal hemoglobin expression. Fetal hemoglobin levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography in patients with higher-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (n=16) and acute myeloid leukemia (n=37) before treatment and after each decitabine course. Levels above 1.0% were considered induced. Patients achieving complete or partial remission as best response attained a median fetal hemoglobin of 1.9% after two courses, versus 0.8% in patients without complete or partial remission (p=0.015). Fetal hemoglobin induction after two courses was associated with early platelet doubling (p=0.006), and a subsequent decrease with hematologic relapse. In myelodysplastic syndrome patients, induced fetal hemoglobin after course 2 was associated with longer overall survival compared to non-induced levels: median of 22.9 versus 7.3 months (hazard ratio 0.2 [95% confidence interval 0.1-0.9], p=0.03). In vitro decitabine treatment of 2 bipotential myeloid leukemia cell lines (K562 and HEL) resulted in induction of an erythroid (not megakaryocytic) differentiation program, and of fetal hemoglobin mRNA and protein, associated with GATA1 gene demethylation and upregulation. CONCLUSION: Fetal hemoglobin may provide a useful dynamic biomarker during hypomethylating agent therapy of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.

10.
Oncoimmunology ; 7(6): e1428157, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872552

RESUMO

Purpose: Determine the prognostic and predictive significance of tumor associated antigen (TAA)-specific serum antibodies in melanoma patients of a large adjuvant vaccination phase III trial. Patients and methods: Serum IgG antibodies were measured against a panel of 43 antigens by a bead-based multiplex assay in 970 stage II melanoma patients of the EORTC18961 trial, evaluating adjuvant ganglioside GM2-KLH/QS-21 vaccination versus observation. Primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS). Patients' sera at baseline, after 12 and 48 weeks of study treatment and at the last available time point (at recurrence/remission) were evaluated. Results: Prognostic clinical variables are gender, surgical confirmation of lymph node-negative status, Breslow thickness and ulceration of the primary. Prognostic spontaneous antibody responses were associated with a significant dismal (GM2, Rhod_E2, SSX2) or good prognosis (CyclinB1, SCYE1v1) for RFS, distant metastasis-free (DMFS) or overall survival (OS). Predictive spontaneous antibody responses based on significant interaction with treatment were RhodN p = 0.02, Rab38 p = 0.04 for RFS, RhodE2 p = 0.006, Recoverin p = 0.04 for DMFS and RhodE2 p = 0.003; Recoverin p = 0.04, NA17.A p = 0.04, for OS respectively. The subgroups of patients according to antibody responses for RFS were determined for RhodN sero-negative (n = 849, HR = 1.07, p = 0.6); RhodN sero-positive (n = 121,HR = 0.42, p = 0.01) and Rab38 sero-negative (n = 682, HR = 1.12, p = 0.42), Rab38 sero-positive (n = 288, HR = 0.65, p = 0.04) patients respectively. Conclusion: We identified prognostic serum antibody responses against TAA in stage II melanoma patients. A set of antibody responses correlated with a beneficial outcome for GM2 vaccination.

11.
Ann Hematol ; 97(10): 1785-1795, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926156

RESUMO

The presence of cytogenetic clonal heterogeneity has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we reassessed this association. The study cohort consisted of all patients with an abnormal karyotype randomized in the EORTC/GIMEMA AML-10 and AML-12 trials. Abnormal karyotypes were classified as no subclones present (cytogenetic abnormality in a single clone), defined subclones present (presence of one to three subclones), and composite karyotypes (CP) (clonal heterogeneity not allowing enumeration of individual subclones). The main endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Among 1291 patients with an abnormal karyotype, 1026 had no subclones, 226 at least 1 subclone, and 39 a CP. Patients with defined subclones had an OS similar to those with no subclones (hazard ratio (HR) 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.88-1.26), but CP patients had a shorter OS (HR = 1.58, 95% CI 1.11-2.26). However, in a multivariate Cox model stratified by protocol and adjusted for age, cytogenetic risk group, secondary versus primary AML, and performance status, clonal heterogeneity lost its prognostic importance (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 0.91-1.32 for defined subclones versus no subclones; HR = 0.96, 95% CI 0.67-1.38 for CP versus no subclones). Also, the impact of having a donor on DFS was similar in the three clonal subgroups. In summary, in patients with cytogenetic abnormality, presence of subclones had no impact on OS. The dismal outcome in patients with a CP was explained by the known predictors of poor prognosis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: AML-10: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00002549, retrospectively registered July 19, 2004; AML12: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00004128, registered January 27, 2003.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Cariótipo Anormal , Adolescente , Adulto , Evolução Clonal/genética , Análise Citogenética , Feminino , Heterogeneidade Genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
12.
N Engl J Med ; 378(19): 1789-1801, 2018 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658430

