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1.
Zygote ; : 1-10, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566145

RESUMO

Human embryo studies have proposed the use of additional morphological evaluations related to the moment of the first cell divisions as relevant to embryo viability. Nevertheless, there are still not enough data available related to morphokinetic analysis and its relationship with lipid composition in embryos. Therefore, the aim of this study was to address the lipid profile of bovine embryos with different developmental kinetics: fast (four or more cells) and slow (two or three cells) at 40 h post-insemination (hpi), at three time points of in vitro culture (40, 112 and 186 hpi) and compare these to profiles of in vivo embryos. The lipid profiles of embryos were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry, which mainly detected pools of membrane lipids such as phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin. In addition to their structural function, these lipid classes have an important role in cell signalling, particularly regarding events such as stress and pregnancy. Different patterns of lipids in the fast and slow groups were revealed in all the analyzed stages. Also, differences between in vitro embryos were more pronounced at 112 hpi, a critical moment due to embryonic genome activation. At the blastocyst stage, in vitro-produced embryos, despite the kinetics, had a closer lipid profile when compared with in vivo blastocysts. In conclusion, the kinetics of development had a greater effect on the membrane lipid profiles throughout the embryo culture, especially at the 8-16-cell stage. The in vitro environment affects lipid composition and may compromise cell signalling and function in blastocysts.

2.
Theriogenology ; 141: 134-141, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31541782

RESUMO

The effectiveness of the use of natriuretic peptide C (NPPC) in the blocking of meiosis has already been proven in several species. However, there are no reports on the use of NPPC in the activation of metabolic processes in embryos. Whereas modulations of cAMP concentrations alter the lipid metabolism of bovine oocytes, the present study aims to evaluate the effect of NPPC on the development, lipid content and transcript levels of genes related to lipid metabolism of IVP bovine embryos. For this purpose, ovaries were obtained from a slaughterhouse, and oocytes were fertilized in vitro (D0). From D5 of in vitro culture, embryos were treated with 100 nM NPPC (NPPC group) or with no NPPC (Control group) and evaluated in terms of Blastocyst (D7) and hatching rates (D10). For the assessment of the cytoplasmatic lipid amounts, blastocysts were stained with Sudan Black B dye. The embryonic lipid profile was investigated by electrospray ionization desorption-mass spectrometry (DESI-MS). The abundance of nine transcripts related to lipid metabolism were assessed using the Biomark HD system. For statistical analysis, blastocyst and hatching rates, lipid content by the Sudan Black B and variation of gene expression between groups were compared by Student t-test. For lipid profile analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and fold-change were performed. The embryo lipid content was similar between NPPC (881 ±â€¯3.7) and Control (883 ±â€¯5.2) groups (p > 0.05). However, cholesteryl esters and TAGs were downregulated by NPPC at multiple levels according to the DESI-MS profiles. Of the analyzed genes, ELOVL6 and SREBF1 showed an up-regulation in the control group (p < 0.05), while CPT2 was observed to be up-regulated in the NPPC-treated embryos. There was no significant difference in the blastocyst production rate between NPPC (44.4%) and Control (42.4%), however the hatching rate at D10 was higher (p < 0.05) in the NPPC group (69.77%) when compared to the Control group (48.33%). These findings demonstrate that NPPC alters the mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism and that it exerts a positive effect on the hatching rates of IVP Bos taurus indicus embryos.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0220731, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381602

RESUMO

In this study, we evaluated the modulation effect of long-chain Acyl-CoA synthetase during early embryo development. Bovine embryos were cultured in four groups: positive modulation (ACS+) with GW3965 hydrochloride, negative modulation (ACS-) with Triacsin C, association of both modulators (ACS±), and control. Embryo development rates were not altered (P>0.05) by treatments. Embryonic cytoplasmic lipid content increased in ACS+ but reduced in ACS- compared to the control (P < 0.05), whereas the membrane phospholipids profile was not altered by treatments. The total number of blastomeres did not differ (P > 0.05) between groups; however, an increased apoptotic cells percentage was found in ACS- compared to control. Twenty-four hours after warming, ACS+ and control grade I embryos presented the best hatching rates, whereas the ACS+ group equaled the hatching rates between their embryos of grades I, II and III 48 hours after warming. The relative abundance of transcripts for genes associated with lipid metabolism (ACSL3, ACSL6, ACAT1, SCD, and AUH), heatshock (HSP90AA1 and HSF1), oxidative stress (GPX4), and angiogenesis (VEGF), among other important genes for embryo development were affected by at least one of the treatments. The treatments were effective in modulating the level of transcripts for ACSL3 and the cytoplasmic lipid content. The ACS- was not effective in increasing embryonic cryosurvival, whereas ACS+ restored survival rates after vitrification of embryos with low quality, making them equivalent to embryos of excellent quality.