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab has been found to prolong progression-free and overall survival among patients with advanced melanoma. We conducted a phase 3 double-blind trial to evaluate pembrolizumab as adjuvant therapy in patients with resected, high-risk stage III melanoma. METHODS: Patients with completely resected stage III melanoma were randomly assigned (with stratification according to cancer stage and geographic region) to receive 200 mg of pembrolizumab (514 patients) or placebo (505 patients) intravenously every 3 weeks for a total of 18 doses (approximately 1 year) or until disease recurrence or unacceptable toxic effects occurred. Recurrence-free survival in the overall intention-to-treat population and in the subgroup of patients with cancer that was positive for the PD-1 ligand (PD-L1) were the primary end points. Safety was also evaluated. RESULTS: At a median follow-up of 15 months, pembrolizumab was associated with significantly longer recurrence-free survival than placebo in the overall intention-to-treat population (1-year rate of recurrence-free survival, 75.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 71.3 to 78.9] vs. 61.0% [95% CI, 56.5 to 65.1]; hazard ratio for recurrence or death, 0.57; 98.4% CI, 0.43 to 0.74; P<0.001) and in the subgroup of 853 patients with PD-L1-positive tumors (1-year rate of recurrence-free survival, 77.1% [95% CI, 72.7 to 80.9] in the pembrolizumab group and 62.6% [95% CI, 57.7 to 67.0] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.69; P<0.001). Adverse events of grades 3 to 5 that were related to the trial regimen were reported in 14.7% of the patients in the pembrolizumab group and in 3.4% of patients in the placebo group. There was one treatment-related death due to myositis in the pembrolizumab group. CONCLUSIONS: As adjuvant therapy for high-risk stage III melanoma, 200 mg of pembrolizumab administered every 3 weeks for up to 1 year resulted in significantly longer recurrence-free survival than placebo, with no new toxic effects identified. (Funded by Merck; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02362594 ; EudraCT number, 2014-004944-37 .).


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Antígeno B7-H1/análise , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Qualidade de Vida , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Melanoma Res ; 28(3): 222-229, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29432281

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic importance of lymph node ratio (LNR) in stage III melanoma after complete lymph nodal dissections. From European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer randomized trials 18871, 18952, and 18991, 2358 patients had full information on positive and examined lymph nodes (LNs) and were included. Cox proportional hazards models stratified by trial were used to assess the prognostic impact of LNR adjusted for confounders on melanoma-specific survival. Optimal cutoff values for LNR were calculated for each LN dissection site (axillary, inguinal, and neck). LNR (≥ vs. <35%: hazard ratio=1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.69) and number of positive LNs appeared to be of independent strong prognostic importance. Dissection sites impacted the optimal LNR cutoff: 35% for axillary, 40% for inguinal, and 50% for neck dissections. Combining these into one 'high versus low LNR' resulted in a highly significant multivariately adjusted hazard ratio of 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-1.74). In subgroup analyses, LNR was only significant in advanced disease (American Joint Committee on Cancer stage N2b, N3; IIIC). LNR was most significant for inguinal dissections, followed by axillary dissections, but seemed less useful in neck dissections. LNR is an independent significant prognostic factor in stage III melanoma patients. Our study showed higher than previously reported cutoffs that differed per dissection site. However, because of conflicting results compared with other studies and apparent limited prognostic impact confined to subgroups, the practical use of LNR seems limited.

14.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(1)2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28922786

RESUMO

Background: We assessed whether relapse-free survival (RFS; time until recurrence/death) is a valid surrogate for overall survival (OS) among resected stage II-III melanoma patients through a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Methods: Individual patient data (IPD) on RFS and OS were collected from 5826 patients enrolled in 11 randomized adjuvant trials comparing interferon (IFN) to observation. In addition, IPD from two studies comparing IFN and vaccination in 989 patients were included. A two-level modeling approach was used for assessing Spearman's patient-level correlation (rho) of RFS and OS and the trial-level coefficient of determination (R²) of the treatment effects on RFS and on OS. The results were validated externally in 13 adjuvant studies without available IPD. We then tested the results on the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) 18071 double-blind trial comparing ipilimumab 10 mg/kg with placebo, which showed a statistically significant impact of the checkpoint inhibitor on RFS and OS. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: With a median follow-up of seven years, 12 of 13 trials showed a consistency between the IFN vs No IFN differences regarding RFS (hazard ratio [HR]RFS = 0.88) and OS (HROS = 0.91), but the small trial, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 2696, was an outlier (HRRFS = 0.72 vs HROS = 1.11). Therefore, even if rho was high, R² was low and could not reliably be estimated. Based on the 12 trials, rho remained high (0.89), and the hazard ratios for RFS and OS were strongly correlated (R² = 0.91). The surrogate threshold effect for RFS was estimated to be 0.77. For the EORTC 18071 trial, the hazard ratio for RFS was 0.75, predicting an effect of ipilimumab on OS. This was subsequently confirmed (HROS = 0.72, 95.1% confidence interval = 0.58 to 0.88, P = .001). Conclusions: In high-risk stage II-III melanoma, RFS appeared to be a valid surrogate end point for OS for adjuvant randomized studies assessing interferon or a checkpoint inhibitor. In future similar adjuvant studies, a hazard ratio for RFS of 0.77 or less would predict a treatment impact on OS.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Humanos , Ipilimumab , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/cirurgia , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Haematologica ; 102(10): 1727-1738, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28751566

RESUMO

Asparaginase is an essential component of combination chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. The value of asparaginase was further addressed in a group of non-very high-risk patients by comparing prolonged (long-asparaginase) versus standard (short-asparaginase) native E. coli asparaginase treatment in a randomized part of the phase III 58951 trial of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Children's Leukemia Group. The main endpoint was disease-free survival. Overall, 1,552 patients were randomly assigned to long-asparaginase (775 patients) or short-asparaginase (777 patients). Patients with grade ≥2 allergy to native E. coli asparaginase were switched to equivalent doses of Erwinia or pegylated E. coli asparaginase. The 8-year disease-free survival rate (±standard error) was 87.0±1.3% in the long-asparaginase group and 84.4±1.4% in the short-asparaginase group (hazard ratio: 0.87; P=0.33) and the 8-year overall survival rate was 92.6±1.0% and 91.3±1.2% respectively (hazard ratio: 0.89; P=0.53). An exploratory analysis suggested that the impact of long-asparaginase was beneficial in the National Cancer Institute standard-risk group with regards to disease-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.70; P=0.057), but far less so with regards to overall survival (hazard ratio: 0.89). The incidences of grade 3-4 infection during consolidation (25.2% versus 14.4%) and late intensification (22.6% versus 15.9%) and the incidence of grade 2-4 allergy were higher in the long-asparaginase arm (30% versus 21%). Prolonged native E. coli asparaginase therapy in consolidation and late intensification for our non-very high-risk patients did not improve overall outcome but led to an increase in infections and allergy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00003728.