4.
Theriogenology ; 87: 108-114, 2017 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27634395

RESUMO

The presence of fetal calf serum in culture medium influences embryo quality, causing a reduction in postcryopreservation survival. Forskolin has been used to induce lipolysis and increase cryotolerance, functioning as an activator of adenylate cyclase and elevating cAMP levels. In the present experiment, bovine zygotes were cultured in synthetic oviduct fluid with amino acid plus 2.5% fetal calf serum for 6 days, when forskolin was added in three concentrations: 2.5, 5, and 10 µM. Treatment with forskolin lasted for 24 hours. Blastocyst formation rate, quantification of lipid granules, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were evaluated. In a second assessment, embryos were vitrified, and warming, re-expansion rate, total cell numbers, and apoptosis rate were also evaluated. There was no difference due to forskolin in blastocyst formation or re-expansion rates after vitrification. However, lipid measurements were lower (control: 136.8 and F 2.5 µM: 128.5; P < 0.05), and number of cells per embryo higher (control: 140.1 and F 2.5 µM: 173.5; P < 0.05) than controls for 2.5 µM forskolin but not for higher forskolin concentrations. The number of intact cells per embryo was higher, and the rate of apoptosis was lower in fresh than in vitrified embryos (number of cells of warmed embryos, control: 104.1, F 2.5 µM: 101.3, F 5 µM: 115.4, F 10 µM: 95.1; apoptotic of fresh cells, control: 12.1%, F 2.5 µM: 16.7%, F 5 µM: 11.1%, F 10 µM: 14.2%; and apoptotic warmed embryos, control: 22.3%, F 2.5 µM: 37.3%, F 5 µM: 33.2%, F 10 µM: 30.3%; P < 0.05). It was concluded that forskolin is an effective lipolytic agent even at low concentrations, leading to formation of blastocysts with a comparatively larger number of cells.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Bovinos/embriologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Lipídeos/química , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/veterinária , Vitrificação
5.
BMC Physiol ; 16: 1, 2016 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26786197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Veterinary cardiology, especially electrocardiography, has shown major advancements for all animal species. Consequently, the number of ovine species used as experimental animals has increased to date. Few studies have been published on ovine systematic electrocardiography, particularly with respect to lamb physiology and neonatology. This study aimed to standardize the values of normal waves, complexes, and intervals of the electrocardiogram (ECG) in clinically Bergamasca healthy neonatal lambs, used as experimental animals. Serial computerized electrocardiography was performed in 10 male and 12 female neonates on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, and 35th days of age. The following parameters were analyzed: heart rate and rhythm, duration and amplitude of waves, duration of intervals, and heart electrical axis. RESULTS: During the first 35 days of life, (1) the sinusal heart rhythm was predominant, (2) there was a progressive decrease in the heart rate and R and T wave amplitude, and (3) a progressive increase in the PR, QT, and RR intervals. Finally, we confirmed that various components of neonatal evolution were more discernible in the augmented unipolar leads (aVF), which we recommend should be preferentially used in future studies. No significant statistical alterations were observed between males and females in relation to the analyzed parameters. CONCLUSIONS: The information assimilated in this study is anticipated to enhance the diagnosis of multiple congenital heart defects in Bergamasca lambs and could be implemented in studies that use ovine species as experimental models.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Coração/fisiologia , Ovinos/fisiologia , Animais , Seio Coronário/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Masculino
6.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 31(4): 125-129, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28317612