Assuntos
Asparaginase/uso terapêutico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Asparaginase/administração & dosagem , Asparaginase/efeitos adversos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Quimioterapia de Consolidação , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/administração & dosagem , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/efeitos adversos , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Quimioterapia de Indução , Lactente , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/mortalidade , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Eur J Cancer ; 82: 171-183, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many randomised trials assessing interferon-α (IFN-α) as adjuvant therapy for high-risk malignant melanoma have been undertaken. To better assess the role of IFN-α, an individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis of these trials was undertaken. METHODS: IPD was sought from all randomised trials of adjuvant IFN-α versus no IFN-α for high-risk melanoma. Primary outcomes were event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Standard methods for quantitative IPD meta-analysis were used. Subgroup analyses by dose, duration of treatment and various patient and disease-specific parameters were performed. FINDINGS: Fifteen trials were included in the analysis (eleven with IPD). EFS was significantly improved with IFN-α (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.86, CI 0.81-0.91; P < 0.00001), as was OS (HR = 0.90, CI 0.85-0.97; P = 0.003). The absolute differences in EFS at 5 and 10 years were 3.5% and 2.7%, and for OS were 3.0% and 2.8% respectively in favour of IFN-α. There was no evidence that the benefit of IFN-α differed depending on dose or duration of treatment, or by age, gender, site of primary tumour, disease stage, Breslow thickness, or presence of clinical nodes. Only for ulceration was there evidence of an interaction (test for heterogeneity: P = 0.04 for EFS; P = 0.002 for OS); only patients with ulcerated tumours appeared to obtain benefit from IFN-α. CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis provides clear evidence that adjuvant IFN-α significantly reduces the risk of relapse and improves survival and shows no benefit for higher doses compared to lower doses. The increased benefit in patients with ulcerated tumours, and lack of benefit in patients without ulceration, needs further investigation.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Interferon-alfa/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Interferon-alfa/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Análise de Sobrevida , Úlcera/induzido quimicamente
18.
Lancet Oncol ; 18(3): 393-403, 2017 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28162999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The EORTC 18071 phase 3 trial compared adjuvant ipilimumab with placebo in patients with stage III melanoma. The primary endpoint, recurrence-free survival, was significantly longer in the ipilimumab group than in the placebo group. Investigator-reported toxic effects of ipilimumab consisted mainly of skin, gastrointestinal, endocrine, and hepatic immune-related adverse events. Adjuvant treatment with ipilimumab in this setting was approved in October, 2014, by the US Food and Drug Administration based on the results of the primary outcome of this trial. Here, we report the results of the secondary endpoint, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), of this trial. METHODS: EORTC 18071 was a multinational, double-blind, randomised, phase 3 trial in patients with stage III cutaneous melanoma (excluding lymph node metastasis ≤1 mm or in-transit metastasis) in 19 countries worldwide. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by an interactive voice response system, to receive either ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or placebo every 3 weeks for four doses, then every 3 months for up to 3 years. Using a minimisation technique, randomisation was stratified by disease stage and geographical region. HRQoL was assessed with the EORTC QLQ-C30 quality-of-life instrument at baseline, weeks 4, 7, 10, and 24, and every 12 weeks thereafter up to 2 years, irrespective of disease progression. Results were summarised by timepoint and in a longitudinal manner in the intention-to-treat population. Two summary scores were calculated for each HRQoL scale: the average score reported during induction (ipilimumab or placebo at a dose of 10 mg/kg, administered as one single dose at the start of days 1, 22, 43, and 64-ie, four doses in 3 weeks), and the average score reported after induction. A predefined threshold of a 10 point difference between arms was considered clinically relevant. The primary HRQoL endpoint was the global health scale, with the predefined hypothesis of no clinically relevant differences after induction between groups. This trial is registered with EudraCT, number 2007-001974-10, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00636168. FINDINGS: Between July 10, 2008, and Aug 1, 2011, 951 patients were randomly assigned to treatment: 475 in the ipilimumab group and 476 in the placebo group. Compliance with completing the HRQoL questionnaire was 893 (94%) of 951 patients at baseline, 693 (75%) of 924 at week 24, and 354 (51%) of 697 at week 108. Patient mean global health scores during (77·32 [SD 17·36] vs 72·96 [17·82]; p=0·00011) and after induction (76·48 [17·52] vs 72·32 [18·60]; p=0·00067) were statistically significantly different between groups but were not clinically relevant. Mean global health scores differed most between the groups at week 7 (77 [SD 19] in the placebo group vs 72 [22] in the ipilimumab group) and week 10 (77 [20] vs 70 [23]). Mean HRQoL scores differed by more than 10 points at week 10 between treatment groups for diarrhoea (7·67 [SD 17·05] for placebo vs 18·17 [28·35] for ipilimumab) and insomnia (15·17 [22·53] vs 25·60 [29·19]). INTERPRETATION: Despite increased toxicity, which led to treatment discontinuation for most patients during the induction phase of ipilimumab administration, overall HRQoL, as measured by the EORTC QLQ-C30, was similar between groups, as no clinically relevant differences (10 points or more) in global health status scores were observed during or after induction. Clinically relevant deterioration for some symptoms was observed at week 10, but after induction, no clinically relevant differences remained. Together with the primary analysis, results from this trial show that treatment with ipilimumab results in longer recurrence-free survival compared with that for treatment with placebo, with little impairment in HRQoL despite grade 3-4 investigator-reported adverse events. FUNDING: Bristol-Myers Squibb.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Agências Internacionais , Ipilimumab , Masculino , Melanoma/patologia , Melanoma/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Adulto Jovem
20.
Haematologica ; 102(2): e47-e51, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27789677
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