RESUMO

The objective of the study was to assess clinical alterations, electrocardiographic, hematological, biochemical, hemogasometric, electrolytic, and hormone plasma concentrations in bitches with eutocia and dystocia. Overall, 28 bitches (dystocia, n = 22 and eutocia, n = 6) were assessed. The evaluations were performed at 2 time points, M1 (1 hour prepartum-eutocia group and cesarean or clinical intervention-dystocia group) and M2 (postpartum-eutocia or dystocia group and anesthetic recovery-dystocia group). The main clinical finding was the hypothermia (mean: 36.9°C dystocia vs. 36.8°C eutocia). Sinus arrhythmia and tachycardia were the electrocardiographic parameters predominant in eutocia and sinus rhythm in dystocia group. The P wave amplitude, heart rate, creatinine concentration, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were increased in M1 (P < .05), whereas the concentration of TCO2 was higher in M2. There was an increase in P4 concentration in dystocia and total T3 concentrations were increased in M1 in both groups. Total T4 was higher in dystocia during M1 and in dystocia during M2 in eutocia than in dystocia. We concluded that at 1 hour prepartum or pre-cesarean, there is an increase in heart rate in bitches with eutocia or dystocia, and this finding was correlated to thyroid hormone concentration. P4 concentrations remained high during dystocia, and hematological and biochemical changes returned to normal after parturition. The evaluation of these parameters in pregnancy can be used as tool to prevent dystocia and consequent fetal death.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Distocia/veterinária , Inércia Uterina/veterinária , Animais , Gasometria/veterinária , Regulação da Temperatura Corporal , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Distocia/sangue , Distocia/fisiopatologia , Eletrocardiografia/veterinária , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca , Hormônios/sangue , Gravidez , Inércia Uterina/sangue , Inércia Uterina/fisiopatologia
7.
Zygote ; 24(2): 161-71, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25707683

RESUMO

The inhibition of nuclear maturation allows time for the oocyte to accumulate molecules that are important for embryonic development. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of blocking oocyte meiosis with the addition of forskolin, an efficient inhibitor of nuclear maturation, in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium. Forskolin was added to the IVM medium for 6 h at concentrations of 0.1 mM, 0.05 mM or 0.025 mM, then the oocytes were allowed to mature in drug-free medium for 18 h. The oocytes were assessed for the stage of nuclear maturation, the activity and distribution of mitochondria, oocyte ultrastructure, the number of viable cells and the apoptosis rate. After forskolin treatment, the oocytes were fertilized in vitro and cultured for 7 days. On day 7, the blastocyst rate, the ultrastructure, the number of intact cells and the apoptosis rate of the blastocysts were measured. No differences were observed for the stage of nuclear maturation of the oocyte, the mitochondrial activity and distribution, the blastocyst rate or total number of intact cells. However, a higher rate of apoptosis was observed in the blastocysts produced from oocytes blocked for 6 h with the higher concentration of forskolin (P < 0.05). We conclude that all the experimental groups reached the MII stage after the addition of forskolin and that the highest concentration of forskolin caused cellular degeneration without harming embryo production on the 7th day.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/efeitos dos fármacos , Colforsina/farmacologia , Fertilização In Vitro/métodos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Blastocisto/citologia , Bovinos , Células Cultivadas , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Masculino , Meiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/citologia , Fatores de Tempo , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia
8.
Zygote ; 24(2): 310-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26170094

RESUMO

Temporary meiosis arrest with cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors has been proposed in order to improve the quality of in vitro matured oocytes. In sheep, however, this phenomenon has been rarely investigated. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of different incubation times with roscovitine on nuclear maturation and cumulus cell expansion of sheep cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs). For this, COCs were cultured for 0, 6, 12 or 20 h in basic maturation medium (Control) containing 75 µM roscovitine (Rosco). After, they were in vitro matured (IVM) for 18 h in the presence of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). At the end of each treatment, cumulus cell expansion and nuclear maturation were assessed under a stereomicroscope and by Hoechst 33342 staining, respectively. In the Control and Rosco groups, the absence of cumulus cell expansion prevailed at 0, 6, 12 and 20 h. After IVM for 18 h, total cumulus cell expansion in the Rosco treatments was dependent on the exposure time to roscovitine. A significantly high percentage of oocytes treated with roscovitine for 6 h (87%), 12 h or 20 h (65%) were arrested at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage. In contrast, 23% GVBD, 54% metaphase I (MI) and 61% MII oocytes were observed in the Control groups at 6, 12 and 20 h, respectively. In all treatments, a significant percentage of oocytes reached MII after IVM for 18 h. Therefore, roscovitine reversibly arrested the meiosis of sheep oocytes during different culture times with the maximal efficiency of meiotic inhibition reached at 6 h. In addition, reversibility of its inhibitory action on cumulus cells was exposure-time dependent.


Assuntos
Células do Cúmulo/efeitos dos fármacos , Meiose/efeitos dos fármacos , Oócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Purinas/farmacologia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Células do Cúmulo/citologia , Células do Cúmulo/metabolismo , Quinases Ciclina-Dependentes/antagonistas & inibidores , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/farmacologia , Técnicas de Maturação in Vitro de Oócitos/métodos , Hormônio Luteinizante/farmacologia , Oócitos/citologia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Roscovitina , Ovinos , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Top Companion Anim Med ; 30(1): 16-21, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26041592

RESUMO

Neonatal veterinarians still observe higher mortality rates among their patients than those observed among humans. Establishment of a neonatal assessment protocol is fundamental to the identification of the medical status of the neonate and the need for medical intervention. The neonatal Apgar score evaluation, which is commonly used in clinical practice, should be complemented by other methods of analysis. This study proposes, in addition to an Apgar score analysis, the evaluation of laboratory parameters and weight. We believe that knowledge of these reference values is essential for diagnosing at-risk neonates and for establishing suitable treatments.


Assuntos
Animais Recém-Nascidos , Medicina Veterinária/métodos , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/fisiologia , Peso Corporal , Cães , Feminino , Padrões de Prática Médica , Valores de Referência
10.
Stem Cell Res Ther ; 5(1): 25, 2014 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24559797

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Studies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are increasing due to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and tissue regenerative properties. However, there is still no agreement about the best source of equine MSCs for a bank for allogeneic therapy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cell culture and immunophenotypic characteristics and differentiation potential of equine MSCs from bone marrow (BM-MSCs), adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) and umbilical cord (UC-MSCs) under identical in vitro conditions, to compare these sources for research or an allogeneic therapy cell bank. METHODS: The BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs were cultured and evaluated in vitro for their osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential. Additionally, MSCs were assessed for CD105, CD44, CD34, CD90 and MHC-II markers by flow cytometry, and MHC-II was also assessed by immunocytochemistry. To interpret the flow cytometry results, statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA. RESULTS: The harvesting and culturing procedures of BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs were feasible, with an average cell growth until the third passage of 25 days for BM-MSCs, 15 days for AT-MSCs and 26 days for UC-MSCs. MSCs from all sources were able to differentiate into osteogenic (after 10 days for BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs and 15 days for UC-MSCs), adipogenic (after 8 days for BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs and 15 days for UC-MSCs) and chondrogenic (after 21 days for BM-MSCs, AT-MSCs and UC-MSCs) lineages. MSCs showed high expression of CD105, CD44 and CD90 and low or negative expression of CD34 and MHC-II. The MHC-II was not detected by immunocytochemistry techniques in any of the MSCs studied. CONCLUSIONS: The BM, AT and UC are feasible sources for harvesting equine MSCs, and their immunophenotypic and multipotency characteristics attained minimal criteria for defining MSCs. Due to the low expression of MHC-II by MSCs, all of the sources could be used in clinical trials involving allogeneic therapy in horses. However, the BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs showed fastest ''in vitro'' differentiation and AT-MSCs showed highest cell growth until third passage. These findings suggest that BM and AT may be preferable for cell banking purposes.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/citologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Cordão Umbilical/citologia , Animais , Antígenos CD34/genética , Antígenos CD34/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Feminino , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DR/genética , Cadeias alfa de HLA-DR/metabolismo , Cavalos , Receptores de Hialuronatos/genética , Receptores de Hialuronatos/metabolismo , Imunofenotipagem , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/imunologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Antígenos Thy-1/genética , Antígenos Thy-1/metabolismo
11.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 30(7): 575-81, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24408841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetic pregnancy have increased rates of congenital malformation and neonatal mortality. In vitro studies suggest hyperglycemia associated with diabetes impair embryogenesis but in vivo investigations on maternal hyperglycemic insult and early embryo development are scarce. We evaluated the embryofetal development on experimental diabetes models to assess whether hyperglycemia at preimplantation period impairs the progression of pregnancy. METHODS: Different hyperglycemic intensities were obtained by two experimental diabetes models. Female Sprague Dawley rats received streptozotocin at birth (mild diabetes) or at day 90 of life (severe diabetes). For both diabetic groups hyperglycemia was confirmed 5 days after diabetes induction and the mating was performed around 100 day of life. For preimplantation analysis, embryos were recovered at D4 of pregnancy. Another group of animals was submitted to laparotomy at D21 to assess contents of the uterus and fetal viability. RESULTS: Mild (i) and Severe (ii) diabetes modified the early development. Degenerating embryos percentage was higher compared to control (11%) (i) 30.7%, (ii) 37.3%. Cell number mean dropped according to hyperglycemic intensity (control 30.57, (i) 21.42, (ii) 13.42). Pre and post-implantation loss rates were higher in diabetic groups. The fetal viability also decreased from 96% in the control group to (i) 78.7% and (ii) 80.6%. CONCLUSION: Our results show that during diabetic pregnancy, preimplantation embryos present decreased cell number due to higher apoptosis rates, which are dependent of the hyperglycemic intensity. Moreover, fetal viability was also decreased suggesting that the quality of these embryos at long-term may be questioned.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/fisiopatologia , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Gravidez em Diabéticas/fisiopatologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Apoptose/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Morte Fetal , Masculino , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estreptozocina/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Zygote ; 22(2): 124-31, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22784438

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to correlate some parameters (cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score, total cell number, fresh apoptosis and lipid content) with embryo survival after cryopreservation. A total of 1727 in vitro-produced bovine blastocysts were used to establish the parameters (mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)) for cleavage (85.6 ± 0.8), blastocyst production (39.9 ± 1.4), quality degree score (1.6 ± 0.1), total cell number (140.1 ± 2.9), fresh apoptosis (20.8 ± 1.1) and lipid content (21.3 ± 0.8 droplets). On the same way 1316 blastocysts were vitrified for the determination of post-cryopreservation embryo survival (49.4 ± 1.9). Fresh apoptosis rate and total lipid droplets value were correlated (P < 0.05) with embryo survival after cryopreservation (r = 0.91 and r = 0.59; respectively). However, cleavage, blastocyst production, quality degree score and total cell number were not correlated (P > 0.05) with embryo cryotolerance (r = 0.23, r = 0.38, r = 0.22 and r = 0.28; respectively). Therefore, the increased lipid content was moderately correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts. On the other hand, increased apoptosis in fresh blastocysts was strongly correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts, which indicated that the apoptosis rate in fresh embryos was a better parameter than the lipid content to predict post-vitrification embryo survival.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/citologia , Bovinos/embriologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Animais , Apoptose , Blastocisto/fisiologia , Bovinos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Criopreservação/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos/fisiologia , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Técnicas In Vitro , Lipídeos/análise , Vitrificação
13.
Zygote ; 22(2): 146-57, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22805288

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to assess the viability and cryotolerance of zebu embryos produced in vitro with or without the addition of fetal calf serum (FCS) and forskolin (F). Embryos produced in vivo were used as a control. Presumptive zygotes were cultured in modified synthetic oviductal fluid supplemented with amino acids (SOFaa), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and with (2.5%) or without (0%) FCS. On day 6 of growth, the embryos from each group were divided into treatments with or without 10 µM F to induce embryonic lipolysis, comprising a total of four experimental groups: 2.5% FCS, 0% FCS, 2.5% + F and 0% + F. For vitrification, embryos were exposed to vitrification solution 1 (5 M EG (ethylene glycol)) for 3 min and then transferred to vitrification solution 2 (7 M EG, 0.5 M galactose solution and 18% (w/v) Ficoll 70) before being introduced to liquid nitrogen. The presence of FCS in the culture medium resulted in the production of embryos with a similar rate of damaged cells compared with in vivo-produced embryos. After vitrification, the 2.5% FCS group had a significantly higher rate of damaged cells when compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). The results of this experiment indicated that the omission of FCS and the addition of forskolin do not have deleterious effect on embryo production rates. In addition, embryos produced in the presence of FCS had greater sensitivity to cryopreservation, but this effect was reversed when forskolin was added to the medium, which improved embryo survival without affecting embryo development and quality after vitrification.


Assuntos
Colforsina/farmacologia , Criopreservação/veterinária , Embrião de Mamíferos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fertilização In Vitro/veterinária , Sangue Fetal , Vitrificação/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Bovinos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Criopreservação/métodos , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Embrião de Mamíferos/citologia , Feminino , Camundongos
14.
J Stem Cells ; 9(4): 225-34, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25942338

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of bovine IVF blastocysts at different stages of embryonic development in establishing ESC-like. Furthermore, blastocysts cultured in medium containing (10%) and (2.5%) fetal calf serum (FCS) were compared to determine if the serum concentration during in vitro culture alters the blastocyst's potential to establish ESC-like culture. It was observed that only ICM's from expanded blastocysts adhered to the monolayer (n=160) independent of the concentration of serum used during IVF culture. There were no observable differences in potential to establish ESC-like in embryos cultured with 2,5% or 10% FCS . The bFGF didn´t seems to be required for maintenance of bovine ESC-like regardless of culture conditions. Blastocysts and colonies in primary culture and after the first passage were positive for Oct4, Nanog, SSEA-3 and TRA-1-81. Expanded blastocysts gave rise to ESC-like colonies, and the addition of LIF was sufficient to maintain cells undifferentiated in culture.


Assuntos
Blastocisto/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Meios de Cultura/química , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/citologia , Animais , Blastocisto/metabolismo , Bovinos , Fertilização In Vitro , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo
15.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 90(6): 697-701, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23553504

RESUMO

This study evaluated the concentrations of mercury in fillets (anterior, middle, and end regions) from the swordfish, Xiphias gladius, and the relationships between mercury concentration and fish weight, as well as the region of collection. Of a total of 697 swordfish analyzed, 11 had mercury concentrations above 1 mg/kg, 421 were between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/kg, and 265 were below 0.5 mg/kg. The anterior and posterior regions had greater concentrations of mercury than the middle region, and fish caught off the northern coast of Brazil had a higher concentration than those caught off the southern coast.


Assuntos
Mercúrio/análise , Perciformes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Brasil , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
16.
BMC Dev Biol ; 12: 33, 2012 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23126590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The first distinct differentiation event in mammals occurs at the blastocyst stage when totipotent blastomeres differentiate into either pluripotent inner cell mass (ICM) or multipotent trophectoderm (TE). Here we determined, for the first time, global gene expression patterns in the ICM and TE isolated from bovine blastocysts. The ICM and TE were isolated from blastocysts harvested at day 8 after insemination by magnetic activated cell sorting, and cDNA sequenced using the SOLiD 4.0 system. RESULTS: A total of 870 genes were differentially expressed between ICM and TE. Several genes characteristic of ICM (for example, NANOG, SOX2, and STAT3) and TE (ELF5, GATA3, and KRT18) in mouse and human showed similar patterns in bovine. Other genes, however, showed differences in expression between ICM and TE that deviates from the expected based on mouse and human. CONCLUSION: Analysis of gene expression indicated that differentiation of blastomeres of the morula-stage embryo into the ICM and TE of the blastocyst is accompanied by differences between the two cell lineages in expression of genes controlling metabolic processes, endocytosis, hatching from the zona pellucida, paracrine and endocrine signaling with the mother, and genes supporting the changes in cellular architecture, stemness, and hematopoiesis necessary for development of the trophoblast.


Assuntos
Massa Celular Interna do Blastocisto/metabolismo , Ectoderma/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Trofoblastos/metabolismo , Animais , Bovinos , Análise por Conglomerados , Ilhas de CpG , Ectoderma/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Camundongos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Regulação para Cima
17.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(5): 444-452, maio 2012. ilus, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-626485

RESUMO

Os primeiros estudos demonstrando o potencial de trandiferenciação neural das células-tronco mesenquimais (CTMs) provenientes da medula óssea (MO) foram conduzidos em camundogos e humanos no início da década de 2000. Após esse período, o número de pesquisas e publicações com o mesmo propósito tem aumentado, mas com raros ou escassos estudos na espécie equina. Nesse sentindo, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o potencial in vitro da transdiferenciação neural das CTMs provenientes da MO de equinos utilizando-se dois protocolos: P1 (forksolin e ácido retinóico) e P2 (2-βmecarptoetanol). Após a confirmação das linhagens mesenquimais, pela positividade para o marcador CD90 (X=97,94%), negatividade para o marcador CD34 e resposta positiva a diferenciação osteogênica, as CTMs foram submetidas a transdiferenciação neural (P1 e P2) para avaliação morfológica e expressão dos marcadores neurais GFAP e β3 tubulina por citometria de fluxo. Os resultados revelaram mudanças morfológicas em graus variados entre os protocolos testados. No protocolo 1, vinte quatro horas após a incubação com o meio de diferenciação neural, grande proporção de células (>80%) apresentaram morfologia semelhante a células neurais, caracterizadas por retração do corpo celular e grande número de projeções protoplasmáticas (filopodia). Por outro lado, de forma comparativa, já nos primeiros 30 minutos após a exposição ao antioxidante β-mercaptoetanol (P2) as CTMs apresentaram rápida mudança morfológica caracterizada principalmente por retração do corpo celular e menor número de projeções protoplasmáticas. Também ficou evidenciado com o uso deste protocolo, menor aderência das células após tempo de exposição ao meio de diferenciação, quando comparado ao P1. Com relação a análise imunofenotípica foi observado uma maior (P<0,001) expressão dos marcadores GFAP e β3 tubulina ao término do P2 quando comparado ao P1. A habilidade das CTMs em gerar tipos celulares relacionados a linhagem neural é complexa e multifatorial, dependendo não só dos agentes indutores, mas também do ambiente no qual estas células são cultivadas. Desta forma um maior número de estudos é necessário para o melhor entendimento do processo de transdiferenciação neural a partir de CTMs de equinos.


The first studies showing the potential of neural transdifferentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow (BM) were conducted in camundogos and humans in the early 2000s. After this period, the number of research and publications with the same purpose increased, but with rare or scarce studies in horses. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro neuronal transdifferentiation potential of MSCs from equine BM using two protocols: P1 (forksolin and retinoic acid) and P2 (2-βmecarptoetanol). After confirming the mesenchymal lineages, by positivity for the marker CD90 (X=97.94%), negative for the marker CD34 and positive response for osteogenic differentiation, MSCs were subjected to neural transdifferentiation (P1 and P2) for morphological analysis and expression of neural markers GFAP and β3 tubulin by flow cytometry. The results revealed morphological changes in varying degrees between the tested protocols. In protocol 1, twenty four hours after incubation with the media of neural differentiation, a large proportion of cells (>80%) had similar morphology to neural cells, characterized by retraction of cellular body and a large number of cytoplasmic extension (filopodia). However, comparatively, within the first 30 minutes after exposure to the antioxidant β-mercaptoethanol (P2) MSCs showed rapid morphological changes characterized mainly by retraction of cellular body and less cytoplasmic extension. It was also evidenced with the use of this protocol, lower cellular adhesion after exposure to media when compared to P1. Regarding the immunophenotyping analysis it was observed a higher (P<0.001) expression of the markers GFAP and β3 tubulin at the end of P2 compared to P1. The ability of MSCs to generate cell types related to neural lineage is complex and multifactorial, depending not only of inducing agents, but also the environment in which these cells will be cultivated. Thus a greater number of studies are necessary to better understand the process of neural transdifferentiation of MSCs from equine.


Assuntos
Animais , Linhagem da Célula , Cavalos/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Medula Óssea/fisiologia , Osteogênese/genética , Transdiferenciação Celular/genética , Citometria de Fluxo/veterinária , Glucose/genética , Meios de Cultura/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/veterinária
18.
Ciênc. rural ; 42(1): 131-135, 2012. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-612729

RESUMO

A pesquisa de Salmonella em carcaças de aves tem mostrado resultados discrepantes, dependendo se as amostras foram colhidas ainda na indústria, imediatamente após o chiller ou no comércio varejista, quando se encontram submetidas à refrigeração por vários dias. Técnicas mais sensíveis, tais como a Reação em Cadeia pela Polimerase (PCR), podem fornecer dados importantes sobre o efeito do resfriamento sobre as células do patógeno, comparando seus resultados com os da metodologia microbiológica convencional (MC). Foram colhidas 130 carcaças de frango, sendo que 65 foram obtidas ainda na indústria (pós-chiller) e imediatamente analisadas e 65 carcaças embaladas e estocadas a 5°C por 72 horas (simulando o varejo), sendo então realizada a pesquisa do patógeno por ambas as técnicas. Do total analisado (130 amostras), a PCR foi capaz de detectar 58 positivas (44,6 por cento) e a MC 50 (38,5 por cento). Ambas as técnicas detectaram um número superior de amostras positivas para Salmonella em carcaças colhidas ainda na indústria, quando comparadas às do varejo. A PCR detectou 50,77 por cento de positividade em amostras da indústria e 38,46 por cento em amostras do varejo. Para a MC, esses valores foram de 46,15 por cento (indústria) e 30,77 por cento (varejo). Concluímos que o resfriamento das carcaças a 5°C por 72 horas pode ser um fator limitante na detecção de Salmonella quando a pesquisa do patógeno se faz pela metodologia microbiológica convencional.


The survey of Salmonella in poultry carcasses has shown conflicting results, depending on whether the samples were taken yet in the factory, immediately after the chiller or retail market, when they are subjected to refrigeration for several days. More sensitive techniques such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) can provide important data on the effect of cooling on the cells of the pathogen by comparing their results with those of conventional microbiological methods (CM). It was collected 130 chicken carcasses, wich 65 were obtained yet in the industry (post-chiller) and immediately analyzed and 65 carcasses packaged and stored at 5°C for 72 hours (simulating retail), and then research of the pathogen was performed by both techniques. Of the analyzed total (130 samples), PCR was able to detect 58 positive (44.6 percent) and CM, 50 (38.5 percent). Both techniques detected a higher number of samples positive for Salmonella on carcasses collected yet in the factory when compared to those of retail. The PCR detected 50.77 percent of positive industry samples and 38.46 percent of retail samples. CM for these values was 46.15 percent (factory) and 30.77 percent (retail). We conclude that the cooling of the carcasses for at 5°C for 72 hours can be a limiting factor in the detection of Salmonella when the pathogen research is done by conventional microbiological methods.

19.
Vet Med Int ; 2011: 436381, 2011 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21547211

RESUMO

The objective of this experiment was to test in vitro embryo production (IVP) as a tool to estimate fertility performance in zebu bulls using Bayesian inference statistics. Oocytes were matured and fertilized in vitro using sperm cells from three different Zebu bulls (V, T, and G). The three bulls presented similar results with regard to pronuclear formation and blastocyst formation rates. However, the cleavage rates were different between bulls. The estimated conception rates based on combined data of cleavage and blastocyst formation were very similar to the true conception rates observed for the same bulls after a fixed-time artificial insemination program. Moreover, even when we used cleavage rate data only or blastocyst formation data only, the estimated conception rates were still close to the true conception rates. We conclude that Bayesian inference is an effective statistical procedure to estimate in vivo bull fertility using data from IVP.

20.
Theriogenology ; 75(7): 1211-20, 2011 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21247620

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: The objective was to evaluate supplementation of fetal calf serum (FCS) and phenazine ethosulfate (PES), a metabolic regulator that inhibits fatty acid synthesis, in culture media during in vitro production (IVP) of bovine embryos. Taking oocyte fertilization (n = 4,320) as Day 0, four concentrations of FCS (0, 2.5, 5, and 10%) and three periods of exposure to PES (without addition-CONTROL; after 60 h-PES Day 2.5 of embryo culture; and after 96 h-PES Day 4) were evaluated. Increasing FCS concentration in the culture media enhanced lipid accumulation (P < 0.05), increased apoptosis in fresh (2.5%: 19.1 ± 1.8 vs 10%: 28.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.05; mean ± SEM) and vitrified (2.5%: 42.8 ± 2.7 vs 10%: 69.2 ± 3.4, P < 0.05) blastocysts, and reduced blastocoele re-expansion after vitrification (2.5%: 81.6 ± 2.5 vs 10%: 67.3 ± 3.5, P < 0.05). The addition of PES in culture media, either from Days 2.5 or 4, reduced lipid accumulation (P < 0.05) and increased blastocoele re-expansion after vitrification ( CONTROL: 72.0 ± 3.0 vs PES Day 2.5: 79.9 ± 2.8 or PES Day 4: 86.2 ± 2.4, P < 0.05). However, just the use of PES from D4 reduced apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts ( CONTROL: 52.0 ± 3.0 vs PES Day 4: 39.2 ± 2.4, P < 0.05). Independent of FCS withdrawal or PES addition to culture media, the in vivo control group had lesser lipid accumulation, a lower apoptosis rate, and greater cryotolerance (P < 0.05). The increased lipid content was moderately correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts (r = 0.64, P = 0.01). In contrast, the increased apoptosis in fresh blastocysts was strongly correlated with apoptosis in vitrified blastocysts (r = 0.94, P < 0.0001). Therefore, using only 2.5% FCS and the addition of PES from Day 4, increased the survival of IVP embryos after vitrification. Moreover, embryo quality, represented by the fresh apoptosis rate, was better than lipid content for predicting embryo survival after vitrification.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Bovinos/embriologia , Embrião de Mamíferos , Fertilização In Vitro , Lipídeos/análise , Vitrificação , Algoritmos , Animais , Bovinos/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Criopreservação/métodos , Criopreservação/veterinária , Técnicas de Cultura Embrionária , Feminino , Congelamento/efeitos adversos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Masculino
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